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Medication Adherence in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Latent Variable Model of Psychosocial and Neurocognitive Predictors

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Objective Estimates indicate that 20–70% of renal transplant recipients are medication non-adherent, significantly increasing the risk of organ rejection. Medication adherence is negatively impacted by lower everyday problem solving ability, and associations between depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and adherence are reported in renal transplant recipients. Nonetheless, to date, these associations have not been examined concurrently. Given the relationship between non-adherence and organ rejection, it is critical to gain a better understanding of the predictors of adherence in renal transplant recipients. To this end, we modeled relationships among cognitive abilities, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and adherence in this group.Methods Participants (N = 211) underwent renal transplant at least one year prior to participation. Adherence was measured via self-report, medication possession ratio, and immunosuppressant blood-level. Traditionally-measured neurocognitive and everyday problem-solving abilities were assessed. Depressive symptoms were measured via self-report, as were general and medication adherence related self-efficacy. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the fit of the model to available data.ResultsEveryday problem solving and self-efficacy had direct positive associations with adherence. Depressive symptoms were negatively associated with self-efficacy, but not adherence. Traditionally-measured neurocognitive abilities were positively associated with self-efficacy, and negatively associated with depressive symptoms.Conclusions We present a comprehensive investigation of relationships between cognitive and psychosocial factors and adherence in medically stable renal transplant recipients. Findings confirm the importance of everyday problem solving and self-efficacy in predicting adherence and suggest that influences of depressive symptoms and neurocognitive abilities are indirect. Findings have important implications for future development of interventions to improve medication adherence in renal transplant recipients.
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Paterson TSE, O’Rourke N, Shapiro RJ, Loken Thornton W (2018) Medication adherence in renal transplant recipients: A latent variable model of psychosocial and neurocognitive predictors. PLoS ONE 13(9): e0204219. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204219.
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Medication Adherence in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Latent Variable Model of Psychosocial and Neurocognitive Predictors
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