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Multimodal Characterization of the Semantic N400 Response within a Rapid Evaluation Brain Vital Sign Framework

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-06-04
Abstract: 

Background: For nearly four decades, the N400 has been an important brainwave marker of semantic processing. It can be recorded non-invasively from the scalp using electrical and/or magnetic sensors, but largely within the restricted domain of research laboratories specialized to run specifc N400 experiments. However, there is increasing evidence of signifcant clinical utility for the N400 in neurological evaluation, particularly at the individual level. To enable clinical applications, we recently reported a rapid evaluation framework known as “brain vital signs” that successfully incorporated the N400 response as one of the core components for cognitive function evaluation. The current study characterized the rapidly evoked N400 response to demonstrate that it shares consistent features with traditional N400 responses acquired in research laboratory settings—thereby enabling its translation into brain vital signs applications.

Methods: Data were collected from 17 healthy individuals using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), with analysis of sensor-level efects as well as evaluation of brain sources. Individual-level N400 responses were classifed using machine learning to determine the percentage of participants in whom the response was successfully detected.

Results: The N400 response was observed in both M/EEG modalities showing signifcant diferences to incongruent versus congruent condition in the expected time range (p<0.05). Also as expected, N400-related brain activity was observed in the temporal and inferior frontal cortical regions, with typical left-hemispheric asymmetry. Classifcation robustly confrmed the N400 efect at the individual level with high accuracy (89%), sensitivity (0.88) and specifcity (0.90).

Conclusion: The brain vital sign N400 characteristics were highly consistent with features of the previously reported N400 responses acquired using traditional laboratory-based experiments. These results provide important evidence supporting clinical translation of the rapidly acquired N400 response as a potential tool for assessments of higher cognitive functions.

Document type: 
Article
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Developing Brain Vital Signs: Initial Framework for Monitoring Brain Function Changes over Time

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2016-05-12
Abstract: 

Clinical assessment of brain function relies heavily on indirect behavior-based tests. Unfortunately, behavior-based assessments are subjective and therefore susceptible to several confounding factors. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), derived from electroencephalography (EEG), are often used to provide objective, physiological measures of brain function. Historically, ERPs have been characterized extensively within research settings, with limited but growing clinical applications. Over the past 20 years, we have developed clinical ERP applications for the evaluation of functional status following serious injury and/or disease. This work has identified an important gap: the need for a clinically accessible framework to evaluate ERP measures. Crucially, this enables baseline measures before brain dysfunction occurs, and might enable the routine collection of brain function metrics in the future much like blood pressure measures today. Here, we propose such a framework for extracting specific ERPs as potential “brain vital signs.” This framework enabled the translation/transformation of complex ERP data into accessible metrics of brain function for wider clinical utilization. To formalize the framework, three essential ERPs were selected as initial indicators: (1) the auditory N100 (Auditory sensation); (2) the auditory oddball P300 (Basic attention); and (3) the auditory speech processing N400 (Cognitive processing). First step validation was conducted on healthy younger and older adults (age range: 22–82 years). Results confirmed specific ERPs at the individual level (86.81–98.96%), verified predictable age-related differences (P300 latency delays in older adults, p < 0.05), and demonstrated successful linear transformation into the proposed brain vital sign (BVS) framework (basic attention latency sub-component of BVS framework reflects delays in older adults, p < 0.05). The findings represent an initial critical step in developing, extracting, and characterizing ERPs as vital signs, critical for subsequent evaluation of dysfunction in conditions like concussion and/or dementia.

Document type: 
Article
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De-sketching

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-06-22
Abstract: 

Many software applications exist for plotting graphs of mathematical functions, yet there are none (to our knowledge) that perform the inverse operation - estimating mathematical expressions from graphs. Since plotting graphs (especially by hand) is often referred to as "sketching," we refer to the inverse operation as "de-sketching." As the number of mathematical expressions that approximate a given curve can be quite large, in this demo we restrict our attention to polynomials, and present a deep model that performs de-sketching by finding the best second-degree polynomial to fit the curve in the input image. Currently, our trained model is able to provide reasonably accurate estimates of polynomial coefficients for both synthetically-generated and hand-drawn curves.

Document type: 
Conference presentation
File(s): 

DFTS: Deep Feature Transmission Simulator

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-06-22
Abstract: 

Collaborative intelligence is a deployment paradigm for deep AI models where some of the layers run on the mobile terminal or network edge, while others run in the cloud. In this scenario, features computed in the model need to be transferred between the edge and the cloud over an imperfect channel. Here we present a simulator to help study the effects of imperfect packet-based transmission of deep features. Our simulator is implemented in Keras and allows users to study the effects of both lossy packet transmission and quantization on the accuracy.

Document type: 
Conference presentation
File(s): 

An Improved Theoretical Process-Zone Model for Delayed Hydride Cracking Initiation at a Blunt V-Notch

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-01-30
Abstract: 

Delayed hydride cracking (DHC) is an important concern for pressure tubes used in nuclear reactors.  In this paper, an improved analytical process-zone model is developed based on the deformation fracture criteria. A V-notch with rounded root, which is widely adopted in mechanical testing of DHC, is considered and the proposed model includes the effect of both notch angle and tip radius. Comparisons with experiments show that the proposed model has a prediction accuracy closer to the current engineering process-zone model but with slightly less conservatism. The model is extended to account for plasticity and constraint effects at the flaw tip by introducing an empirical factor that depends on key material and geometric parameters.

