Association of Methadone Treatment With Substance-Related Hospital Admissions Among a Population in Canada With a History of Criminal Convictions

Resource type
Date created
2019-03-15
Authors/Contributors
Abstract
Importance People with criminal histories experience high rates of opioid dependence and are frequent users of acute health care services. It is unclear whether methadone adherence prevents hospitalizations.Objective To compare hospital admissions during medicated and nonmedicated methadone periods.Design, Setting, and Participants A retrospective cohort study involving linked population-level administrative data among individuals in British Columbia, Canada, with provincial justice contacts (n= 250 884) and who filled a methadone prescription between April 1, 2001, and March 31, 2015. Participants were followed from the date of first dispensed methadone prescription until censoring (date of death, or March 31, 2015). Data analysis was conducted from May 1 to August 31, 2018.Exposures Methadone treatment was divided into medicated (methadone was dispensed) and nonmedicated (methadone was not dispensed) periods and analyzed as a time-varying exposure.Main Outcome and Measures Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of acute hospitalizations for any cause and cause-specific (substance use disorder [SUD], non–substance-related mental disorders [NSMDs], and medical diagnoses [MEDs]) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression.Results A total of 11 401 people (mean [SD] age, 34.9 [9.4] years; 8230 [72.2%] men) met inclusion criteria and were followed up for a total of 69 279.3 person-years. During a median follow-up time of 5.5 years (interquartile range, 2.8-9.1 years), there were 19 160 acute hospital admissions. Dispensed methadone was associated with a 50% lower rate of hospitalization for any cause (aHR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.46-0.53) during the first 2 years (≤2.0 years) following methadone initiation, demonstrating significantly lower rates of admission for SUD (aHR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.27-0.38), NSMD (aHR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.34-0.50), and MED (aHR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.52-0.62). As duration of time increased (2.1 to ≤5.0 years; 5.1 to ≤10.0 years), methadone was associated with a significant but smaller magnitude of effect: SUD (aHR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.36-0.52; aHR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.37-0.61), NSMD (aHR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41-0.64; aHR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47-0.78), and MED (aHR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.65-0.77; aHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.95).Conclusions and Relevance In this study, methadone was associated with a lower rate of hospitalization among a large cohort of Canadian individuals with histories of convictions and prevalent concurrent health and social needs. Practices to improve methadone adherence are warranted.
Document
Published as
Russolillo, Angela & Moniruzzaman, Akm & Somers, Julian. (2019). Association of Methadone Treatment With Substance-Related Hospital Admissions Among a Population in Canada With a History of Criminal Convictions. JAMA Network Open. 2. e190595. 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.0595. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.0595
Publication title
JAMA Network Open
Document title
Association of Methadone Treatment With Substance-Related Hospital Admissions Among a Population in Canada With a History of Criminal Convictions
Date
2019
Volume
2
Publisher DOI
10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.0595
Copyright statement
Copyright is held by the author(s).
Scholarly level
Peer reviewed?
Yes
Language
Member of collection
Attachment Size
russolillo_2019_oi_190039.pdf 1.01 MB