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Respiratory Capacity Is Twice as Important as Temperature in Explaining Patterns of Metabolic Rate Across the Vertebrate Tree of Life

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-05-05
Abstract: 

Metabolic rate underlies a wide range of phenomena from cellular dynamics to ecosystem structure and function. Models seeking to statistically explain variation in metabolic rate across vertebrates are largely based on body size and temperature. Unexpectedly, these models overlook variation in the size of gills and lungs that acquire the oxygen needed to fuel aerobic processes. Here, we assess the importance of respiratory surface area in explaining patterns of metabolic rate across the vertebrate tree of life using a novel phylogenetic Bayesian multilevel modeling framework coupled with a species-paired dataset of metabolic rate and respiratory surface area. We reveal that respiratory surface area explains twice as much variation in metabolic rate, compared to temperature, across the vertebrate tree of life. Understanding the combination of oxygen acquisition and transport provides opportunity to understand the evolutionary history of metabolic rate and improve models that quantify the impacts of climate change.

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Article
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Predicting the Effects of Reservoir Water Level Management on the Reproductive Output of a Riparian Songbird

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-02-22
Abstract: 

Dams and reservoirs alter natural water flow regimes with adverse effects on natural ecosystems. Quantifying and reducing these effects are important as global demands for energy and water, and the number of dams and reservoir, increase. However, costs and logistic constraints typically preclude experimental assessment of reservoir effects on the environment. We developed a stochastic individual-based model (IBM), parameterized using empirical data, to estimate the annual productivity of yellow warblers that breed in riparian habitat within the footprint of the Arrow Lakes Reservoir in British Columbia, Canada. The IBM incorporated information on breeding phenology, nest site selection, brood parasitism, daily nest survival, re-nesting probabilities and post-fledging survival. We used the IBM to estimate the effect of four different water management scenarios on annual productivity. We found that the IBM accurately estimated average nest success (0.39 ± 0.10 SD), the proportion of females that produced at least one fledgling during a breeding season (0.56 ± 0.11), and annual fledging success (2.06 ± 0.43) under current conditions. The IBM estimated that reservoir operations currently reduce the annual productivity of this population by 37%, from an average of 1.62 to 1.06 independent young/female. Delaying when reservoir water levels reach 435m asl (the minimum elevation occupied by yellow warblers) by approximately 2 weeks was predicted to increase annual productivity to 1.44 independent young/female. The standardized effect on annual productivity of reducing the maximum elevation of the reservoir so that yellow warbler habitat is not inundated (Cohen’s d = 1.52) or delaying when water is stored (Cohen’s d = 0.83) was primarily driven by inundation effects on post-fledging survival. Reservoir operation effects on breeding birds will be species specific, but this IBM can easily be modified to allow the environmental impacts on the entire breeding bird community to be incorporated into water management decisions.

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Article
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OsARF11 Promotes Growth, Meristem, Seed, and Vein Formation during Rice Plant Development

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-04-15
Abstract: 

The plant hormone auxin acts as a mediator providing positional instructions in a range of developmental processes. Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana L. show that auxin acts in large part via activation of Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) that in turn regulate the expression of downstream genes. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) gene OsARF11 is of interest because of its expression in developing rice organs and its high sequence similarity with MONOPTEROS/ARF5, a gene with prominent roles in A. thaliana development. We have assessed the phenotype of homozygous insertion mutants in the OsARF11 gene and found that in relation to wildtype, osarf11 seedlings produced fewer and shorter roots as well as shorter and less wide leaves. Leaves developed fewer veins and larger areoles. Mature osarf11 plants had a reduced root system, fewer branches per panicle, fewer grains per panicle and fewer filled seeds. Mutants had a reduced sensitivity to auxin-mediated callus formation and inhibition of root elongation, and phenylboronic acid (PBA)-mediated inhibition of vein formation. Taken together, our results implicate OsARF11 in auxin-mediated growth of multiple organs and leaf veins. OsARF11 also appears to play a central role in the formation of lateral root, panicle branch, and grain meristems.

