Interactive Arts and Technology, School of (SIAT)

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The School of Interactive Arts and Technology, SIAT, is located at the Surrey campus of SFU. There are two subcollections in SIAT. Please see below.

Weaving Stories: Toward Repertoires for Designing Things

File(s): 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2022-05-03
Abstract: 

While much work is underway within the context of posthuman design, this research is often described from a dominantly human perspective. It rarely accounts for the creative capacities of nonhumans in design, such as materials, tools, and software. There is a need to further engage with posthuman theories conceptually, materially, and methodologically. We approach this challenge through Ron Wakkary’s concept of repertoires: actions the human designer can take to increase participation of nonhumans in design research practice. This paper reports on potential repertoires’ development by exploring three approaches from outside of HCI: describing the landscape, noticing, and translations. We use these methods to account for weaving events that the first author was engaged in. Through critical reflection of these accounts, we contribute three repertoires and an example of applying the theoretical framework of Designing Things.

Document type: 
Article

Iterating through Feeling-with Nonhuman Things: Exploring repertoires for design iteration in more-than-human design

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2022-05-03
Abstract: 

In this paper, we explore the notion of sympathy in the context of more-than-human design to include nonhuman participation in a design iteration process in an ongoing project named the Morse Things. We explore ways in which nonhuman agency, particularly breakage, can participate in an assembly of human and nonhuman designers. Motivated by Ron Wakkary’s theory of designing-with and the concept of repertoires, we propose feeling-with as a potential repertoire for increasing nonhuman participation before, during, and after the design process. Finally, we explore four instances of sympathy and how breakage as a nonhuman force can lead us to new design iterations to redesign the new set of Morse Things.

Document type: 
Article

Iterating through Feeling-with Nonhuman Things: Exploring repertoires for design iteration in more-than-human design

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2022-05-03
Abstract: 

In this paper, we explore the notion of sympathy in the context of more-than-human design to include nonhuman participation in a design iteration process in an ongoing project named the Morse Things. We explore ways in which nonhuman agency, particularly breakage, can participate in an assembly of human and nonhuman designers. Motivated by Ron Wakkary’s theory of designing-with and the concept of repertoires, we propose feeling-with as a potential repertoire for increasing nonhuman participation before, during, and after the design process. Finally, we explore four instances of sympathy and how breakage as a nonhuman force can lead us to new design iterations to redesign the new set of Morse Things.

Document type: 
Article

Investigating the Role of Having an Avatar in Virtual Reality on Pain Alleviation and Embodiment in Patients With Pain Using Electroencephalogram: A Neuroimaging Protocol

File(s): 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2022-01-10
Abstract: 

Chronic Pain (CP) is prevalent in industrialized countries and stands among the top 10 causes of disability. Given the widespread problems of pharmacological treatments such as opioids, a need to find alternative therapeutic approaches has emerged. Virtual Reality (VR) has shown potential as a non-pharmacological alternative for controlling pain over the past 20 years. The effectiveness of VR has been demonstrated in treating CP, and it has been suggested that VR’s analgesic effects may be associated with the Sense of Embodiment (SoE): the sensation of being inside, having and controlling a virtual body in VR. Studies have shown correlations among brain signals, reported pain and a SoE, and correlations have been observed between using an avatar in VR and pain alleviation among CP patients. However, little has been published about the changes in brain physiology associated with having an avatar in VR, and current published studies present methodological issues. Defining a proper methodology to investigate the underlying brain mechanisms of pain, a SoE associated with having an avatar in VR, and its effect on reducing pain in CP patients is key to the emerging field of VR-analgesia. Here, we propose an intervention trial design (test/intervention/test) to evaluate the effects of having a virtual avatar in VR on pain levels and SoE in CP patients using Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Resting-state EEG recordings, perceived pain levels, and SoE scores will be collected before and after the VR intervention. Patients diagnosed with CP will be recruited from local pain clinics and pseudo-randomly assigned to one of two groups—with or without an avatar. Patients will experience a 10-min VR intervention built to treat CP while their EEG signals are recorded. In articulating the study procedure, we propose a framework for future studies that explores the mechanisms of VR-analgesia in patients with chronic pain.

