Interactive Arts and Technology, School of (SIAT)

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The School of Interactive Arts and Technology, SIAT, is located at the Surrey campus of SFU. There are two subcollections in SIAT. Please see below.

A Review on Research and Evaluation Methods for Investigating Self-Transcendence

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-11-16
Abstract: 

Self-transcendence has been characterized as a decrease in self-saliency (ego disillusionment) and increased connection, and has been growing in research interest in the past decade. Several measures have been developed and published with some degree of psychometric validity and reliability. However, to date, there has been no review systematically describing, contrasting, and evaluating the different methodological approaches toward measuring self-transcendence including questionnaires, neurological and physiological measures, and qualitative methods. To address this gap, we conducted a review to describe existing methods of measuring self-transcendence, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of these methods, and discuss research avenues to advance assessment of self-transcendence, including recommendations for suitability of methods given research contexts.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Lean to Fly: Leaning-Based Embodied Flying can Improve Performance and User Experience in 3D Navigation

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-09-23
Abstract: 

When users in virtual reality cannot physically walk and self-motions are instead only visually simulated, spatial updating is often impaired. In this paper, we report on a study that investigated if HeadJoystick, an embodied leaning-based flying interface, could improve performance in a 3D navigational search task that relies on maintaining situational awareness and spatial updating in VR. We compared it to Gamepad, a standard flying interface. For both interfaces, participants were seated on a swivel chair and controlled simulated rotations by physically rotating. They either leaned (forward/backward, right/left, up/down) or used the Gamepad thumbsticks for simulated translation. In a gamified 3D navigational search task, participants had to find eight balls within 5 min. Those balls were hidden amongst 16 randomly positioned boxes in a dark environment devoid of any landmarks. Compared to the Gamepad, participants collected more balls using the HeadJoystick. It also minimized the distance travelled, motion sickness, and mental task demand. Moreover, the HeadJoystick was rated better in terms of ease of use, controllability, learnability, overall usability, and self-motion perception. However, participants rated HeadJoystick could be more physically fatiguing after a long use. Overall, participants felt more engaged with HeadJoystick, enjoyed it more, and preferred it. Together, this provides evidence that leaning-based interfaces like HeadJoystick can provide an affordable and effective alternative for flying in VR and potentially telepresence drones.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity, Music and Art Activities Preserved Cognitive Health in Older Adults: An Argument for Social Prescribing Solution

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-08-16
Abstract: 

Introduction: Rates of dementia are projected to increase over the coming years as global populations age. Without a treatment to slow the progression of dementia, many health policies are focusing on preventing dementia by slowing the rate of cognitive decline with age. However, it is unclear which lifestyle changes in old age meaningfully reduce the rate of cognitive decline associated with aging.

Objectives: Use existing, multi-year longitudinal health data to determine if engagement in a variety of different lifestyle activities can slow the rate of cognitive decline as older adults age.

Method: Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging was analyzed using a quasi-experimental, efficient matched-pair design inspired by the clinical trial methodology. Changes in short-term memory scores were assessed over a multi-year interval for groups who undertook one of 11 different lifestyle activities, compared to control groups matched across confounding socioeconomic and lifestyle factors.

Results: Two factors, moderate-intensity physical activity and learning activities, resulted in significant positive impact on cognitive function.

Conclusion: Our analysis brings cognitive benefit arguments in favor of two lifestyle activities, moderate-intensity physical activity and learning activities, while rejecting other factors advanced by the literature such as vigorous-intensity physical activity. Those findings justify and encourage the development of new lifestyle health programs by health authorities and bring forward the new health system solution, social prescribing.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Visual Analytics: A Method to Explore Natural Histories of Oral Epithelial Dysplasia

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-08-05
Abstract: 

