Linguistics - Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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Secwepemcésk̓e: Secwépemc personal names and naming

Date created: 
2019-04-17
Abstract: 

This research addresses the subject of Secwepemcésk̓e, Secwépemc personal names and naming, in order to increase knowledge about our traditional names, and help to revitalize the use of Secwepemctsín names as an important domain in the use and knowledge of our language. It is a contribution to the overall revitalization of our endangered language. To recover Secwépemc traditional names that our ancestors from Skítsestn and Tk̓emlúps were given during the 19th and early 20th centuries, I worked with archival records such as Baptisms 1867-1882 and Marriages 1873-1874 from the Kamloops Catholic Diocese; the 1881 Canada Census (Yale Division); the 1877-1878 Joint Reserve Commission Census; and early band lists from the 1920s. In focus group sessions and interviews, I discussed these with a group of Secwepemctsín speaking Elders, mainly from Skítsestn, who provided translations, correct pronunciations, the meaning and context of names, and cultural background information. The information from these sessions, a literature review of previous ethnographic writings and analyses of names by ethnographer James Teit, and research completed by Drs. Marianne and Ronald Ignace all combined to provide a comprehensive examination of Secwépemc names and practices of name-giving. In addition, these works, combined with the focus group sessions with Elders, revealed various categories of Secwepemc names, including ancestral names that derive from spirit-guardian quests (étsxem) but were then passed down to keep the memory of ancestors alive, as well as nick-names that refer to characteristics of a person, and names that directly name the guardian spirit of a person. To enable better understanding of the linguistic structure of Secwepemcésk̓e, I provide a linguistic morpheme gloss of names across these categories, in the hope that this will enable new generations of Secwépemc to engage in naming practices true to the practices and protocols of our ancestors.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Marianne Ignace
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Linguistics
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.A.

Hul’q’umi’num’ hwstey: Stories of appreciation as a paddler

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-04-15
Abstract: 

The way my Hul’q’umi’num’ Elders passed on snuw’uyulh (traditional teachings) to me was through oral narratives. In this project, I share my own passionate stories from twenty-two years of experience as a competitive war canoe paddler. Our coaches help us learn to focus, challenge ourselves, face adversity, and finish what we start. These are the same skills that we seek to pass on to our students in our Hul’q’umi’num’ language courses. By laying down these stories in our Hul’q’umi’num’ language, I hope to support the language learners in their quest to become fluent and also strengthen their hearts and minds.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Donna Gerdts
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Linguistics
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.A.

tsxwi’xwi’em’: Four new Hul’q’umi’num’ stories

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-04-15
Abstract: 

I present four original stories in my First Nations language, Hul’q’umi’num’, a Salish language spoken in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. To assist in the understanding of the stories, I have provided a glossary and interlinear analysis for each. These are true stories relating my experiences growing up in a Coast Salish family in the territory of the Quw’utsun’ people. The first and second stories are about childhood frights and surprises. The third and fourth stories are about mistakes that I made and what I learned from them. By passing these stories on to the next generation, I hope to have opened a doorway to the language for teachers and learners.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Donna Gerdts
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Linguistics
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.A.

X̲aad Kíl resources for babies

Date created: 
2019-04-16
Abstract: 

What X̠aad Kíl words and phrases do new parents/caregivers need to know to speak to their babies in X̠aad Kíl? I have gathered X̠aad Kíl (the Haida language) materials that have been created or are suitable for babies, toddlers, and small children, and then assembled these materials into a resource. These materials include songs, texts, narratives, phrases, and commands. All the material is in the Alaskan X̠aad Kíl variety (dialect) since there is not already a collection of language suitable for a baby that has been put together in the Alaskan variety of X̠aad Kíl. X̠aad Kíl is in dire need of new language learners. Research has shown the best time to teach a language is in infancy and childhood. I have gathered the appropriate materials important for the successful transmission of X̠aad Kíl to the youngest learners.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
Supervisor(s): 
Marianne Ignace
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Linguistics
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.A.

Working with nettles

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-04-17
Abstract: 

I wrote multiple stories, for this project I chose to focus on one, The Adventures of t̕ət̕emiyeʔ. This story was the largest most complex of all the stories and was translated into Upriver Halq’emeylem by Dr. Siyamiyateliot Elizabeth Phillips. This story is about a young girl named t̕ət̕emiyeʔ ‘Little Wren’ her way of acquiring the knowledge on how to use stinging nettles. Throughout this study I have downriverized, glossed and illustrated accompanying artwork for The Adventures of t̕ət̕emiyeʔ. My resources for doing so were written by Wayne Suttles, Brent Galloway, Franz boas and Nancy Turner. Firstly, I had to familiarize myself with the upriver orthography and what their equivalent representation was in the International Phonetic Alphabet; prior to writing the Hən̓q̓əmín̓əm̓ translation. Secondly, I went through and isolated the obvious translations. Thirdly, I segmented the morphemes of each word, began to gloss what I knew. Lastly, I compiled a list of questions and available resources and began researching the unknowns.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Marianne Ignace
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Linguistics
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.A.

