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How Income Shapes Moral Judgments of Prosocial Behavior

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-08-01
Abstract: 

The current research extends past work on how consumers (as “observers”) view ethical choices made by others (“actors”). Using a person-centered approach to moral judgments, we show that consumers are judged differentially, based on their income, for engaging in certain prosocial behaviors. Nine studies demonstrate that engaging in the same prosocial behavior, such as volunteering, leads to different responses depending on whether the actor earns income versus receives government assistance. Consistent with our theorizing, we find that aid recipients are given less latitude in how they spend their time than those earning an income and are scrutinized to a greater degree for their choices because people believe their time would be better spent seeking employment. Consequently, the lower moral judgments of aid recipients who choose to volunteer (vs. income earners) are driven, at least in part, by the anger observers feel about the perceived misuse of time. Additional information or cues about employment efforts or work inability attenuate these judgments. Importantly, we document implications for support for federal spending on welfare programs.

Document type: 
Article

Sensation Seekers Who Learn Abroad: Exploring the Role of Risk Perception in Co-op Students’ International Plans

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-04-01
Abstract: 

Universities around the world seek to increase their students’ learning abroad in forms like international co-op and exchange. The authors build on findings in a 2016 publication by Behrisch in this journal to focus on the correlation of perceived risk with students’ completion of a learning abroad experience. Using binary logistic regression analysis, findings suggest that students’ perceived risk is negatively correlated with their likelihood of completing a learning abroad experience. Drawing on approach/inhibition theory and sensation seeking literature, the authors form a picture of how risk perception interacts with other factors to influence students’ completion of learning abroad. Risk is typically regarded at the institutional and student levels as something negative to avoid. Reframing risk within the university as a conversation about learning, opportunity, and cognitive processing is recommended, since learning and teaching are essential elements of universities. The goal is to increase student engagement in learning abroad.

Document type: 
Article
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Highly Selective SGLT2 Inhibitor Dapagliflozin Reduces Seizure Activity in Pentylenetetrazol-induced Murine Model of Epilepsy

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-06-07
Abstract: 

Background: Worldwide, over 10 million individuals suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy. New therapeutic strategies are needed to address this debilitating disease. Inhibition of sodium-glucose linked transporters (SGLTs), which are variably expressed in the brain, has been demonstrated to reduce seizure activity in murine models of epilepsy. Here we investigated the effects of dapagliflozin, a highly competitive SGLT2 inhibitor currently used as a drug for diabetes mellitus, on seizure activity in rats with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced seizures.

Methods: Laboratory rats (n = 48) were evenly randomized into two experiments, each with four study arms: (1) a vehicle-treated (placebo) arm infused with saline; (2) a control arm infused with PTZ; (3) a treatment arm with PTZ and dapagliflozin at 75 mg/kg, and (4) another treatment arm with PTZ and dapagliflozin at 150 mg/kg. Study subjects were assessed for seizures either via EEG as measured by spike wave percentage (SWP), or clinically via Racine’s scales scores (RSS) and time to first myoclonic jerk (TFMJ).

Results: Rats treated with dapagliflozin had lower mean SWP on EEG (20.4% versus 75.3% for untreated rats). Behaviorally, treatment with dapagliflozin improved means RSS (2.33 versus 5.5) and mean TFMJ (68.3 versus 196.7 s). All of these findings were statistically significant with p-values of < 0.0001. There was a trend towards even better seizure control with the higher dose of dapagliflozin at 150 mg/kg, however this was not consistently statistically significant.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin decreased seizure activity in rats with PTZ–induced seizures. This may be explained by the anti-seizure effects of decreased glucose availability and a reduction in sodium transport across neuronal membranes which can confer a stabilizing effect against excitability and unwanted depolarization. The potential clinical role of dapagliflozin and other SGLT2 inhibitors as anti-seizure medications should be further explored.

Document type: 
Article
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A Case Report of Nifedipine-induced Hepatitis with Jaundice

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-04-03
Abstract: 

Background: Nifedipine is a generic, well-known and commonly-prescribed dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and Prinzmetal’s angina. A known but very rare and serious adverse effect of nifedipine is clinically-apparent hepatitis which can take months to resolve.

Case presentation: Here we present a case of nifedipine-induced hepatitis in a 78-year-old Caucasian female with no prior history of liver or autoimmune disease. We discuss our investigative and management approach, and present a review of prior cases. We offer an approach for patients who present with signs of acute liver injury with jaundice and high elevations in serum transaminases.

Conclusion: Not much is known about nifedipine-induced hepatitis due to its rare occurrence. Its prevalence is unknown. The disease appears to afflict older men and women. It can present acutely (within days) or subacutely (within 4–8 weeks after medication start) and in an idiosyncratic manner. Chronic or latent cases have also been described, some diagnosed as late as 3 years after medication start. Common symptoms include jaundice, nausea, chills, rigors, diaphoresis, fatigue, and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations often reveal profound elevations in AST, ALT, GGT, and conjugated bilirubin. Peripheral blood smear may demonstrate eosinophilia. Histology from liver biopsy typically demonstrates infiltration of immune cells, cholestasis, and a picture of steatohepatitis. Treatment involves immediate discontinuation of the drug with supportive care. Thus far, all published instances of nifedipine-induced hepatitis were self-limiting without mortality due to fulminant liver failure. However, this disease can take months to resolve. There is no randomized evidence for other treatments such as corticosteroids.

