Interactive Arts and Technology, School of (SIAT)

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The School of Interactive Arts and Technology, SIAT, is located at the Surrey campus of SFU. There are two subcollections in SIAT. Please see below.

Audio-based Musical Artificial Intelligence and Audio-Reactive Visual Agents in Revive

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-06-16
Abstract: 

Revive is an live audio-visual performance project that brings together a musical artificial intelligence architecture, human electronic musicians, and audio-reactive visual agents in a complex multimedia environment of a dome view with multichannel 3D audio. The context of the project is live audio-visual performance of experimental electronic music through structured improvisation. Revive applies structured improvisation using cues and automatized parameter changes within these cues. Performers have different roles within the musical structures initiated by the cues. These roles change as the performance temporally evolves. Sonic actions of performers are further emphasized by audio-reactive visual agents. The behaviours and 1contents of sonic and visual agents change as the performance unfolds.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Neuroimaging and Analytical Methods for Studying the Pathways from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s Disease: Protocol for a Rapid Systematic Review

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-04-02
Abstract: 

Background

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder commonly associated with deficits of cognition and changes in behavior. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the prodromal stage of AD that is defined by slight cognitive decline. Not all with MCI progress to AD dementia. Thus, the accurate prediction of progression to Alzheimer’s, particularly in the stage of MCI could potentially offer developing treatments to delay or prevent the transition process. The objective of the present study is to investigate the most recent neuroimaging procedures in the domain of prediction of transition from MCI to AD dementia for clinical applications and to systematically discuss the machine learning techniques used for the prediction of MCI conversion.

Methods

Electronic databases including PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science will be searched from January 1, 2017, to the date of search commencement to provide a rapid review of the most recent studies that have investigated the prediction of conversion from MCI to Alzheimer’s using neuroimaging modalities in randomized trial or observational studies. Two reviewers will screen full texts of included papers using predefined eligibility criteria. Studies will be included if addressed research on AD dementia and MCI, explained the results in a way that would be able to report the performance measures such as the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Only studies addressed Alzheimer’s type of dementia and its early-stage MCI using neuroimaging modalities will be included. We will exclude other forms of dementia such as vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Parkinson’s disease. The risk of bias in individual studies will be appraised using an appropriate tool. If feasible, we will conduct a random effects meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses will be conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity.

Discussion

The information gathered in our study will establish the extent of the evidence underlying the prediction of conversion to AD dementia from its early stage and will provide a rigorous and updated synthesis of neuroimaging modalities allied with the data analysis techniques used to measure the brain changes during the conversion process.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Understanding AWE: Can a Virtual Journey, Inspired by the Overview Effect, Lead to an Increased Sense of Interconnectedness?

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-05-22
Abstract: 

Immersive technology, such as virtual reality, provides us with novel opportunities to create and explore affective experiences with a transformative potential mediated through awe. The profound emotion of awe, that is experienced in response to witnessing vastness and creates the need for accommodation that can lead to restructuring of one's worldview and an increased feeling of connectedness. An iconic example of the powers of awe is observed in astronauts who develop instant social consciousness and strong pro-environmental values in response to the overwhelming beauty of Earth observed from space. Here on Earth, awe can also be experienced in response to observing vast natural phenomenon or even sometimes in response to some forms of art, presenting vast beauty to its audience. Can virtual reality provide a new powerful tool for reliably inducing such experiences? What are some unique potentials of this emerging medium? This paper describes the evaluation of an immersive installation “AWE”—Awe-inspiring Wellness Environment. The results indicate that the experience of being in “AWE” can elicit some components of awe emotion and induce minor cognitive shifts in participant's worldview similar to the Overview Effect, while this experience also has its own attributes that might be unique to this specific medium. Comparing the results of this exploratory study to other virtual environments designed to elicit Overview Effect provides insights on the relationship between design features and participant's experience. The qualitative results highlight the importance of perceived safety, personal background and familiarity with the environment, and the induction of a small visceral fear reaction as a part of the emotional arc of the virtual journey—as some of the key contributers to the affective experience of the immersive installation. Even though the observed components of awe and a few indications of cognitive shift support the potential of Virtual Reality as a transformative medium, many more iterations of the design and research tools are required before we can achieve and fully explore a profound awe-inspiring transformative experience mediated through immersive technologies.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Space—A Virtual Frontier: How to Design and Evaluate a Virtual Reality Experience of the Overview Effect

