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Data Sets for Alerting Effects Occur in Simple - but not Compound - Visual Search Tasks - Jankovic_E1_PoPOFlashNoFlash_py2.txt

Date created
2021-06-06
Authors/Contributors
restclientutil…
Edited Text
"""
Jankovic et al Experiment 1: TO RUN, REMOVE COMMENT SYMBOLS "#" FROM LINES 632-634
Examining alerting effect in compound task using Maljkovic & Nakayama (1994) PoP tasky
Conditions: Colour Repeat x Flash Presence (2x2)
Alerting stimulus: brightening of the screen background for 48 ms; 100 ms flash --> display SOA

@author: nadja

"""

from psychopy import visual, event, core, misc, gui
import random
from datetime import datetime
from win32api import GetSystemMetrics

##define an error that we can raise (from Bert)
class ExpError(Exception):
def __init__(self, value):
self.value=value
def __str__(self):
return self.value

# Class to define the Maljkovic & Nakayama diamond shaped items with either L or R corner cut off
class DiamondItem(object):
def __init__(self, Display, Trial, CutPos, Colour, ItemCenter = [0,0], isTarget = False):
super(DiamondItem,self).__init__()
self.Trial = Trial
self.Display = Display
self.isTarget = isTarget
self.CutPos = CutPos
self.ItemCenter = ItemCenter
self.Colour = Colour
self.Shape = visual.ShapeStim(
win = self.Display.Trial.Block.Experiment.win,
lineColor = [0,0,0],
fillColor = [0,0,0],
fillColorSpace = 'rgb',
lineColorSpace = 'rgb',
##N&M: 1.0 x 1.0 deg of vis angle, with .14 deg cutoff (at 57 cm away, will be 1 cm by 1 cm, with .14 cm cutoff)
## On Lab screens: 1.0 cm x 1.0 cm, with .15 cut off (at 57 cm away)
vertices = [(20,0),(0,20),(-10,10),(-10,-10),(0,-20)],
pos = self.ItemCenter,
closeShape = True
)
## Change shape colour based on Colour property. Only 2 options: Red or Green
try:
if self.Colour == "Red":
self.Shape.lineColor = [1,-1,-1]
self.Shape.fillColor = [1,-1,-1]
elif self.Colour == "Green":
self.Shape.fillColor = [-1,-.09,-1]
self.Shape.lineColor = [-1,-.09,-1]
elif self.Colour == None:
pass
except:
raise ExpError("Error in setting DiamondItem's self.Colour. Acceptable arguments: 'Red', 'Green', None.")
## Change orientation based on Left or Right cut position. In degrees.
try:
if self.CutPos == "Left":
self.Shape.ori = 0
elif self.CutPos == "Right":
self.Shape.ori = 180
except:
raise ExpError("Error in setting DiamondItem's self.CutPos. Acceptable Arguments: 'Left' or 'Right'")

#draws the diamond object to the window
def drawItem(self):
self.Shape.draw()

def targetPosition(self):
if self.isTarget:
return self.ItemCenter
else:
return None

# defining the Display or the Stimulus Array class: 12 locations around an imaginary annulus. The target and two distractors populate 3 of those locations, and those 3 locations are always equidistant from each other (looks like 3 vertices of an equilateral triangle)
class Display(object):
def __init__(self, Trial, TargetColour, SetSize, TargetShapeID):
super(Display,self).__init__()
self.Trial = Trial
self.TargetColour = TargetColour
self.SetSize = SetSize
self.TargetShapeID = TargetShapeID

#TargetColour passed from Trial class - always set distractors to opposite colour
if self.TargetColour == "Red":
self.DistractorColour = "Green"
elif self.TargetColour == "Green":
self.DistractorColour = "Red"
else:
self.DistractorColour = None

def createDisplay(self):
Num_Positions = 12 ##hardcoded, but what Maljkovic & Nakayama (1994) used - 3 items, 12 possible positions around the array, always equidistant. Coded to draw on every 4th position.
Position_List = range(Num_Positions) ##generates a list from which we will pick a multiplier for our angles
Position_Multiplier = random.choice(Position_List) ##randomly chooses from list of [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11]. We will multiply this by 360/Num_Positions, which is 30.
Angles_List = []
## N&M: ellipse: major axis (10.0), minor axis (8.1) - so, choosing 5 cm radius for current exp
## circular array: Radius = 5 deg of visual angle (diameter = 10)
Array_Radius = 184 ## 184 pixels on Spalek Main Lab computers = 5 cm = 5 deg vis angle at 57 cm away

