Evaluation of Forearm Vascular Resistance during Orthostatic Stress: Velocity Is Proportional to Flow and Size Doesn’t Matter

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BackgroundThe upright posture imposes a significant challenge to blood pressure regulation that is compensated through baroreflex-mediated increases in heart rate and vascular resistance. Orthostatic cardiac responses are easily inferred from heart rate, but vascular resistance responses are harder to elucidate. One approach is to determine vascular resistance as arterial pressure/blood flow, where blood flow is inferred from ultrasound-based measurements of brachial blood velocity. This relies on the as yet unvalidated assumption that brachial artery diameter does not change during orthostatic stress, and so velocity is proportional to flow. It is also unknown whether the orthostatic vascular resistance response is related to initial blood vessel diameter.MethodsWe determined beat-to-beat heart rate (ECG), blood pressure (Portapres) and vascular resistance (Doppler ultrasound) during a combined orthostatic stress test (head-upright tilting and lower body negative pressure) continued until presyncope. Participants were 16 men (aged 38.4±2.3 years) who lived permanently at high altitude (4450m).ResultsThe supine brachial diameter ranged from 2.9–5.6mm. Brachial diameter did not change during orthostatic stress (supine: 4.19±0.2mm; tilt: 4.20±0.2mm; -20mmHg lower body negative pressure: 4.19±0.2mm, p = 0.811). There was no significant correlation between supine brachial artery diameter and the maximum vascular resistance response (r = 0.323; p = 0.29). Forearm vascular resistance responses evaluated using brachial arterial flow and velocity were strongly correlated (r = 0.989, p<0.00001) and demonstrated high equivalency with minimal bias (-6.34±24.4%).DiscussionDuring severe orthostatic stress the diameter of the brachial artery remains constant, supporting use of brachial velocity for accurate continuous non-invasive orthostatic vascular resistance responses. The magnitude of the orthostatic forearm vascular resistance response was unrelated to the baseline brachial arterial diameter, suggesting that upstream vessel size does not matter in the ability to mount a vasoconstrictor response to orthostasis.
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Claydon VE, Moore JP, Greene ER, Appenzeller O, Hainsworth R (2019) Evaluation of forearm vascular resistance during orthostatic stress: Velocity is proportional to flow and size doesn’t matter. PLoS ONE 14(11): e0224872. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224872.
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Evaluation of Forearm Vascular Resistance during Orthostatic Stress: Velocity Is Proportional to Flow and Size Doesn’t Matter
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