Psychology, Department of

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The law of cognitive structure activation: New directions in understanding depression and psychotherapy

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1991
Abstract: 

Comments on C. Sedikides and J. J. Skowronski's (see record 1992-00351-001) article on the law of cognitive structure activation (CSA) and disagrees with some of their statements regarding the implications of the CSA principle for psychotherapy. Alternative positions are offered regarding the applicability of the CSA principle for understanding depression and psychotherapy.

Document type: 
Article
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Integrating the psychodynamic and cognitive selves

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1992
Abstract: 

Discusses self-representations and consciousness, the organization of self-representations, and self-representation and self-esteem in this comment on D. Westen's (see record 1992-35014-001) article on integrating psychodynamic and social-cognitive thinking about the self.

Document type: 
Article
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Attachment and conduct disorder: The Response Programme.

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1993
Abstract: 

An increasing number of youths are being identified as suffering from behavioral problems that cause difficulties in their family and peer relations, which in turn reduce their chances of academic and vocational success. The common diagnosis given to these disaffiliated youths is conduct disorder. A community-oriented program designed to ensure long-term care for these youths is described. The program is designed to focus members of the youth's environment on the attachment and affiliation issues related to his/her current functioning and needs. The findings of a 6-mo follow-up of 89 program participants indicate that communities, caregivers, and youths responded positively to the program. Caregivers reported significant reductions in a broad range of psychiatric symptoms in youths, and youths reported a significant reduction in symptoms of conduct disorder.

Long term outcome of an attachment-based program for conduct disorder

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1994
Abstract: 

Assessed the impact of a community-based program for youths with conduct disordered behavior and reveiwed the effectiveness of the program for 203 participating youths (aged 10–17 yrs) at 6, 12, and 18 mo postdischarge. The response program is based on the view that attachment issues are central in understanding and providing care for youths with conduct disorder. The program begins with a 30-day residential stay during which a multidisciplinary team works with the youth and the community to come to a full understanding of the developmental and family history of the youth, the nature of the youth's problems, and the functioning of the immediate and wider social community. The Ontario Child Health Study Scales were used to evaluate and monitor presence and severity of symptoms. Caretakers reported significantly reduced levels of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at all follow-up intervals.

Document type: 
Article

Conduct disorder and substance use disorder: Comorbidity in a clinical sample of preadolescents and adolescents

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1995
Abstract: 

Examined the rate of comorbidity between conduct disorder and substance use disorder in a clinical sample of 74 youth. Data reveal no significant differences in the incidence of comorbidity between younger (aged 10–13) and older (aged 13–27) Ss. Among Ss who met criteria for conduct disorder, 52% also met criteria for a substance use disorder. Odds ratios indicated that the probability of comorbidity of conduct and substance use disorders was higher in the younger group. Substance abuse and dependence tend to develop rapidly following first use, suggesting that a slim window of opportunity exists to prevent substance disorders once drug use has begun.

Document type: 
Article

Self-referent versus other-referent information processing in dysphoric, clinically depressed and remitted depressed subjects

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1996
Abstract: 

Examined the processing of responses directed toward the self versus others by dysphoric, clinically depressed and remitted depressed Ss. In Exp 1, 30 dysphoric Ss found positive and negative responses toward the self equally informative. 30 nondysphoric Ss found positive responses toward the self more informative. When responses were directed toward others, dysphorics found positive responses more informative than negative responses, while nondysphorics found positive and negative responses directed toward others equally informative. Exp 2 replicated these results with 27 clinically depressed and 27 nondysphoric Ss, showing that remitted depressed Ss found positive responses more informative, regardless of direction to self or others. Results suggest that positive and negative constructs are differentially accessible for these groups.

Document type: 
Article
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The effects of hemispheric asymmetries and depression on the perception of emotion

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1996
Abstract: 

Investigated hemispheric asymmetries in the perception of positive and negative emotion. The moderating effect of depression on hemispheric asymmetries was also examined. 40 undergraduates were presented with happy and sad faces using a bilateral visual half-field design. 18 Ss were classified as depressed and 22 as nondepressed, based on scores on the Beck Depression Inventory. For nondepressed Ss, a right hemisphere advantage emerged for the speed of processing open- and close-mouth sad expressions. For depressed Ss, a right hemisphere advantage emerged for the speed of processing open-mouth sad expressions. In addition, a right hemisphere advantage for accuracy in identifying sad expressions was found for all Ss. No visual field differences were found for processing happy expressions.

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Article
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The treatment of conduct disorder: Perspectives from across Canada

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1997
Abstract: 

Provides a synopsis of treatment programs for conduct-disordered children in Canada. Five groups of authors from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick describe their approaches to the treatment of children with conduct disorder. All programs emphasize the need to use multimodal treatment schemes, including day and short-term residential care, as well as the need to base programs on identified factors associated with the development of conduct disorder.

Document type: 
Article

Relational self-regulation: Gender differences in risk for dysphoria

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1998
Abstract: 

Examined gender differences in the level and psychological significance of discrepancy with own ideal standards (ISs) vs ideal standards held by parents and close others. 190 undergraduates completed the Selves Questionnaire, an interpersonal contingency beliefs measure, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Women showed higher levels of discrepancy with their own ISs than with the inferred ISs of parents and close others, suggesting that women may seek congruency with others' hopes and wishes at the price of failing to attain their own aspirations. Men showed equal levels of discrepancy with their own and significant-other ISs. Discrepancy with own ISs was associated with increased dysphoria in both men and women, but discrepancy with others' ISs was associated with significantly elevated levels of dysphoria only in women. Beliefs that failing to meet others' standards would result in abandonment and rejection contributed independently from discrepancy in predicting dysphoria. The findings suggest that the tendency to modulate affect, self-esteem and behavior from a relational perspective may increase risk for psychological distress. Women may be more likely to adopt this regulatory style as a function of their socialization experiences.

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Article
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Sociotropy, Autonomy, and Self-Discrepancy: Status in Depressed, Remitted Depressed, and Control Participants

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1998
Abstract: 

Examined the status of sociotropy, autonomy, and self-discrepancy in 28 clinically depressed (mean age 37.5 yrs), 20 remitted depressed (mean age 37 yrs), and 20 control individuals (mean age 30 yrs). Results from the Personal Style Inventory (PSI; C. J. Robins et al, 1990) and the Selves Questionnaire (E. T. Higgins et al, 1986) indicated that depressed, remitted, and control participants differed significantly in their levels of sociotropy, autonomy, and actual–ideal discrepancy. Depressed Ss evidencing the highest levels of these variables, remitted Ss the next highest, and control Ss the lowest. Both sociotropy and autonomy were significantly correlated with actual–ideal discrepancy. Each of the 3 variables studied accounted for unique variance in current depression. Together they accounted for 48% of the variance in depression scores. This study provides support for the relation of sociotropy, autonomy, and actual–ideal discrepancy to depression, and suggests a need for greater attention to issues of availability and accessibility in the area of depression research.

Document type: 
Article
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