Risk assessment and follow-up of oral potentially malignant disorders in patients with mild or moderate oral epithelial dysplasia is an ongoing challenge for improved oral cancer prevention. Part of the challenge is a lack of understanding of how observable features of such dysplasia, gathered as data by clinicians during follow-up, relate to underlying biological processes driving progression. Current research is at an exploratory phase where the precise questions to ask are not known. While traditional statistical and the newer machine learning and artificial intelligence methods are effective in well-defined problem spaces with large datasets, these are not the circumstances we face currently. We argue that the field is in need of exploratory methods that can better integrate clinical and scientific knowledge into analysis to iteratively generate viable hypotheses. In this perspective, we propose that visual analytics presents a set of methods well-suited to these needs. We illustrate how visual analytics excels at generating viable research hypotheses by describing our experiences using visual analytics to explore temporal shifts in the clinical presentation of epithelial dysplasia. Visual analytics complements existing methods and fulfills a critical and at-present neglected need in the formative stages of inquiry we are facing.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Examining Challenges to the Incorporation of End Users in the Design of Digital Health Interventions: Protocol for a Systematic Review

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-02-19
Abstract: 

Background: The process of designing a digital health intervention (DHI)—also referred to as mobile health or eHealth—spans needs assessments, technical functionality and feasibility, user satisfaction, effectiveness, impact, and value. These interventions are causing a rapid evolution in the landscape of health care. Multiple studies have shown their propensity to extend both the quality and reach of interventions. However, failure to improve DHI design is linked to failed uptake and health outcomes. This dilemma is further conflicted by the colliding backdrops of the digital and health industries, both of which approach, understand, and involve end users differently in the framing of a DHI.

Objective: The objective of this systematic review is to assess the challenges to incorporating end users in the design stage of digital health interventions, to identify key pain points, and to identify limitations and gaps for areas of future investigation.

Methods: The PRISMA-P (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols) checklist will be used to structure this protocol. A systematic search of the PsycINFO, PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus, and IEEE Xplore databases will be conducted. Additionally, the PerSPEcTiF guidelines for complex interventions will be consulted. Two reviewers will independently screen the titles and abstracts of the identified references and select studies according to the eligibility criteria. Any discrepancies will then be discussed and resolved. Two reviewers will independently extract and validate data from the included studies into a standardized form and conduct quality appraisal.

Results: As of February 2021, we have completed a preliminary literature search examining challenges to the incorporation of end users in the design stage of DHIs. Systematic searches, data extraction and analysis, and writing of the systematic review are expected to be completed by December 2021.

Conclusions: This systematic review aims to provide an effective summary of key pain points toward incorporating end users in DHIs. Results from this review will provide an evidence base for a better approach to end user involvement in the interest of improving efficacy and uptake of DHIs.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Alternative Presents for Dynamic Fabric

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-07-01
Abstract: 

In this paper we investigate how a combination of "speculative" design methods can be used to generate theoretical understandings for dynamic, colour-changing fabrics for garments. Specifically, we combine a first-person, autobiographical, research through design (RtD) approach that draws strategies from speculative design. We call this approach alternative presents, inspired by the work of James Auger, and explore it as a way to generate theoretical propositions for dynamic fabric that emphasize the lived experience over technological innovation. The contributions of this framing are twofold. Firstly, we offer a theoretical contribution to the literature on dynamic fabric. Secondly, we make a methodological contribution for how autobiographical design and RtD can be oriented speculatively to generate intermediate knowledge, with particular emphasis on social-technical aspects.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

ONEDAY Shoes: A Maker Toolkit to Understand the Role of Co-Manufacturing in Personalization

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-03-17
Abstract: 

Personalization of shoes is of increasing importance to designers, design researchers, and manufacturers as mass customization progresses towards ultra personalized product service systems. Many attempts have been made to design co-creation platforms that allow end users to personalize their own shoes. Those co-creation platforms primarily concentrate on color selection. This research takes a different approach and designs a toolkit for maker-oriented users to co-manufacture their own shoes. The toolkit was designed in different levels and deployed to makers via crowdsharing worldwide. Backers were surveyed before deployment and interviewed after two years to understand personalization over a larger amount of time with the research product. We find that users who have greater bespoke tools and materials in their toolkits are more likely to personalize their shoes while co-manufacturing. The research provides guidelines for researchers and designers creating toolkits, designing personalization product service systems/configurators and engaging in tangible bespoke processes.

