Successful trials have been made through a designed algorithm to quantize, compress and optically encode unsigned 8 bit integer values in the form of images using Nano optical features. The periodicity of the Nano-scale features (Nano-gratings) have been designed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally to create distinct states of variation (three on states and one off state). The use of easy to manufacture and machine readable encoded data in secured authentication media has been employed previously in bar-codes for bi-state (binary) models and in colour barcodes for multiple state models. This work has focused on implementing 4 states of variation for unit information through periodic Nano-optical structures that separate an incident wavelength into distinct colours (variation states) in order to create an encoding system. Compared to barcodes and magnetic stripes in secured finite length storage media the proposed system encodes and stores more data. The benefits of multiple states of variation in an encoding unit are 1) increased numerically representable range 2) increased storage density and 3) decreased number of typical set elements for any ergodic or semi-ergodic source that emits these encoding units. A thorough investigation has targeted the effects of the use of multi-varied state Nano-optical features on data storage density and consequent data transmission rates. The results show that use of Nano-optical features for encoding data yields a data storage density of circa 800 Kbits/in2 via the implementation of commercially available high resolution flat-bed scanner systems for readout. Such storage density is far greater than commercial finite length secured storage media such as barcode family with maximum practical density of 1 kbits/in2 and highest density magnetic stripe cards with maximum density circa 3 Kbits/in2. The numerically representable range of the proposed encoding unit for 4 states of variation is [0 255]. The number of typical set elements for an ergodic source emitting the optical encoding units compared to a bi-state encoding unit (bit) shows a 36 orders of magnitude decrease for the error probability interval of [0 0.01]. The algorithms for the proposed encoding system have been implemented in MATLAB and the Nano-optical structures have been fabricated using Electron Beam Lithography on optical medium.
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Thesis advisor: Kaminska, Bozena
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