Policing is complex. No easy measures exist for determining efficiency, effectiveness or equity in the overall economics of police service. Perhaps this is related to the fact that the debate on issues like core policing and tiered policing is both contentious and not well understood. For example, dealing with mental health issues in vulnerable communities may not be considered core policing in some discussions but it certainly remains an important element of and a key activity in contemporary policing. We are, nevertheless, making major advances in the 21st Century. Simple crime rate or response time measures have some meaning, but the multi-agency, multi-role character of policing calls for better measures that take into account the underlying public meaning of crime, the varying demands for police service in different jurisdictions, and the rapid increase in cyber crime.
Brantingham, P. J., Bass, G., Richard C.B., Brantingham, P.L., Andresen, M.A., and Kinney, J.B. (2017). How to measure efficiency, effectiveness, and equity within the complex role of police in a democratic society: An ICURS economics of policing study. Institute for Canadian Urban Research Studies (ICURS), Simon Fraser University, School Of Criminology. Burnaby, British Columbia.
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