Nowadays, taking blood samples from a human forearm and using Cephalic, Basilic, and Median Cubital veins to perform various injections can be considered as one of the most routine medical procedures for diagnostic purposes. Most human patients don’t need to waste a lot of time in clinics waiting for the nurses and/or doctors to locate an applicable venipuncture site. However, minority of individuals who suffer from obesity, cancer, and other similar medical complications have to go to excruciating pain in order to provide the nurses with desired venipuncture sites. The goal of this project is to research and utilize an accurate, safe, and cost-effective instrument that is able to help doctors and nurses to locate an accurate and proper venipuncture site for injections and/or blood withdrawals. Using this document, I propose to provide an intensive research for high frequency/ultrasonic transducers. Such study will be used to present accurate measurements for a cost-effective vein detector/seeking prototype. This biomedical device utilizes a high frequency transducer to create and transmit sound waves that travel through various mediums in a human forearm and generates echo waves, each of which corresponding to a different layer through human skin, fat, and the actual vein. Using a microcontroller/microprocessor, such echo waves can be translated into digital signals, which in turn can locate the position of the needed vein.
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