Document type: 
Article
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"I DONT REALLY LIKE THE MILL; IN FACT, I HATE THE MILL": Changing Youth Vocationalism Under Fordism and Post-Fordism in Powell River, British Columbia

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2002-06-01
Abstract: 

Forest towns in British Columbia  are  in  the  throes   of.  a profound  restructuring  (Hayter  2000). The  most  recent  turn  of  the screw,  the  US  imposition   of  a  27%  import  tax   on   softwood  lumber    (May  2002),  is  only  the  latest  twist  in  a  twenty-year history scarred by volatility and industrial  downsizing.  Persistent  job  losses due  to  technological  change,  corporate   rationalization,   increased international  competition,  trade  conflicts,  and   resource   depletion have  progressively  undone   the  fabric   of  BC   forest   communities, especially on the  coast. But while  a plethora  of policies, schemes,  and programs  have  been  initiated  to  help  those  worst  affected,  little attention  has been paid to high  school youth who  have  yet to enter the job market  (Hay  1993 ; Barnes  and Hayter  1992,1995a,  and  1995b; Barnes, Hayter,  and Hay  1999; Hayter  2000, 288-320; Egan and  Klausen  1998). Historically, high  school students'job  expectations  were  directly  tied to  a  buoyant  resource  economy,  which,  in  turn,  helped  to  define the  culture  of  the  resource  town  itself  But  in  this  era  of economic  downsizing   and  industrial  restructuring,   those   expectations    are increasingly  frustrated. The  purpose  of this  paper  is  to  examine how  the  new  economic  reality  of  forest   towns   has   influenced  not only the  expectations  of high  school students  but  also  the  content and  philosophy  of  high  school  programs.

Document type: 
Article
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Mindful Matching: Ordinal versus Nominal Attributes

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-08-29
Abstract: 

The authors propose a new conceptual basis for predicting when and why consumers match others’ consumption choices. Specifically, they distinguish between ordinal (“ranked”) versus nominal (“unranked”) attributes and propose that consumers are more likely to match others on ordinal than on nominal attributes. Eleven studies, involving a range of different ways of operationalizing ordinal versus nominal attributes, collectively support this hypothesis. The authors’ conceptualization helps resolve divergent findings in prior literature and provides guidance to managers on how to leverage information about prior customers’ choices and employees’ recommendations to shape and predict future customers’ choices. Further, the authors find process evidence that this effect is driven in part by consumers’ beliefs that a failure to match on ordinal (but not nominal) attributes will lead to social discomfort for one or both parties. Although the primary focus is on food choices, the effects are also demonstrated in other domains, extending the generalizability of the findings and implications for managerial practice and theory. Finally, the conceptual framework offers additional paths for future research.

Document type: 
Article

How Should Companies Talk to Customers Online?

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-10-26
Document type: 
Article
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Impact of Regional Systems of Innovation on the Formation of University Spin-Offs by Biomedical Star Scientists

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-06-07
Abstract: 

Scientists in research universities can play a formative role in commercialising their inventions for the benefit of society. University spin-off formation is increasing in importance as an alternative to licensing, and can be impacted by both micro and macro-level factors of the regional system of innovation. However, there is limited understanding of the ways in which these factors can interact to enable the formation of university spin-offs. In this study we examine how the productivity of two biomedical star scientists in co-founding university spin-offs can be supported or constrained by other elements of the regional system of innovation. Recommendations are made for research universities seeking to foster entrepreneurship through university spin-off formation.

Scientists in research universities can play a formative role in commercialising their inventions for the benefit of society. University spin-off formation is increasing in importance as an alternative to licensing, and can be impacted by both micro and macro-level factors of the regional system of innovation. However, there is limited understanding of the ways in which these factors can interact to enable the formation of university spin-offs. In this study we examine how the productivity of two biomedical star scientists in co-founding university spin-offs can be supported or constrained by other elements of the regional system of innovation. Recommendations are made for research universities seeking to foster entrepreneurship through university spin-off formation.

 

Document type: 
Article

Refining the Tightness and Looseness Framework with a Consumer Lens

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2017-04
Abstract: 

In their paper, Li, Gordon and Gelfand introduced the Tightness–Looseness (T–L) framework to the consumer domain, and offered several ideas on how this framework could be applied to consumer behavior. In this commentary, we examine the T–L framework through the consumer lens and discuss how the uniqueness of the consumption context can refine and broaden this psychological framework. We identify four questions that aim to enrich our discussion of this framework from the perspective of consumer research, and to motivate future research questions. Specifically, we consider 1) how the interplay between the tightness/looseness of a culture and its effect on consumer behavior can be a bi‐directional relationship, 2) how variances in T–L in different consumption subcultures and aspects of society (e.g., economic, political) can impact consumer behavior, 3) how the examination of T–L at different stages in the consumption process is a relevant and important question to consider, and 4) how T–L may contribute to further investigation and understanding of punishment toward business and consumer norm violators.

Document type: 
Article
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The Satiating Effect of Pricing: The Effect of Price on Enjoyment over Time

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2017-03
Abstract: 

Prices are typically critical to consumption decisions, but can the presence of price impact enjoyment over the course of an experience? We examine the effect of price on consumers’ satisfaction over the course of consumption. We find that, compared to when no pricing information is available, the presence of prices accelerates satiation (i.e., enjoyment declines faster). Preliminary evidence suggests price increases satiation by making the experience seem like less of a relaxing break and something to financially monitor. We rule out several alternative explanations for this effect and discuss important implications for marketers and consumer researchers.

Document type: 
Article
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