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Article
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Cognitive Empathy as Imagination: Evidence From Reading the Mind in the Eyes in Autism and Schizotypy

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-04-01
Abstract: 

How is cognitive empathy related to sociality, imagination, and other psychological constructs? How is it altered in disorders of human social cognition? We leveraged a large data set (1,168 students, 62% female) on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RMET), the Autism Quotient (AQ), and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-BR) to test the hypotheses that the RMET, as a metric of cognitive empathy, reflects mainly social abilities, imagination, or both. RMET showed the expected female bias in performance, though only for eyes that expressed emotions and not for neutral expressions. RMET performance was significantly, and more strongly, associated with the AQ and SPQ subscales that reflect aspects of imagination (AQ-Imagination and SPQ-Magical Ideation) than aspects of social abilities (AQ-Social, AQ-Communication, and SPQ-Interpersonal subscales). These results were confirmed with multiple regression analysis, which also implicated increased attention (AQ-Attention Switching and, marginally non-significantly, AQ-Attention to Detail) in RMET performance. The two imagination-related correlates of RMET performance also show the strongest sex biases for the AQ and SPQ: male biased in AQ-Imagination, and female biased in SPQ-Magical Ideation, with small to medium effect sizes. Taken together, these findings suggest that cognitive empathy, as quantified by the RMET, centrally involves imagination, which is underdeveloped (with a male bias) on the autism spectrum and overdeveloped (with a female bias) on the schizotypy spectrum, with optimal emotion-recognition performance intermediate between the two. The results, in conjunction with previous studies, implicate a combination of optimal imagination and focused attention in enhanced RMET performance.

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How Is Quantification of Social Deficits Useful for Studying Autism and Schizophrenia?

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-11-22
Document type: 
Article
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Telomere Dynamics From Hatching to Sexual Maturity and the Multivariate Egg

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-12-15
Abstract: 

Avian eggs contain a large number of molecules deposited by the mother that provide the embryo with energy but also potentially influence its development via the effects of maternally derived hormones and antibodies: the avian egg is thus ‘multivariate’. Multivariate effects on offspring phenotype were evaluated in a study on captive zebra finches, by simultaneously manipulating maternally derived antibodies (MAb) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of mothers and injection of testosterone into the egg yolk. LPS treatment had a positive effect on body mass growth at 30 days after hatching and immune response at sexual maturity, while egg testosterone treatment positively influenced immune response at fledging and courtship behaviour in sexually mature male offspring. Maternal effects are known to modulate offspring telomere length (TL). However, the multivariate effects of egg-derived maternal components on offspring telomere dynamics from hatching to sexual maturity are undefined. Here, we tested: (1) the effects of LPS and testosterone treatments on TL from hatching to sexual maturity (day 82); (2) how LPS treatment modulated TL over reproduction in adult females; and (3) the relationship between maternal and offspring TL. We predicted that TL would be shorter in LPS fledglings (as a cost of faster growth) and that TL would be longer in sexually mature adults after yolk testosterone treatment (as a proxy of individual quality). In adult females, there was an overall negative relationship between laying and rearing investments and TL, this relationship was weaker in LPS-treated females. In chicks, there was an overall negative effect of LPS treatment on TL measured at fledging and sexual maturity (day 25–82). In addition, at fledging, there was a Sex×LPS×Testosterone interaction, suggesting the existence of antagonistic effects of our treatments. Our data partially support the hypothesis that telomeres are proxies of individual quality and that individual differences in TL are established very early in life.

Document type: 
Article

Oxidative Status and Telomere Length Are Related to Somatic and Physiological Maturation in Chicks of European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris)

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-10-15
Abstract: 

Telomere length can be considered as an indicator of an organism's somatic state, long telomeres reflecting higher energy investment in self-maintenance. Early-life is a period of intense investment in somatic growth and in physiological maturation but how this is reflected in telomere length remains unclear. Using European starling chicks we tested: (i) how telomere length measured at asymptotic mass is related to proxies of somatic growth and physiological maturity in 17-day-old nestlings; (ii) how telomere length measured at 17 days then predicts the changes in somatic and physiological maturity occurring in fledglings (between 17 and 21 days); (iii) how growth and telomere length co-vary when chicks are under experimentally good (fed) growth conditions. Depending on environmental conditions, our data suggest links between somatic growth, physiological maturation and body maintenance parameters (positive with oxidative stress and negative with telomere length) in nestlings. Telomere length measured at day 17 predicted a subsequent change in physiological maturation variables observed in fledglings, but only in second-brood chicks: chicks with shorter telomeres had a higher pre-fledging rate of increase in haematocrit and haemoglobin content and a greater decrease in reticulocyte count. Finally, food supplementation of chicks did not change telomere length compared with that in control siblings. Our results suggest that physiological maturation prior to fledging may occur at the expense of telomere length but only when environmental conditions are sub-optimal.