Hul’q’umi’num’ stories as snuw’uyulh: Bringing life lessons to language learners

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-04-15
Abstract: 

The Hul’q’umi’num’ are a Coast Salish people who live on Vancouver Island. This project attempts to inspire my fellow First Nations people to learn the Hul’q’umi’num’ language by learning the sacred cultural teachings (snuw’uyulh) passed from generation to generation. It focuses on teachings from my mother and my grandmothers. My mother taught me that everything is connected and interconnected, everything we do has purpose, and culture and language go hand-in-hand. As is our cultural practice, the teachings are embedded in a set of stories drawn from my personal experiences. The research is framed in the context of language revitalization. My hope is that non-Hul’q’umi’num’ speakers who want to understand the teachings will be inspired to also learn the language.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Donna Gerdts
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Linguistics
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.A.

Hul’q’umi’num’ stories and teachings from Papa Sam

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-04-15
Abstract: 

The goal of this project is to communicate Coast Salish traditional values and life lessons from my childhood through stories in my own language, Hul’q’umi’num’. The topics include early childhood, coming of age, and death. I received the name Sewit as a young child. Coast Salish childhood puts an emphasis on the value and importance of children juxtaposed with the lack of input they are given in cultural practices and important family discussions. The coming of age process transitions you out of childhood and you receive additional responsibilities. You may sit in on the discussions but you are not yet at a place where you can contribute. Death contributes to your transition to the final stage where you are now part of the discussion as the torch is passed from elder to young adult. The other part of the final transition was receiving a chieftainship and the corresponding name, Kweyulutstun.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Donna Gerdts
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Linguistics
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.A.

tetul’ ’u tu syuw’a’numa’: A culturally-based Hul’q’umi’num’ language program

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-04-15
Abstract: 

This project describes the creation of the Hul’q’umi’num’ language curriculum created for the Land and Language Based Learning Program delivered to both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students at Ladysmith Secondary from 2016 to the present. Our program is based on traditional Coast Salish ways of learning our language and culture. Curriculum is based on my own family traditions as well as the wisdom shared by our weavers, knitters, and a master carver. The teachings discussed in this paper include the many gifts of cedar-weaving, drum making, fibre processing—cleaning, teasing, carding, and spinning wool— and weaving. I designed this curriculum so that students can work “as granny did” so that the sense memories of past work could be brought into the present. Our work together has demonstrated the richness of traditional teachings to awaken cultural knowledge and language, the power of nuts’umaat shqwaluwun ‘one heart, one mind.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Donna Gerdts
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Linguistics
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.A.

Wiw’xus! Learning Hul’q’umi’num’ through stories

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-04-15
Abstract: 

I have chosen this project to explore new ways of teaching the Hul’q’umi’num’ language to children in a daycare setting. My project focuses on the book Froggy Goes to Bed by Johnathan London, translated into Hul’q’umi’num’ by Ruby Peter. I develop materials to engage our young learners so that they can learn the vocabulary and phrases needed to understand the story. Recognizing that some children are visual learners while others are auditory learners, I anchor the materials around pictures as well as acting out the meanings. I chose this story because it is full of basic vocabulary—actions and objects—familiar to a child’s world. I break the vocabulary into domains and give a step by step format for graduated learning.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Donna Gerdts
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Linguistics
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.A.

lhalhukw’ siiye’yu: An introduction to birds in the Hul’q’umi’num’ world

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-04-15
Abstract: 

We Hul’q’umi’num’ people have a special connection with the birds in our territory. Because of this, the Hul’q’umi’num’ language teachers in our graduate cohort selected one birds as a special project, working together with photographer Cim MacDonald. Each of us took one of her pictures, researched that bird in the scientific literature and with our Elders, and then worked with our language specialists to lay down a story in Hul’q’umi’num’. Our research resulted in a museum exhibit and a website. I report here about some of the interesting features of birds and the vocabulary you would use to describe them. This will be a resource for teachers and learners of the Hul’q’umi’num’ language and culture.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Donna Gerdts
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Linguistics
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.A.