for i in range(self.SetSize):
angle = (i*360/self.SetSize) + (Position_Multiplier * (360/Num_Positions)) ## n * 30 deg added to all calculated angles. In effect, this changes the orientation of the display while keeping items equidistant
Angles_List.append(angle)
random.shuffle(Angles_List)
self.Display_Items_List = []

for i in range(len(Angles_List)):
## Chooses first iteration to be the Target:
if i == 0:
[surr_x, surr_y] = misc.pol2cart(
Angles_List[i],
Array_Radius
)
target = DiamondItem(Display = self, Trial = self.Trial, CutPos = self.Trial.TargetShapeID, Colour = self.Trial.TargetColour, ItemCenter = [surr_x, surr_y], isTarget = True)
self.Display_Items_List.append(target)

## Choose following iterations to be the distractors:
else:
[surr_x, surr_y] = misc.pol2cart(
Angles_List[i],
Array_Radius
)
## randomly chooses the cut position for the distractors:
Distractor_ShapeID = random.choice(["Right","Left"])
distractor = DiamondItem(Display = self, Trial = self.Trial, CutPos = Distractor_ShapeID, Colour = self.DistractorColour, ItemCenter = [surr_x, surr_y])
self.Display_Items_List.append(distractor)

#draw the display to the window
def drawDisplay(self):
for i in range(len(self.Display_Items_List)):
self.Display_Items_List[i].drawItem()

class Trial(object):
TrialNo = 0
def __init__(self, Experiment, CounterBalanceOpt, Block, Repeat, PreviousTargetColour, TargetColour, TargetShapeID, Flash, SetSize, Catch = False):
super(Trial, self).__init__()
self.Experiment = Experiment
self.CounterBalanceOpt = CounterBalanceOpt
self.Block = Block
self.Repeat = Repeat
self.PreviousTargetColour = PreviousTargetColour
self.TargetColour = TargetColour
self.TargetShapeID = TargetShapeID
self.Flash = Flash
self.SetSize = SetSize
self.Catch = Catch

self.FixCross = visual.ShapeStim(
win = self.Block.Experiment.win,
vertices=([0,-5], [0,5], [0,0], [-5,0], [5,0]),
lineWidth=2,
units="pix",
closeShape=False,
lineColor=[-1,-1,-1], # black
autoDraw= True #set to False at end of trial (or else will have a fix cross during inter-block screens)
)
# Must instantiate the trial display, and call its createDisplay() method
def createTrialDisplay(self):
self.TrialDisplay = Display(Trial = self, TargetColour = self.TargetColour, SetSize = self.SetSize, TargetShapeID = self.TargetShapeID)
self.TrialDisplay.createDisplay()

def runTrial(self):
Flash_Duration = .044 ## want to approximate flash lasting 50 msec. Best we can do is 48 msec. To be safe from adding an extra frame, subtract from 48 half of the refresh rate
Flash_Jitter = random.randint(8,12)/10.0 ## delivers a random floating point number between 1.9 and 2.4 (to jitter the period before the start of the trial and the Flash.
ISI_Duration = .044 ##ISI duration of "50" msec (coded as 48; will be 56 with incorporated win flips)
self.FixCross.draw() ## self.FixCross set to autoDraw True
timer = core.Clock()
self.Block.Experiment.win.flip()
timer.reset()
core.wait(Flash_Jitter)
## screen background changes to white for Flash stimulus
if self.Flash == "Flash":
self.Block.Experiment.win.color = [1,1,1]
self.Block.Experiment.win.flip()
timer.reset()
while timer.getTime() < Flash_Duration:
pass
self.Block.Experiment.win.color = [0,0,0]
self.Block.Experiment.win.flip()
## screen remains gray (with fixcross) for same duration
else:
timer.reset()
while timer.getTime() < Flash_Duration:
pass
## ISI between the Flash (or absence of the flash) and the display onset
timer.reset()
while timer.getTime() < ISI_Duration:
pass
## Present the stimulus display
self.TrialDisplay.drawDisplay()
self.Block.Experiment.win.flip()
timer.reset()
# Collect response to display and record time
self.keys = event.waitKeys(
maxWait = 2,
keyList = ['z', 'm'],
timeStamped = timer
)
self.FixCross.autoDraw = False

