Alberta emits more greenhouse gases (GHGs) than any other province in Canada, despite having only the 4th largest population. Alberta’s transportation sector produces 16% of these emissions, but has received little recent policy attention. I performed an index decomposition analysis of GHGs from Alberta’s road transportation sector from 1990-2010, in order to design policies that maximally reduce transportation emissions. After comparing Alberta’s results with those for B.C. and Quebec, I determined that policies should focus on three areas: reducing freight transportation volume, improving fuel efficiency of freight vehicles, and increasing use of low-emission fuels. I then suggested several policies to meet these objectives, and evaluated them for effectiveness, government affordability, and political acceptability. Finally, I recommended the simultaneous implementation of a new fuel tax and the mandatory use of speed limiters for heavy trucks as an effective set of short-term policies to reduce emissions.
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