China faces a critical epidemic of high incidence of multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in a setting of insufficient control and prevention strategies. By systematically reviewing and analyzing the history of the Chinese medical system, this study focuses on analysing and exploring the problems of the current health care system, which impact TB and MDR-TB prevention and control programs. Special attention is paid to high risk populations. Low TB and MDR-TB case detection rates among high- risk population groups, limited resources and work force in poor areas, low quality of health care services, and lack of co operation among health care facilities are the main barriers to the success of TB and MDR-TB control programs in China. These programs can be improved upon through public education and the strengthening of the national reporting, referral, and tracking system with government commitments and financial support.
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