Document type: 
Article

The Tilting Bowl: Electronic Design for a Research Product

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-06-25
Abstract: 

 

 The Tilting Bowl is a ceramic bowl that unpredictably but gently tilts multiple times daily. This pictorial reports on the crafting of the electronics of the Tilting Bowl within the concept of a research product [10]. From this perspective, the seemingly simple task of making a bowl tilt holds unique challenges and demands – especially as a research product that is deployed in everyday settings for lengthy periods of time. We highlight electronic design challenges that came up in three processes of making the Tilting Bowl: the tilting mechanism, hardware integration of electronics and power management. Lastly, we offer three suggestions for designing electronics for research products.

Document type: 
Article

Alternative Presents for Dynamic Fabric

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-07-03
Abstract: 

In this paper we investigate how a combination of "speculative" design methods can be used to generate theoretical understandings for dynamic, colour-changing fabrics for garments. Specifically, we combine a first-person, autobiographical, research through design (RtD) approach that draws strategies from speculative design. We call this approach alternative presents, inspired by the work of James Auger, and explore it as a way to generate theoretical propositions for dynamic fabric that emphasize the lived experience over technological innovation. The contributions of this framing are twofold. Firstly, we offer a theoretical contribution to the literature on dynamic fabric. Secondly, we make a methodological contribution for how autobiographical design and RtD can be oriented speculatively to generate intermediate knowledge, with particular emphasis on social-technical aspects.

Document type: 
Article

Slow, Unaware Things Beyond Interaction

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-07-19
Abstract: 

In this chapter we provide an overview of concepts and methods that have become part of our approach to gain a broader and deeper understanding of the relations between humans and technology. Over the years, our efforts have been to move past the field of interaction design’s dominant focus on human interaction with technology to develop a design-oriented understanding of human relations with technology. In our view, this begins by looking at technology beyond its functional, utilitarian, or instrumental value toward a broader set of perceptions and meanings. This theme is emblematic of a broader shift in interaction design and HCI. The first edition of this book contributed significantly to a trajectory in which designers and researchers see technology as a matter of experiences that are fun (Blythe and Hassenzahl in The semantics of fun: differentiating enjoyable experiences, 91–100, 2003), rich (Overbeeke et al. in Let’s make things engaging, 7–17, 2003), embodied (Dourish in Where the action is: the foundations of embodied interaction. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 2004), somaesthetic (Höök et al. in Proceedings of the 2016 CHI conference on human factors in computing systems. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2016), spatio-temporal (McCarthy and Wright in Technology as experience. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 2004), hedonic (Hassenzahl in The thing and i: understanding the relationship between user and product. 31–42, 2003), reflective (Sengers and Gaver in Proceedings of the 6th conference on designing interactive systems. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 99–108, 2006), and ludic (Gaver et al. in CHI’04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 885–900, 2004). However, understanding technology through more than solely a functional lens is only one part of more deeply viewing and inquiring into human-technology relations. We believe it is necessary to also understand people’s relations to technology beyond interaction and engineered experiences of technology. In the context of funology, we aim to critically and generatively contribute to the investigations of the experiences of technology to go beyond both instrumentalism and interaction. In many respects, interaction, like functionality, is too narrow of a lens for both understanding and influencing people’s experiences and relations to technology through design. Interaction is only one form of technology relations that happens explicitly, in present time, and consciously (Verbeek in What things do: philosophical reflections on technology, agency, and design. Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, University Park, Pa, 2015). What about relations to technology that manifest over time, incrementally, knowingly and unknowingly (or somewhere in between) that become part of our everyday lives?

Document type: 
Book chapter