Document type: 
Article

Atomic-Scale Finite Element Modelling of Mechanical Behaviour of Graphene Nanoribbons

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-02-09
Abstract: 

Experimental characterization of Graphene NanoRibbons (GNRs) is still an expensive task and computational simulations are therefore seen a practical option to study the properties and mechanical response of GNRs. Design of GNR in various nanotechnology devices can be approached through molecular dynamics simulations. This study demonstrates that the Atomic–scale Finite Element Method (AFEM) based on the second generation REBO potential is an efficient and accurate alternative to the molecular dynamics simulation of GNRs. Special atomic finite elements are proposed to model graphene edges. Extensive comparisons are presented with MD solutions to establish the accuracy of AFEM. It is also shown that the Tersoff potential is not accurate for GNR modeling. The study demonstrates the influence of chirality and size on design parameters such as tensile strength and stiffness. A GNR is stronger and stiffer in the zigzag direction compared to the armchair direction. Armchair GNRs shows a minor dependence of tensile strength and elastic modulus on size whereas in the case of zigzag GNRs both modulus and strength show a significant size dependency. The size-dependency trend noted in the present study is different from the previously reported MD solutions for GNRs but qualitatively agrees with experimental results. Based on the present study, AFEM can be considered a highly efficient computational tool for analysis and design of GNRs.

Document type: 
Article

Spontaneous Blinks Activate the Precuneus: Characterizing Blink-Related Oscillations Using Magnetoencephalography

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2017-09-26
Abstract: 

Spontaneous blinking occurs 15–20 times per minute. Although blinking has often been associated with its physiological role of corneal lubrication, there is now increasing behavioral evidence suggesting that blinks are also modulated by cognitive processes such as attention and information processing. Recent low-density electroencephalography (EEG) studies have reported so-called blink-related oscillations (BROs) associated with spontaneous blinking at rest. Delta-band (0.5–4 Hz) BROs are thought to originate from the precuneus region involved in environmental monitoring and awareness, with potential clinical utility in evaluation of disorders of consciousness. However, the neural mechanisms of BROs have not been elucidated. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we characterized delta-band BROs in 36 healthy individuals while controlling for background brain activity. Results showed that, compared to pre-blink baseline, delta-band BROs resulted in increased global field power (p < 0.001) and time-frequency spectral power (p < 0.05) at the sensor level, peaking at ∼250 ms post-blink maximum. Source localization showed that spontaneous blinks activated the bilateral precuneus (p < 0.05 FWE), and source activity within the precuneus was also consistent with sensor-space results. Crucially, these effects were only observed in the blink condition and were absent in the control condition, demonstrating that results were due to spontaneous blinks rather than as part of the inherent brain activity. The current study represents the first MEG examination of BROs. Our findings suggest that spontaneous blinks activate the precuneus regions consistent with environmental monitoring and awareness, and provide important neuroimaging support for the cognitive role of spontaneous blinks.

Document type: 
Article
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Joint Source-Channel Coding of JPEG 2000 Image Transmission Over Two-Way Multi-Relay Networks

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2017-04
Abstract: 

In this paper, we develop a two-way multi-relay scheme for JPEG 2000 image transmission. We adopt a modified time-division broadcast (TDBC) cooperative protocol, and derive its power allocation and relay selection under a fairness constraint. The symbol error probability of the optimal system configuration is then derived. After that, a joint source-channel coding (JSCC) problem is formulated to find the optimal number of JPEG 2000 quality layers for the image and the number of channel coding packets for each JPEG 2000 codeblock that can minimize the reconstructed image distortion for the two users, subject to a rate constraint. Two fast algorithms based on dynamic programming (DP) and branch and bound (BB) are then developed. Simulation demonstrates that the proposed JSCC scheme achieves better performance and lower complexity than other similar transmission systems.

Document type: 
Article
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Load Disaggregation Based on Aided Linear Integer Programming

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2016
Abstract: 

Load disaggregation based on aided linear integer programming (ALIP) is proposed. We start with a conventional linear integer programming (IP) based disaggregation and enhance it in several ways. The enhancements include additional constraints, correction based on a state diagram, median filtering, and linear programming-based refinement. With the aid of these enhancements, the performance of IP-based disaggregation is significantly improved. The proposed ALIP system relies only on the instantaneous load samples instead of waveform signatures, and hence works well on low-frequency data. Experimental results show that the proposed ALIP system performs better than conventional IP-based load disaggregation.

Document type: 
Article
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Online MoCap Data Coding with Bit Allocation, Rate Control, and Motion-Adaptive Post-Processing

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2017-01
Abstract: 

With the advancements in methods for capturing 3D object motion, motion capture (MoCap) data are starting to be used beyond their traditional realm of animation and gaming in areas such as the arts, rehabilitation, automotive industry, remote interactions, and so on. As the amount of MoCap data increases, compression becomes crucial for further expansion and adoption of these technologies. In this paper, we extend our previous work on low-delay MoCap data compression by introducing two improvements. The first improvement is the bit allocation to long-term and short-term reference MoCap frames, which provides a 10-15% reduction in coded bitrate at the same quality. The second improvement is the post-processing in the form of motion-adaptive temporal low-pass filtering, which is able to provide another 9-13%savings in the bitrate. The experimental results also indicate that the proposed online MoCap codec is competitive with several state-of-the-art offline codecs. Overall, the proposed techniques integrate into a highly effective online MoCap codec that is suitable for low-delay applications, whose implementation is provided alongside this paper to aid further research in the field.

Document type: 
Article
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