Document type: 
Article

Expressing Personality through Non-verbal Behaviour in Real-time Interaction

File(s): 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-11-26
Abstract: 

The attribution of traits plays an important role as a heuristic for how we interact with others. Many psychological models of personality are analytical in that they derive a classification from reported or hypothesised behaviour. In the work presented here, we follow the opposite approach: Our personality model generates behaviour that leads an observer to attribute personality characteristics to the actor. Concretely, the model controls all relevant aspects of non-verbal behaviour such as gaze, facial expression, gesture, and posture. The model, embodied in a virtual human, affords to realistically interact with participants in real-time. Conceptually, our model focuses on the two dimensions of extra/introversion and stability/neuroticism. In the model, personality parameters influence both, the internal affective state as well as the characteristic of the behaviour execution. Importantly, the parameters of the model are based on empirical findings in the behavioural sciences. To evaluate our model, we conducted two types of studies. Firstly, passive experiments where participants rated videos showing variants of behaviour driven by different personality parameter configurations. Secondly, presential experiments where participants interacted with the virtual human, playing rounds of the Rock-Paper-Scissors game. Our results show that the model is effective in conveying the impression of the personality of a virtual character to users. Embodying the model in an artificial social agent capable of real-time interactive behaviour is the only way to move from an analytical to a generative approach to understanding personality, and we believe that this methodology raises a host of novel research questions in the field of personality theory.

Document type: 
Article

A Review on Research and Evaluation Methods for Investigating Self-Transcendence

File(s): 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-11-16
Abstract: 

Self-transcendence has been characterized as a decrease in self-saliency (ego disillusionment) and increased connection, and has been growing in research interest in the past decade. Several measures have been developed and published with some degree of psychometric validity and reliability. However, to date, there has been no review systematically describing, contrasting, and evaluating the different methodological approaches toward measuring self-transcendence including questionnaires, neurological and physiological measures, and qualitative methods. To address this gap, we conducted a review to describe existing methods of measuring self-transcendence, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of these methods, and discuss research avenues to advance assessment of self-transcendence, including recommendations for suitability of methods given research contexts.

Document type: 
Article

Lean to Fly: Leaning-Based Embodied Flying can Improve Performance and User Experience in 3D Navigation

File(s): 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-09-23
Abstract: 

When users in virtual reality cannot physically walk and self-motions are instead only visually simulated, spatial updating is often impaired. In this paper, we report on a study that investigated if HeadJoystick, an embodied leaning-based flying interface, could improve performance in a 3D navigational search task that relies on maintaining situational awareness and spatial updating in VR. We compared it to Gamepad, a standard flying interface. For both interfaces, participants were seated on a swivel chair and controlled simulated rotations by physically rotating. They either leaned (forward/backward, right/left, up/down) or used the Gamepad thumbsticks for simulated translation. In a gamified 3D navigational search task, participants had to find eight balls within 5 min. Those balls were hidden amongst 16 randomly positioned boxes in a dark environment devoid of any landmarks. Compared to the Gamepad, participants collected more balls using the HeadJoystick. It also minimized the distance travelled, motion sickness, and mental task demand. Moreover, the HeadJoystick was rated better in terms of ease of use, controllability, learnability, overall usability, and self-motion perception. However, participants rated HeadJoystick could be more physically fatiguing after a long use. Overall, participants felt more engaged with HeadJoystick, enjoyed it more, and preferred it. Together, this provides evidence that leaning-based interfaces like HeadJoystick can provide an affordable and effective alternative for flying in VR and potentially telepresence drones.

Document type: 
Article

Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity, Music and Art Activities Preserved Cognitive Health in Older Adults: An Argument for Social Prescribing Solution

File(s): 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-08-16
Abstract: 

Introduction: Rates of dementia are projected to increase over the coming years as global populations age. Without a treatment to slow the progression of dementia, many health policies are focusing on preventing dementia by slowing the rate of cognitive decline with age. However, it is unclear which lifestyle changes in old age meaningfully reduce the rate of cognitive decline associated with aging.