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-04-25
Abstract: 

A select small group of people have an amazing opportunity to see the Earth from a unique perspective—from space. The effect this experience has on an individual has been described as extraordinary and profound, consisting of a cognitive shift in worldview that leads to a deeper understanding of the fragility and vulnerability of our planet, and an increased feeling of connectedness. This experience, termed the “Overview Effect,” has been reported by many space-travelers. Its key outcome—an enhanced feeling of interconnectedness—contributes to both one’s well-being and the sense of responsibility for the Earth. If this profoundly positive experience could be made accessible to more people than just space-travelers, this might ultimately contribute to a healthier and more caring society, where more individuals deeply feel the interconnection of all living beings and responsibility for our collective future. Given virtual reality (VR) technology’s potential to induce experiences affecting an immersant in a similar way as a real experience, we see an opportunity to leverage this technology to attempt to elicit the Overview Effect as a virtual experience. Through a virtual installation, the experience could be made accessible to people around the world, and for researchers to study this otherwise rare phenomenon. This article builds the case for VR as a tool for inducing and studying the Overview Effect. It reviews the psychological research on the Overview Effect and awe, and proposes guidelines for: (1) the design of VR experiences to elicit an Overview Effect and (2) evaluation methods for assessing if, or to what degree, the experience was achieved. Finally, we discuss existing implementations of the Overview Effect in VR. Thus, we are making an applied contribution in the form of design guidelines, and contributions to knowledge in the form of a review of research related to the Overview Effect. We invite researchers and VR creators to utilize and expand on the guidelines proposed in this paper to design transformative VR experiences that induce positive change, and promote a feeling of connectedness and care for each other, and our Spaceship Earth.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

On Multi-Device Use: Using Technological Modality Profiles to Explain Differences in Students’ Learning

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-03-08
Abstract: 

With increasing abundance and ubiquity of mobile phones, desktop PCs, and tablets in the last decade, we are seeing students intermixing these modalities to learn and regulate their learning. However, the role of these modalities in educational settings is still largely under-researched. Similarly, little attention has been paid to the research on the extension of learning analytics to analyze the learning processes of students adopting various modalities during a learning activity. Traditionally, research on how modalities affect the way in which activities are completed has mainly relied upon self-reported data or mere counts of access from each modality. We explore the use of technological modalities in regulating learning via learning management systems (LMS) in the context of blended courses. We used data mining techniques to analyze patterns in sequences of actions performed by learners (n = 120) across different modalities in order to identify technological modality profiles of sequences. These profiles were used to detect the technological modality strategies adopted by students. We found a moderate effect size (ϵ2 = 0.12) of students’ adopted strategies on the final course grade. Furthermore, when looking specifically at online discussion engagement and performance, students’ adopted technological modality strategies explained a large amount of variance (η2 = 0.68) in their engagement and quality of contributions. The result implications and further research are discussed.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Model-Free Fault Detection and Isolation of a Benchmark Process Control System Based on Multiple Classifiers Techniques—A Comparative Study

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-02-02
Abstract: 

This paper presents a combined data-driven framework for fault detection and isolation (FDI) based on the ensemble of diverse classification schemes. The proposed FDI scheme is configured in series and parallel forms in the sense that in series form the decision on the occurrence of fault is made in FD module, and subsequently, the FI module coupled to the FD module will be activated for fault indication purposes. On the other hand, in parallel form a single module is employed for FDI purposes, simultaneously. In other words, two separate multiple-classifiers schemes are presented by using fourteen various statistical and non-statistical classification schemes. Furthermore, in this study, a novel ensemble classification scheme namely blended learning (BL) is proposed for the first time where single and boosted classifiers are blended as the local classifiers in order to enrich the classification performance. Single-classifier schemes are also exploited in FDI modules along with the ensemble-classifier methods for comparison purposes. In order to show the performance of proposed FDI method, it was also tested and validated on DAMADICS actuator system benchmark. Besides, comparative study with the related works done on this benchmark is provided to show the pros and cons of the proposed FDI method.

