Psychology, Department of

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White Matter Deficits Assessed by Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Cognitive Dysfunction in Psychostimulant Users With Comorbid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2015
Abstract: 

Background

Psychostimulant drug use is commonly associated with drug-related infection, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both psychostimulant use and HIV infection are known to damage brain white matter and impair cognition. To date, no study has examined white matter integrity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in chronic psychostimulant users with comorbid HIV infection, and determined the relationship of white matter integrity to cognitive function.

Methods

Twenty-one subjects (mean age 37.5 ± 9.0 years) with a history of heavy psychostimulant use and HIV infection (8.7 ± 4.3 years) and 22 matched controls were scanned on a 3T MRI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were calculated with DTI software. Four regions of interest were manually segmented, including the genu of the corpus callosum, left and right anterior limbs of the internal capsule, and the anterior commissure. Subjects also completed a neurocognitive battery and questionnaires about physical and mental health.

Results

The psychostimulant using, HIV positive group displayed decreased white matter integrity, with significantly lower FA values for all white matter tracts (p < 0.05). This group also exhibited decreased cognitive performance on tasks that assessed cognitive set-shifting, fine motor speed and verbal memory. FA values for the white matter tracts correlated with cognitive performance on many of the neurocognitive tests.

Conclusions

White matter integrity was thus impaired in subjects with psychostimulant use and comorbid HIV infection, which predicted worsened cognitive performance on a range of tests. Further study on this medical comorbidity is required.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

What’s in a Friendship? Partner Visibility Supports Cognitive Collaboration between Friends

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2015
Abstract: 

Not all cognitive collaborations are equally effective. We tested whether friendship and communication influenced collaborative efficiency by randomly assigning participants to complete a cognitive task with a friend or non-friend, while visible to their partner or separated by a partition. Collaborative efficiency was indexed by comparing each pair’s performance to an optimal individual performance model of the same two people. The outcome was a strong interaction between friendship and partner visibility. Friends collaborated more efficiently than non-friends when visible to one another, but a partition that prevented pair members from seeing one another reduced the collaborative efficiency of friends and non-friends to a similar lower level. Secondary measures suggested that verbal communication differences, but not psychophysiological arousal, contributed to these effects. Analysis of covariance indicated that females contributed more than males to overall levels of collaboration, but that the interaction of friendship and visibility was independent of that effect. These findings highlight the critical role of partner visibility in the collaborative success of friends.

Document type: 
Article
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James Legge and the Confucian Classics: Brilliant Scot in the Turmoil of Colonial Hong Kong

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2015
Abstract: 

A biographical work on James Legge, concentrating on his life in Hong Kong during its most turbulent period 1842-1873.

Document type: 
Book
File(s): 

Self-discrepancies and negative affect: A primer on when to look for specificity, and how to find it

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2005
Abstract: 

There is substantial evidence that discrepancies within the self-system produce emotional distress. However, whether specific types of discrepancy are related to different types of negative affect remains contentious. At the heart of self-discrepancy theory (SDT: Higgins, 1987, 1989) is the assumption that different types of discrepancies are related to distinctive emotional states, with discrepancies between the actual and ideal selves being uniquely related to dejection-related emotion and discrepancies between the actual and ought selves being uniquely related to agitation-related emotion. Research examining this proposition has demonstrated that the magnitudes of these discrepancies are substantially correlated. As a result, some researchers have questioned whether they are functionally independent (e.g., Tangney, Niedenthal, Covert, & Barlow, 1998). In addition, other researchers have failed to support the hypothesized unique relationships (e.g., Ozgul, Heubeck, Ward, & Wilkinson, 2003). Together these two types of research finding have been interpreted as presenting a challenge to SDT. It is our contention that this interpretation is inaccurate. In this paper, we review the assumptions made when testing for these distinct relationships. Specifically, we examine the necessary conditions under which the functional independence of discrepancies is apparent, and the statistical methods appropriate to test these relationships. We also comment on the measurement of self-discrepancies, and fundamental problems in the interpretation of null findings. We conclude that studies using appropriate methodological and statistical procedures have produced ample evidence that discriminant relationships exist, and we encourage researchers to further investigate the conditions under which these relationships are most apparent.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Depressive disorder in children and adolescents: Dysthymic disorder and the use of self-rating scales in assessment