def Response(self):
if self.keys:
KeyPress = self.keys[0][0] ## to get the actual key pressed: index 0 of self.keys tuple
else:
KeyPress = "None"
return KeyPress

def Acc(self):
if self.TargetShapeID == "Left":
if self.keys:
if self.keys[0][0] == "z":
return 1
elif self.keys[0][0] == "m":
return 0
else:
return "None"
if self.TargetShapeID == "Right":
if self.keys:
if self.keys[0][0] == "z":
return 0
elif self.keys[0][0] == "m":
return 1
else:
return "None"

def RT(self):
if self.keys:
ReacTime = self.keys[0][1]
else:
ReacTime = -1
return ReacTime

## str function to write to the datafile
def __str__(self):
## Add 1 to both blockNumber and TrialNo, because these start at 0
return str(self.Block.blockNumber()+1)+","\
+str(self.TrialNo+1)+","\
+str(self.Repeat)+","\
+str(self.Flash)+","\
+str(self.TargetColour)+","\
+str(self.PreviousTargetColour)+","\
+str(self.TargetShapeID)+","\
+str(self.Response())+"," \
+str(self.Acc()) + ","\
+str(self.RT())

## for the first line of the datafile.
def DataHeader(self):
return "BlockNo,TrialNo,Repeat,Flash,TargetColour,PreviousTargetColour,TargetShapeID,Response,Acc,RT"

def saveTrial(self):
try:
## saves the trial's DataHeader() and __str__()
if self.Block.blockNumber() == 0 and self.TrialNo == 0:
## this is the first trial of the first block: write the dataheader to the outputfile
self.Block.Experiment.DataFile.write(self.DataHeader()+'\n')
## write the trial's data to the file:
self.Block.Experiment.DataFile.write(self.__str__()+'\n')
except:
raise ExpError('Trial object savetrial() method: unable to save trial')

class Block(object):
def __init__(self, Experiment, CounterBalanceOpt, TrialsPerBlock, isPracBlock = False):
super(Block, self).__init__()
self.Experiment = Experiment
self.CounterBalanceOpt = CounterBalanceOpt
self.TrialsPerBlock = TrialsPerBlock
self.isPracBlock = isPracBlock
self.Trial_Types = []
self.Trials = []

##Trial Type Codes: 2x2x2 = 8 trial types
## 1) NoRepeat/Repeat = self.Trial_Types[0]
## 2) NoFlash/Flash = self.Trial_Types[1]
## 3) CutLeft/CutRight = self.Trial_Types[2]

## Populates self.Trial_Types list
def buildTrialTypes(self):
##List of lists: 8 types of trials
Types_List = [["NoRepeat","NoFlash","Left"],["NoRepeat","NoFlash","Right"],["NoRepeat","Flash","Left"],["NoRepeat","Flash","Right"],["Repeat","NoFlash","Left"],["Repeat","NoFlash","Right"],["Repeat","Flash","Left"],["Repeat","Flash","Right"]]
TrialsPerType = int(self.TrialsPerBlock/(len(Types_List))) ##96 Trials per block / 8 Trial types = 12 trials per type
for i in range(TrialsPerType):
for j in range(len(Types_List)):
self.Trial_Types.append(Types_List[j])
random.shuffle(self.Trial_Types)