Document type: 
Article

Immersive Interactive Technologies for Positive Change: A Scoping Review and Design Considerations

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-08-03
Abstract: 

Practices such as mindfulness, introspection, and self-reflection are known to have positive short and long-term effects on health and well-being. However, in today's modern, fast-paced, technological world tempted by distractions these practices are often hard to access and relate to a broader audience. Consequently, technologies have emerged that mediate personal experiences, which is reflected in the high number of available applications designed to elicit positive changes. These technologies elicit positive changes by bringing users' attention to the self—from technologies that show representation of quantified personal data, to technologies that provide experiences that guide the user closer in understanding the self. However, while many designs available today are either built to support or are informed by these aforementioned practices, the question remains: how can we most effectively employ different design elements and interaction strategies to support positive change? Moreover, what types of input and output modalities contribute to eliciting positive states? To address these questions, we present here a state of the art scoping review of immersive interactive technologies that serve in a role of a mediator for positive change in users. We performed a literature search using ACM Digital Library, Web of Science, IEEE Xplore, and Design and Applied Arts Index (beginning of literature—January 1, 2018). We retrieved English-language articles for review, and we searched for published and unpublished studies. Risk of bias was assessed with Downs and Black 26-item QAT scale. We included 34 articles as relevant to the literature, and the analysis of the articles resulted in 38 instances of 33 immersive, interactive experiences relating to positive human functioning. Our contribution is three-fold: First we provide a scoping review of immersive interactive technologies for positive change; Second, we propose both a framework for future designs of positive interactive technologies and design consideration informed by the comparative analysis of the designs; Third, we provide design considerations for immersive, interactive technologies to elicit positive states and support positive change.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Are You Awed Yet? How Virtual Reality Gives Us Awe and Goose Bumps

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-11-09
Abstract: 

“Awe” is a category of emotion within the spectrum of self-transcendent experiences. Awe has wellness benefits, with feelings of social interconnectivity and increased life satisfaction. However, awe experiences remain rare in our everyday lives, and rarer in lab environments. We posit that Virtual Reality (VR) may help to make self-transcendent and potentially transformative experiences of awe more accessible to individuals. Here, we investigated how interactive VR as a positive technology may elicit awe, and how features of aesthetic beauty/scale, familiarity, and personalization (self-selection of travel destinations) may induce awe. In this mixed-methods study, participants used an interactive VR system to explore Earth from ground and orbit. We collected: introspective interviews and self-report questionnaires with participants’ experience of awe; information on personality traits and gender; and we recorded physiological goose bumps on the skin (using an arm-mounted goose bump camera instrument), which is a documented marker of an awe experience. Results showed that on a scale of 0–100 for self-reported awe, four different interactive VR environments yielded an average awe rating of 79.7, indicating that interactive VR can indeed induce awe. 43.8% of participants experienced goose bumps: awe ratings positively correlated with the occurrence of goose bumps with those who experienced goose bumps having showed significantly higher ratings of awe than those who did not. Most (64%) of the goose bumps occurred when participants self-selected their VR environment. Participant statements from the interviews were characteristic of an awe-inspiring experience, revealed themes of social connection, and usability problems with the VR interface. Personality traits yielded no clear correlation to awe ratings, and females appear to experience more goose bumps than males. In summary: (1) Interactive VR can elicit awe, especially within familiar, self-selected environments; (2) Physiological goose bumps can be recorded to provide reliable, non-intrusive indications of awe; (3) Care must be taken to design interaction interfaces that do not impede awe; and (4) While personality traits are not correlated to awe ratings, goose bumps were experienced more frequently among females. We aim to conduct future studies using custom VR environments, interfaces, and additional physiological measures to provide further insight into awe.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Directly Interactive Design Gallery Systems: Interaction Terms and Concepts

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Abstract: 

A human-computer interface interposes objects between a person and the underlying representation with which the person interacts. Previously, we introduced two interaction objects, alternatives and their collections in an interactive design gallery. We revisit the terms, refining their definitions, and introduce the explicit notion of a “view” to accommodate multiple references to the same alternative or collection in an interface. We outline fundamental interactions over alternative and collection views. Finally, we outline a special type of collection called the Parallel Coordinate View.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

[Re]Activating Mama Pina's Cookbook

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2017-07
Document type: 
Article
File(s):