Physics-based radiative transfer model (RTM) inversion methods have been developed and implemented for satellite-derived bathymetry (SDB); however, precise atmospheric correction (AC) is required for robust bathymetry retrieval. In a previous study, we revealed that biases from AC may be related to imaging and environmental factors that are not considered sufficiently in all AC algorithms. Thus, the main aim of this study is to demonstrate how AC biases related to environmental factors can be minimized to improve SDB results. To achieve this, we first tested a physics-based inversion method to estimate bathymetry for a nearshore area in the Florida Keys, USA. Using a freely available water-based AC algorithm (ACOLITE), we used Landsat 8 (L8) images to derive per-pixel remote sensing reflectances, from which bathymetry was subsequently estimated. Then, we quantified known biases in the AC using a linear regression that estimated bias as a function of imaging and environmental factors and applied a correction to produce a new set of remote sensing reflectances. This correction improved bathymetry estimates for eight of the nine scenes we tested, with the resulting changes in bathymetry RMSE ranging from +0.09 m (worse) to −0.48 m (better) for a 1 to 25 m depth range, and from +0.07 m (worse) to −0.46 m (better) for an approximately 1 to 16 m depth range. In addition, we showed that an ensemble approach based on multiple images, with acquisitions ranging from optimal to sub-optimal conditions, can be used to estimate bathymetry with a result that is similar to what can be obtained from the best individual scene. This approach can reduce time spent on the pre-screening and filtering of scenes. The correction method implemented in this study is not a complete solution to the challenge of AC for satellite-derived bathymetry, but it can eliminate the effects of biases inherent to individual AC algorithms and thus improve bathymetry retrieval. It may also be beneficial for use with other AC algorithms and for the estimation of seafloor habitat and water quality products, although further validation in different nearshore waters is required.
Ilori, C.O.; Knudby, A. An Approach to Minimize Atmospheric Correction Error and Improve Physics-Based Satellite-Derived Bathymetry in a Coastal Environment. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 2752. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12172752.
An Approach to Minimize Atmospheric Correction Error and Improve Physics-Based Satellite-Derived Bathymetry in a Coastal Environment
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