## Method to check the levels of colours in each block. Uses self.Trial_Types list
def checkColours(self):
checklist = []
for i in range(len(self.Trial_Types)):
if i == 0:
chk = "red" ## assign first colour as red, just to check ratio of colours (will not necessarily be actual colour assigned to that particular trial)
checklist.append(chk)
else:
try:
if self.Trial_Types[i][0] == "Repeat": ## if a repeat trial, assign chk colour to chk-1 colour
chk = checklist[i-1]
checklist.append(chk)
elif self.Trial_Types[i][0] == "NoRepeat": ## if a no-repeat trial, assign chk to opposite of chk-1
if checklist[i-1] == "red":
chk = "green"
elif checklist[i-1] == "green":
chk = "red"
checklist.append(chk)
except:
raise ExpError("Error in Block.checkcolours(). Could not assign colours based on Trial Types.")
NumReds = 0
NumGreens = 0
for j in range(len(checklist)):
if checklist[j] == "red":
NumReds += 1
elif checklist[j] == "green":
NumGreens+= 1
Colour_CheckList = [NumReds, NumGreens]
return Colour_CheckList

## Method to balance the relative colours obtained from checkColours().
# Right now, it just takes the first self.Trial_Types list generated that fits within the acceptable range: 48% < NumReds < 52%.
def balanceColours(self):
NumLoops = 100
for i in range(NumLoops):
colours = self.checkColours()
if colours[0] > (self.TrialsPerBlock*.48) and colours[0] < (self.TrialsPerBlock*.52):
pass
else:
random.shuffle(self.Trial_Types)

## Method to create trial objects based on their trial type. Certain parameters (colour) to be set in setColours() method
def setTrials(self):
for i in range(len(self.Trial_Types)):
## First Trial: not a repeat or a no-repeat. Set TargetColour randomly.
if i == 0:
colours = ["Red","Green"]
random.shuffle(colours)
self.Trials.append(Trial(
Experiment = self.Experiment,
Block = self,
CounterBalanceOpt = self.CounterBalanceOpt,
Repeat = None,
PreviousTargetColour = None,
TargetColour = colours[0],
Flash = self.Trial_Types[i][1],
TargetShapeID = self.Trial_Types[i][2],
SetSize = 3))
## Remaining trials: Create trials, leaving the colours to be set in block's setColours() method.
else:
self.Trials.append(Trial(
Experiment = self.Experiment,
Block = self,
CounterBalanceOpt = self.CounterBalanceOpt,
Repeat = self.Trial_Types[i][0],
PreviousTargetColour = None,
TargetColour = None,
Flash = self.Trial_Types[i][1],
TargetShapeID = self.Trial_Types[i][2],
SetSize = 3))

## Gets the colour of the Target in the previous Trial, and based on whether it is a Repeat or a NoRepeat trial, it sets the current Target colour accordingly
def setColours(self):
for i in range(len(self.Trials)):
## First trial in block, so we pass (we 'flip a coin' to choose the first colour in setTrials()
if i == 0:
pass
else:
try:
prevTC = self.Trials[i-1].TargetColour
self.Trials[i].PreviousTargetColour = prevTC
if self.Trials[i].Repeat == "Repeat":
self.Trials[i].TargetColour = prevTC
elif self.Trials[i].Repeat == "NoRepeat":
if prevTC == "Red":
self.Trials[i].TargetColour = "Green"
elif prevTC == "Green":
self.Trials[i].TargetColour = "Red"
except:
raise ExpError("Error in Block.setColours. Cannot set target colours based on previous target colour")
## Create the display during the Block's init AFTER you have created your trial objects, by calling the trial's createTrialDisplay() method
for t in self.Trials:
t.createTrialDisplay()

#If isPracTrial == True, then this block in just for practice, and the data will not be recorded.
def createPracTrials(self):
for pt in range(self.TrialsPerBlock):
clr = ["Red","Green"]
random.shuffle(clr)
flsh = ["Flash","NoFlash"]
random.shuffle(flsh)
trgID = ["Left","Right"]
random.shuffle(trgID)
self.Trials.append(Trial(
Experiment = self.Experiment,
Block = self,
CounterBalanceOpt = self.CounterBalanceOpt,
Repeat = None,
PreviousTargetColour = None,
TargetColour = clr[0],
Flash = flsh[0],
TargetShapeID = trgID[0],
SetSize = 3))
for t in self.Trials:
t.createTrialDisplay()

def runTrials(self):
trialcounter = 0
for t in self.Trials:
t.TrialNo = trialcounter
t.runTrial()
trialcounter+=1
if self.isPracBlock == False:
self.saveTrials()

