Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology is an important innovation to enable the network operators to utilize their optical networks efficiently. By multiplexing more wavelengths into one fiber, the data transmission rate of a fiber in DWDM networks is dramatically increased up to Terabits per second (Tbps). However, network operators are still struggling with the bandwidth shortage problems due to the explosion of data transmission demands, especially the transmission of video content. In this project, we present a survey of the research on cost-effective DWDM networks in terms of the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) and traffic grooming problems. In addition, we extend a revenue focused semi-protection scheme, which uses the failure statistics, revenue statistics, and bandwidth statistics of VOD service to solve bandwidth shortage problems in DWDM ring networks. Our goal is to provide network operators with guidelines on the design or upgrade of their DWDM networks.
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