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Article
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Plasticity in Diurnal Activity and Temporal Phenotype During Parental Care in European Starlings, Sturnus Vulgaris

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-12-04
Abstract: 

We used an automated radiotelemetry system to determine diurnal patterns of activity and temporal phenotype (onset and cessation of activity) in female European starlings during breeding. Parental care is thought to be the most ‘costly’ part of reproduction, with high rates of intense activity due to foraging and provisioning for chicks, so we predicted that variation in timing of activity should be closely related to breeding success. Diurnal variation in activity varied systematically with breeding stage in a way consistent with specific demands of each phase of parental care: incubating females were more active late in the day (1600–1800 hours), while chick-rearing females were more active early in the morning (0700–1100 hours). There was marked individual variation in timing of onset, and to a lesser extent cessation, of activity, e.g. chick-rearing females first became active 7–127 min after morning civil twilight, with low to moderate repeatability within and among breeding stages (individual explained 2–62% of total variation). On average, females were active later, and ceased being active earlier, during chick rearing compared with incubation. Chick-rearing birds had a longer active day, but only by 2.3% (36% of the seasonal increase in total available daylength). Thus, chick-rearing females were relatively less active (‘lazier’), which is consistent with the idea that parents work more efficiently rather than simply working harder. We found little evidence that chick-rearing activity was associated with variation in measures of current reproduction (provisioning rate, number and quality of chicks), future fecundity (initiating a second brood, cumulative 2-year productivity) or survival (local return rate). Our study demonstrates that time-keeping mechanisms show plasticity in response to reproductive state and can be modulated by ‘biotic’ (e.g. prey availability) or ‘social’ time (demands of parental care).

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Article
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Are There Synergistic or Antagonistic Effects of Multiple Maternally Derived Egg Components on Offspring Phenotype?

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2019-04-24
Abstract: 

Eggs are ‘multivariate’ in that they contain multiple maternally-derived egg components (e.g. hormones, antibodies, mRNA, antioxidants) which are thought to influence offspring phenotype. However, most studies have focused on single egg components (most often yolk testosterone, or corticosterone), and on short-term effects. Here we simultaneously manipulated two egg components, maternally-derived antibodies (MAb) and yolk testosterone to assess potential synergistic or antagonistic effects on offspring phenotype from hatching to sexual maturity. We used lipopolysaccharide treatment to generate a secondary immune response in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), which produced clutches of eggs with high (LPS-treated) or low (control) MAb. We then used a split design manipulating yolk testosterone within clutches of high- and low-MAb eggs using in ovo egg injection. We investigated a) short-term effects of experimental manipulation of both egg components at 30 days post-hatching on chick growth and immune function at fledging, and b) long-term effects at sexual maturity (> 90 days post-hatching) on phenotypic quality of i/ males (sons) using standardise mating trials (courtship, song rate, etc); ii/ females (daughters) by measuring reproductive traits during breeding (egg size, clutch size etc), and iii/ cell-mediated and humoral immunity in both sexes.

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Article
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Nectar-Dwelling Microbes of Common Tansy Are Attractive to Its Mosquito Pollinator, Culex pipiens L.

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-02-16
Abstract: 

Background:  There is widespread interkingdom signalling between insects and microbes. For example, microbes found in floral nectar may modify its nutritional composition and produce odorants that alter the floral odor bouquet which may attract insect pollinators. Mosquitoes consume nectar and can pollinate flowers. We identified microbes isolated from nectar of common tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, elucidated the microbial odorants, and tested their ability to attract the common house mosquito, Culex pipiens.

Results:  We collected 19 microbial isolates from T. vulgare nectar, representing at least 12 different taxa which we identified with 16S or 26S rDNA sequencing as well as by biochemical and physiological tests. Three microorganisms (Lachancea thermotolerans, Micrococcus lactis, Micrococcus luteus) were grown on culture medium and tested in bioassays. Only the yeast L. thermotolerans grown on nectar, malt extract agar, or in synthetic nectar broth significantly attracted Cx. pipiens females. The odorant profile produced by L. thermotolerans varied with the nutritional composition of the culture medium. All three microbes grown separately, but presented concurrently, attracted fewer Cx. pipiens females than L. thermotolerans by itself.

Conclusions:  Floral nectar of T. vulgare contains various microbes whose odorants contribute to the odor profile of inflorescences. In addition, L. thermotolerans produced odorants that attract Cx. pipiens females. As the odor profile of L. thermotolerans varied with the composition of the culture medium, we hypothesize that microbe odorants inform nectar-foraging mosquitoes about the availability of certain macro-nutrients which, in turn, affect foraging decisions by mosquitoes.

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