def saveTrials(self):
for t in self.Trials:
t.saveTrial()

def blockNumber(self):
# ## find this block in parent experiment's collection:
try:
idx=self.Experiment.Blocks.index(self) ## built in pythod method: list.index()
return idx
except:
raise ExpError('Block blockNumber() method: unable to index block object')

def initBlock(self):
if self.isPracBlock == False:
self.buildTrialTypes()
self.balanceColours()
self.setTrials()
self.setColours()
elif self.isPracBlock == True:
self.createPracTrials()

class Experiment(object):
def __init__(self, NumBlocks, TrialsPerBlock, NumPracTrials = 12, screen = 0, datafile = ""):
super(Experiment, self).__init__()
self.NumBlocks = NumBlocks
self.TrialsPerBlock = TrialsPerBlock
self.Blocks = []

expGUI = gui.Dlg(title="Experiment", screen = 0)
expGUI.addField("ParticipantID:" , "0")
expGUI.addField("Session:", "1")
configinfo = expGUI.show()
if expGUI.OK:
self.ParticipantID = configinfo[0]
self.SessionNo = configinfo[1]
else:
print ("Experiment.init(): Cancelled by user")
core.quit()
demoGUI = gui.Dlg(title = "Demographic Information", screen = 0)
demoGUI.addField("Age:", "0")
demoGUI.addField("Gender:", choices = ["Female", "Male", "Other"])
demoGUI.addField("Dominant Hand:", choices = ["Right", "Left"])
demoinfo = demoGUI.show()
if demoGUI.OK:
self.Age = demoinfo[0]
self.Gender = demoinfo[1]
self.Hand = demoinfo[2]
self.DemoHeader = "Age, Gender, DominantHand, \n"
self.DemoEntered = str(self.Age) + "," + str(self.Gender) + "," + str(self.Hand) + "\n" + "\n"
## If nothing passed as datafile argument, then a new .csv file will be opened to write to
if datafile == "":
d = datetime.now()
## example filename = 20181112188_s999_1.csv
filename = str(d.year)+str(d.month)+str(d.day)+str(d.hour)+str(d.minute)+"_"+"s"+str(self.ParticipantID)+"_"+str(self.SessionNo)+".csv"
self.DataFile = open(filename, 'w')
## Write demographic information to file
self.DataFile.write(self.DemoHeader)
self.DataFile.write(self.DemoEntered)
## If filename is passed to datafile argument, then the file will be opened to append to
else:
self.DataFile = open(datafile, 'a')

self.win = visual.Window(
size = [GetSystemMetrics(0), GetSystemMetrics(1)], ## How to fit to all screens. from win32api import GetSystemMetrics ; width = GetSystemMetics(0), height = GetSystemMetrics(1)
units = 'pix',
fullscr = True,
color = [0,0,0], ## grey
allowGUI = False, ## hide mouse
waitBlanking = True
)

def drawInstructions(self):
## Create and draw Instructions screen from file. FILE MUST BE IN SAME FOLDER AS THE PROGRAM!
try:
self.InstructionsSlide = visual.ImageStim(
win = self.win,
image = "Instructions.bmp"
)

## Display error text instead of 'Instructions.bmp' if instructions file not found
except IOError:
self.InstructionsSlide = visual.TextStim(
win = self.win,
color = (1,1,1),
text = "Oops! Unable to display Instructions. Press space to continue",
font = "Calibri",
height = 40)
self.InstructionsSlide.draw()

## Create BlockScreen ("Block # / press space to continue") in between each block.
def drawBlockScreen(self, BlockNo):
self.BlockScreen = visual.TextStim(
win = self.win,
color = (1,1,1),
pos = [0, 30],
text = "Block " + str(BlockNo + 1),
font = "Calibri",
height = 40)
self.pressSpace = visual.TextStim(
win = self.win,
color = (1,1,1),
pos = [0, -30],
text = "(press the spacebar to continue)",
font = "Calibri",
height = 30)
self.BlockScreen.draw()
self.pressSpace.draw()

