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Distribution of 1000 randomly-chosen trees, representing candidate topologies for the phylogeny of Canadian butterflies. 95 species were missing genetic data, and so had to be placed within the original phylogeny (246 species) that was constructed using 8 nuclear and mitochondrial genes.Using a series of hard and soft constraints, data-deficient species were placed within the phylogeny at the lowest known taxonomic resolution possible without violating monophyletic relationships. For example, species that were members of a genus where at least one member of that genus had genetic data were allowed to enter that genus. However, if a data-deficient species did not have a sequenced congener, it could move within its family with additional hard constraints preventing it from entering other genera within that family.
Date created: 2015-10-05