The thesis describes the design and analysis of an automated assembly system for hingeless 90° out-of-plane microstructures using a microelectronics wire-bonder or an automated microprober. The out-of-plane microstructures, requiring only a single push along the in-plane direction to toggle out-of-plane movement, consist of a novel spring design that is stiff in the in-plane direction while conformal in the out-of-plane direction. The designs were fabricated using three highly differentiated microelectromechanical systems processes. The first process is a silicon-on-insulator fabrication technology called MicraGEM. The second process is a polysilicon fabrication technology called PolyMUMPs. And, the third process is a polymer fabrication technology, developed at Simon Fraser University. The designs were modeled using finite element analysis, fabricated in all three technologies, and tested showing the proof of concept. After verifying the viability of the designs, an automated system was used to test and validate the reliability of the final devices.
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