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1984
Abstract: 

The authors describe a pilot study on depressed children and adolescents, where the DSM-III diagnosis on clinical interviews is compared to the results from two self-rating scales on 35 children and adolescents referred to the researchers. These 35 subjects were seen as depressed by their primary helpers. The value of the self-rating scales is mentioned and the usefulness of the category “dysthymic disorder” is commented upon.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Cognitive bias and depression in psychiatrically disturbed children and adolescents

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1985
Abstract: 

Developed a cognitive bias questionnaire for children (CBQC) to examine the relation between cognitive distortion and depression in 39 psychiatrically disturbed 8–16 yr olds. Results indicate that the Depressed–Distorted scale from the CBQC was significantly correlated with Ss' psychiatric and self-reported ratings of depression and could significantly discriminate affective from nonaffective disorders.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Affective disorders in children and adolescents: The dysthymic disorder dilemma

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1985
Abstract: 

Investigated the use of psychiatric ratings and self-report information in distinguishing major depression and dysthymic disorders from each other and from other disorders. 60 adolescent psychiatry patients (mean age 13.05 yrs) completed the Children's Depression Scale and a children's depression inventory, and the results were compared with those from diagnostic interviews using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria. Findings suggest that diagnostic ratings and self-reports of depression contributed to the differential diagnosis of dysthymic disorder, major depression, and other psychiatric disorders. It is suggested that age-appropriate revision of DSM-III diagnostic symptoms may lead to greater consistency in diagnosing dysthymic disorder in young populations.

Document type: 
Article

Conjugate lateral eye movements: A second look

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1989
Abstract: 

It has been suggested that conjugate lateral eye movements (CLEM) are related to cerebral lateralization. Two types of research have developed: studies examining individual differences (hemisphericity) and studies examining the type of questions used to elicit eye movements (hemispheric specialization). in a 1978 review, Ehrlichman and Weinberger questioned the notion that CLEM is related to cerebral lateralization, particularly with regard to individual differences. However, since their review, a substantial number of studies have been published which are pertinent to the validity of CLEM. the following paper reviewed the validity of CLEM through three avenues, neurophysiological evidence, relationships with other measures of laterality and relation to spatial and verbal stimuli. Overall, it was concluded that there is sufficient evidence to support the CLEM model. Converging evidence from studies on EEG, electrical stimulation, ablation, brain damage, sodium amytal testing, blood flow, positron emission tomography, dichotic listening, and visual half fields was found to be, for the most part, supportive. the results for verbal and spatial task performance were mixed. Studies examining verbal abilities or a verbal to spatial comparison were generally supportive. the findings for spatial abilities alone were more equivocal. Evidence on question-type was found to be weak but positive, with about half the studies showing the predicted asymmetry and the other half reporting nonsignificant results. the implications of an interaction between hemisphericity or characteristic arousal and hemispheric specialization were also discussed. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/00207458909002148?journalCode=nes

Document type: 
Article

An analysis of sex differences in depression: The search continues

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1989
Abstract: 

Maintains that J. M. Stoppard's (see record 1989-29654-001) discussion of the adequacy of cognitive/behavioral theories for understanding depression in women (1) fails to adequately consider methodological issues in investigating sex differences in psychopathology and (2) misreads the cognitive/behavioral theories as having a stagnant, simplistic view of psychopathology.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Relating self-discrepancy to self-esteem: The contribution of discrepancy beyond acutal-self ratings

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1990
Abstract: 

Investigated whether discrepancy scores derived from an idiographic measure of the actual self (AS) and ideal self (IS) are significant predictors of global self-esteem (SE). 41 university students completed (1) a nomothetically based measure that assessed actual–ideal (AI) discrepancy on a standard set of personality characteristics and (2) an idiographically based measure that assessed AI discrepancy between Ss' self-nominated AS and IS attributes. The relation between AI discrepancy on the nomothetic measure and SE was not significant when the variance due to AS ratings was statistically held constant. The relation between AI discrepancy on the idiographic measure and SE was significant even when variance due to the positivity of AS attributes was statistically held constant. Findings underscore the importance of an idiographic approach to evaluating AI discrepancy.

Document type: 
Article