Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) in South Asia Addressing Current Gaps in AMR Surveillance and Monitoring

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Scholarly level: 
Graduate student (Masters)
Date created: 

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health security threat and the reliability of surveillance systems that provide accurate information is crucial. Through the use of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, the surveillance and monitoring process can provide a diagnosis of AMR within under-resourced settings in South Asia. A literature review within a scoping/narrative structure was conducted for this capstone in order to illustrate current deficiencies in AMR surveillance and monitoring for select countries in the South Asian region. This capstone project embraces the perspective that AMR surveillance is the first and most crucial step in illustrating the current burden and impact of this issue and informing change-inducing policies and interventions. The project is a global call to action on AMR surveillance in the developing world. It was found that there is a general lack of systematic data collection regarding AMR in the region, rendering it a neglected problem within many countries. The emergence of AMR in developing nations in South Asia is a symptom of substandard surveillance practices. Pathogens that are problematic in terms of resistance are not well represented through surveillance information. Resource-related constraints and sociocultural attitudes are also problematic in terms of antibiotic use. Antibiotic misuse/overuse are important determinants as they can create environmental pressure that causes resistant strains to emerge in both humans and animals. It is often difficult to measure AMR burden in developing countries, due to biases in reporting, testing methodologies, defective legislative practices, etc. The development of a global surveillance system that overarches local systems and increases coordination, cohesion, and comprehensiveness is recommended. The ultimate goal is to supplement the creation of a global strategy to mitigate AMR through the development of stronger surveillance systemsand collaborative networksaroundthe world. These approaches should aid with the creation of time-oriented, realistic, and visible change. The WHO report, in conjunction with this capstone project, is an important first step in highlighting the magnitude of the problem and moving towards addressing the visible gaps in AMR surveillance in South Asia and other resource-limited settings. The lack of evidence should fuel further examination of this issue and increased discussion within global health policy and practice.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
Copyright remains with the author.
Berry, Nicole