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Deep Learning for Edge Computing Applications: A State-of-the-Art Survey

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-03-23
Abstract: 

With the booming development of Internet-of-Things (IoT) and communication technologies such as 5G, our future world is envisioned as an interconnected entity where billions of devices will provide uninterrupted service to our daily lives and the industry. Meanwhile, these devices will generate massive amounts of valuable data at the network edge, calling for not only instant data processing but also intelligent data analysis in order to fully unleash the potential of the edge big data. Both the traditional cloud computing and on-device computing cannot sufficiently address this problem due to the high latency and the limited computation capacity, respectively. Fortunately, the emerging edge computing sheds a light on the issue by pushing the data processing from the remote network core to the local network edge, remarkably reducing the latency and improving the efficiency. Besides, the recent breakthroughs in deep learning have greatly facilitated the data processing capacity, enabling a thrilling development of novel applications, such as video surveillance and autonomous driving. The convergence of edge computing and deep learning is believed to bring new possibilities to both interdisciplinary researches and industrial applications. In this article, we provide a comprehensive survey of the latest efforts on the deep-learning-enabled edge computing applications and particularly offer insights on how to leverage the deep learning advances to facilitate edge applications from four domains, i.e., smart multimedia, smart transportation, smart city, and smart industry. We also highlight the key research challenges and promising research directions therein. We believe this survey will inspire more researches and contributions in this promising field.

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Deconvoluting the Diversity of Within-host Pathogen Strains in a Multi-locus Sequence Typing Framework

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-12-17
Abstract: 

Background

Bacterial pathogens exhibit an impressive amount of genomic diversity. This diversity can be informative of evolutionary adaptations, host-pathogen interactions, and disease transmission patterns. However, capturing this diversity directly from biological samples is challenging.

Results

We introduce a framework for understanding the within-host diversity of a pathogen using multi-locus sequence types (MLST) from whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data. Our approach consists of two stages. First we process each sample individually by assigning it, for each locus in the MLST scheme, a set of alleles and a proportion for each allele. Next, we associate to each sample a set of strain types using the alleles and the strain proportions obtained in the first step. We achieve this by using the smallest possible number of previously unobserved strains across all samples, while using those unobserved strains which are as close to the observed ones as possible, at the same time respecting the allele proportions as closely as possible. We solve both problems using mixed integer linear programming (MILP). Our method performs accurately on simulated data and generates results on a real data set of Borrelia burgdorferi genomes suggesting a high level of diversity for this pathogen.

Conclusions

Our approach can apply to any bacterial pathogen with an MLST scheme, even though we developed it with Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, in mind. Our work paves the way for robust strain typing in the presence of within-host heterogeneity, overcoming an essential challenge currently not addressed by any existing methodology for pathogen genomics.

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A New Resolution Function to Evaluate Tree Shape Statistics

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-11-21
Abstract: 

Phylogenetic trees are frequently used in biology to study the relationships between a number of species or organisms. The shape of a phylogenetic tree contains useful information about patterns of speciation and extinction, so powerful tools are needed to investigate the shape of a phylogenetic tree. Tree shape statistics are a common approach to quantifying the shape of a phylogenetic tree by encoding it with a single number. In this article, we propose a new resolution function to evaluate the power of different tree shape statistics to distinguish between dissimilar trees. We show that the new resolution function requires less time and space in comparison with the previously proposed resolution function for tree shape statistics. We also introduce a new class of tree shape statistics, which are linear combinations of two existing statistics that are optimal with respect to a resolution function, and show evidence that the statistics in this class converge to a limiting linear combination as the size of the tree increases. Our implementation is freely available at https://github.com/WGS-TB/TreeShapeStats.

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Article
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On the Rank-Distance Median of 3 Permutations

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-05-08
Abstract: 

Background

Recently, Pereira Zanetti, Biller and Meidanis have proposed a new definition of a rearrangement distance between genomes. In this formulation, each genome is represented as a matrix, and the distance d is the rank distance between these matrices. Although defined in terms of matrices, the rank distance is equal to the minimum total weight of a series of weighted operations that leads from one genome to the other, including inversions, translocations, transpositions, and others. The computational complexity of the median-of-three problem according to this distance is currently unknown. The genome matrices are a special kind of permutation matrices, which we study in this paper.

In their paper, the authors provide an O(n3)">O(n3)O(n3) algorithm for determining three candidate medians, prove the tight approximation ratio 43">4343, and provide a sufficient condition for their candidates to be true medians. They also conduct some experiments that suggest that their method is accurate on simulated and real data.

Results

In this paper, we extend their results and provide the following:

  • Three invariants characterizing the problem of finding the median of 3 matrices

  • A sufficient condition for uniqueness of medians that can be checked in O(n)

  • A faster, O(n2)">O(n2)O(n2) algorithm for determining the median under this condition

  • A new heuristic algorithm for this problem based on compressed sensing

  • A O(n4)">O(n4)O(n4) algorithm that exactly solves the problem when the inputs are orthogonal matrices, a class that includes both permutations and genomes as special cases.

Conclusions

Our work provides the first proof that, with respect to the rank distance, the problem of finding the median of 3 genomes, as well as the median of 3 permutations, is exactly solvable in polynomial time, a result which should be contrasted with its NP-hardness for the DCJ (double cut-and-join) distance and most other families of genome rearrangement operations. This result, backed by our experimental tests, indicates that the rank distance is a viable alternative to the DCJ distance widely used in genome comparisons.