def drawPracStartScreen(self):
self.PracStartScreen = visual.TextStim(
win = self.win,
color = (1,1,1),
pos = [0, 30],
text = "About to start the practice trials.",
font = "Calibri",
height = 30)
self.pressSpaceBegin = visual.TextStim(
win = self.win,
color = (1,1,1),
pos = [0, -30],
text = "(press the spacebar to begin)",
font = "Calibri",
height = 25)
self.PracStartScreen.draw()
self.pressSpaceBegin.draw()

def drawPracEndScreen(self):
self.PracEndScreen = visual.TextStim(
win = self.win,
color = (1,1,1),
pos = [0, 30],
text = "That's the end of the practice trials. Ready to begin the experiment?",
font = "Calibri",
height = 30)
self.pressSpaceExp = visual.TextStim(
win = self.win,
color = (1,1,1),
pos = [0, -40],
text = "(press the spacebar to start the experiment)",
font = "Calibri",
height = 25)
self.PracEndScreen.draw()
self.pressSpaceExp.draw()

def drawDebrief(self):
## Create debrief slide imagestim object
try:
self.DebriefSlide = visual.ImageStim(
win = self.win,
image = "Debrief.bmp" ## Debrief.bmp MUST BE IN THE SAME FOLDER AS THIS PROGRAM
)
## Display textstim error message instead of 'Debrief.bmp' if file not found
except IOError:
self.DebriefSlide = visual.TextStim(
win = self.win,
color = (1,1,1),
text = "Oops! Unable to display Debrief. Press spacebar to exit",
font = "Calibri",
height = 40)
self.DebriefSlide.draw()

def createPracBlock(self):
self.PracBlock = Block(Experiment = self, CounterBalanceOpt = None, TrialsPerBlock = 12, isPracBlock = True)
self.PracBlock.initBlock()

def createBlocks(self):
for i in range(self.NumBlocks):
self.Blocks.append(Block(Experiment = self, CounterBalanceOpt = None, TrialsPerBlock = self.TrialsPerBlock))
random.shuffle(self.Blocks)

def run(self):
self.drawInstructions()
self.win.flip()
self.createPracBlock()
self.createBlocks()
event.waitKeys(keyList =['space'])
self.win.flip()
self.drawPracStartScreen()
self.win.flip()
event.waitKeys(keyList =['space'])
self.PracBlock.runTrials()
self.win.flip()
self.drawPracEndScreen()
self.win.flip()
event.waitKeys(keyList=['space'])
self.win.flip()
self.runAllBlocks()
self.drawDebrief()
self.win.flip()
event.waitKeys()

def runAllBlocks(self):
for b in range(len(self.Blocks)):
self.drawBlockScreen(BlockNo = b) ## draws screen that displays block number & asks for keypress (spacebar) to continue
self.win.flip()
self.Blocks[b].initBlock() ## initialize the block while BlockScreen is being displayed
event.waitKeys(keyList = ['space'])
self.win.flip()
self.runBlock(BlockNo = b) ## run a single block of trials

## Run one block of trials
def runBlock(self, BlockNo=0):
self.Blocks[BlockNo].runTrials()

## closes the datafile and the window; DO NOT FORGET TO CALL AT END OF EXPERIMENT
def cleanup(self):
self.DataFile.close()
self.win.close()


## ~ ~ ~ * ~ ~ ~ *~ ~ ~ * ~ ~ ~ *~ ~ ~ * ~ ~ ~ *~ ~ ~ * ~ ~ ~ * CREATE & RUN EXPERIMENT BELOW ~ ~ ~ * ~ ~ ~ *~ ~ ~ * ~ ~ ~ *~ ~ ~ * ~ ~ ~ *~ ~ ~ * ~ ~ ~ *##

## To test, run this bit - there is no crash-out option mid-experiment for this one, so just run one block of a few trials.
#test = Experiment(NumBlocks = 1, TrialsPerBlock = 16)
#test.run()
#test.cleanup()

## RUN THIS FOR MAIN EXP: Number of Blocks = 8, Trials Per Block = 96, No Counterbalancing Option. Total Number of trials = 768. Each experimental condition = 192 trials (Flash/NoFlash x Repeat/NoRepeat)

#EXP = Experiment(NumBlocks = 8, TrialsPerBlock = 96)
#EXP.run()
#EXP.cleanup()

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