Objectives: Use existing, multi-year longitudinal health data to determine if engagement in a variety of different lifestyle activities can slow the rate of cognitive decline as older adults age.

Method: Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging was analyzed using a quasi-experimental, efficient matched-pair design inspired by the clinical trial methodology. Changes in short-term memory scores were assessed over a multi-year interval for groups who undertook one of 11 different lifestyle activities, compared to control groups matched across confounding socioeconomic and lifestyle factors.

Results: Two factors, moderate-intensity physical activity and learning activities, resulted in significant positive impact on cognitive function.

Conclusion: Our analysis brings cognitive benefit arguments in favor of two lifestyle activities, moderate-intensity physical activity and learning activities, while rejecting other factors advanced by the literature such as vigorous-intensity physical activity. Those findings justify and encourage the development of new lifestyle health programs by health authorities and bring forward the new health system solution, social prescribing.

Document type: 
Article

Visual Analytics: A Method to Explore Natural Histories of Oral Epithelial Dysplasia

File(s): 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-08-05
Abstract: 

Risk assessment and follow-up of oral potentially malignant disorders in patients with mild or moderate oral epithelial dysplasia is an ongoing challenge for improved oral cancer prevention. Part of the challenge is a lack of understanding of how observable features of such dysplasia, gathered as data by clinicians during follow-up, relate to underlying biological processes driving progression. Current research is at an exploratory phase where the precise questions to ask are not known. While traditional statistical and the newer machine learning and artificial intelligence methods are effective in well-defined problem spaces with large datasets, these are not the circumstances we face currently. We argue that the field is in need of exploratory methods that can better integrate clinical and scientific knowledge into analysis to iteratively generate viable hypotheses. In this perspective, we propose that visual analytics presents a set of methods well-suited to these needs. We illustrate how visual analytics excels at generating viable research hypotheses by describing our experiences using visual analytics to explore temporal shifts in the clinical presentation of epithelial dysplasia. Visual analytics complements existing methods and fulfills a critical and at-present neglected need in the formative stages of inquiry we are facing.

Document type: 
Article

Examining Challenges to the Incorporation of End Users in the Design of Digital Health Interventions: Protocol for a Systematic Review

File(s): 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-02-19
Abstract: 

Background: The process of designing a digital health intervention (DHI)—also referred to as mobile health or eHealth—spans needs assessments, technical functionality and feasibility, user satisfaction, effectiveness, impact, and value. These interventions are causing a rapid evolution in the landscape of health care. Multiple studies have shown their propensity to extend both the quality and reach of interventions. However, failure to improve DHI design is linked to failed uptake and health outcomes. This dilemma is further conflicted by the colliding backdrops of the digital and health industries, both of which approach, understand, and involve end users differently in the framing of a DHI.

Objective: The objective of this systematic review is to assess the challenges to incorporating end users in the design stage of digital health interventions, to identify key pain points, and to identify limitations and gaps for areas of future investigation.

Methods: The PRISMA-P (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols) checklist will be used to structure this protocol. A systematic search of the PsycINFO, PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus, and IEEE Xplore databases will be conducted. Additionally, the PerSPEcTiF guidelines for complex interventions will be consulted. Two reviewers will independently screen the titles and abstracts of the identified references and select studies according to the eligibility criteria. Any discrepancies will then be discussed and resolved. Two reviewers will independently extract and validate data from the included studies into a standardized form and conduct quality appraisal.

Results: As of February 2021, we have completed a preliminary literature search examining challenges to the incorporation of end users in the design stage of DHIs. Systematic searches, data extraction and analysis, and writing of the systematic review are expected to be completed by December 2021.

Conclusions: This systematic review aims to provide an effective summary of key pain points toward incorporating end users in DHIs. Results from this review will provide an evidence base for a better approach to end user involvement in the interest of improving efficacy and uptake of DHIs.

Document type: 
Article