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Smart Home Based on WiFi Sensing: A Survey

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-03-07
Abstract: 

Conventional sensing methodologies for smart home are known to be labor-intensive and complicated for practical deployment. Thus, researchers are resorting to alternative sensing mechanisms. Wi-Fi is one of the key technologies that enable connectivity for smart home services. Apart from its primary use for communication, Wi-Fi signal has now been widely leveraged for various sensing tasks, such as gesture recognition and fall detection, due to its sensitivity to environmental dynamics. Building smart home based on Wi-Fi sensing is cost-effective, non-invasive, and enjoys convenient deployment. In this paper, we survey the recent advances in the smart home systems based on the Wi-Fi sensing, mainly in such areas as health monitoring, gesture recognition, contextual information acquisition, and authentication.

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Article
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A Study of Chained Stochastic Tracking in RGB and Depth Sensing

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-01-30
Abstract: 

This paper studies the notion of hierarchical (chained) structure of stochastic tracking of marked feature points while a person is moving in the field of view of a RGB and depth sensor. The objective is to explore how the information between the two sensing modalities (namely, RGB sensing and depth sensing) can be cascaded in order to distribute and share the implicit knowledge associated with the tracking environment. In the first layer, the prior estimate of the state of the object is distributed based on the novel expected motion constraints approach associated with the movements. For the second layer, the segmented output resulting from the RGB image is used for tracking marked feature points of interest in the depth image of the person. Here we proposed two approaches for associating a measure (weight) for the distribution of the estimates (particles) of the tracking feature points using depth data. The first measure is based on the notion of spin-image and the second is based on the geodesic distance. The paper presents the overall implementation of the proposed method combined with some case study results.

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Uncovering the Subtype-Specific Temporal Order of Cancer Pathway Dysregulation

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-11-11
Abstract: 

Cancer is driven by genetic mutations that dysregulate pathways important for proper cell function. Therefore, discovering these cancer pathways and their dysregulation order is key to understanding and treating cancer. However, the heterogeneity of mutations between different individuals makes this challenging and requires that cancer progression is studied in a subtype-specific way. To address this challenge, we provide a mathematical model, called Subtype-specific Pathway Linear Progression Model (SPM), that simultaneously captures cancer subtypes and pathways and order of dysregulation of the pathways within each subtype. Experiments with synthetic data indicate the robustness of SPM to problem specifics including noise compared to an existing method. Moreover, experimental results on glioblastoma multiforme and colorectal adenocarcinoma show the consistency of SPM’s results with the existing knowledge and its superiority to an existing method in certain cases. The implementation of our method is available at https://github.com/Dalton386/SPM.

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Datasets for Face and Object Detection in Fisheye Images

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-11-02
Abstract: 

We present two new fisheye image datasets for training object and face detection models: VOC-360 and Wider-360. The fisheye images are created by post-processing regular images collected from two well-known datasets, VOC2012 and Wider Face, using a model for mapping regular to fisheye images implemented in Matlab. VOC-360 contains 39,575 fisheye images for object detection, segmentation, and classification. Wider-360 contains 63,897 fisheye images for face detection. These datasets will be useful for developing face and object detectors as well as segmentation modules for fisheye images while the efforts to collect and manually annotate true fisheye images are underway.

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Caveolae and Scaffold Detection from Single Molecule Localization Microscopy Data Using Deep Learning

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-08-26
Abstract: 

Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations whose formation requires caveolin-1 (Cav1), the adaptor protein polymerase I, and the transcript release factor (PTRF or CAVIN1). Caveolae have an important role in cell functioning, signaling, and disease. In the absence of CAVIN1/PTRF, Cav1 forms non-caveolar membrane domains called scaffolds. In this work, we train machine learning models to automatically distinguish between caveolae and scaffolds from single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) data. We apply machine learning algorithms to discriminate biological structures from SMLM data. Our work is the first that is leveraging machine learning approaches (including deep learning models) to automatically identifying biological structures from SMLM data. In particular, we develop and compare three binary classification methods to identify whether or not a given 3D cluster of Cav1 proteins is a caveolae. The first uses a random forest classifier applied to 28 hand-crafted/designed features, the second uses a convolutional neural net (CNN) applied to a projection of the point clouds onto three planes, and the third uses a PointNet model, a recent development that can directly take point clouds as its input. We validate our methods on a dataset of super-resolution microscopy images of PC3 prostate cancer cells labeled for Cav1. Specifically, we have images from two cell populations: 10 PC3 and 10 CAVIN1/PTRF-transfected PC3 cells (PC3-PTRF cells) that form caveolae. We obtained a balanced set of 1714 different cellular structures. Our results show that both the random forest on hand-designed features and the deep learning approach achieve high accuracy in distinguishing the intrinsic features of the caveolae and non-caveolae biological structures. More specifically, both random forest and deep CNN classifiers achieve classification accuracy reaching 94% on our test set, while the PointNet model only reached 83% accuracy. We also discuss the pros and cons of the different approaches.

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A Multi-Labeled Tree Dissimilarity Measure for Comparing “Clonal Trees” of Tumor Progression

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-07-27
Abstract: 

We introduce a new dissimilarity measure between a pair of “clonal trees”, each representing the progression and mutational heterogeneity of a tumor sample, constructed by the use of single cell or bulk high throughput sequencing data. In a clonal tree, each vertex represents a specific tumor clone, and is labeled with one or more mutations in a way that each mutation is assigned to the oldest clone that harbors it. Given two clonal trees, our multi-labeled tree dissimilarity (MLTD) measure is defined as the minimum number of mutation/label deletions, (empty) leaf deletions, and vertex (clonal) expansions, applied in any order, to convert each of the two trees to the maximum common tree. We show that the MLTD measure can be computed efficiently in polynomial time and it captures the similarity between trees of different clonal granularity well.

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