Health Sciences Capstone Projects

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Risk Factors Associated with Mental Health Problems in Expectant and New Fathers: A Critical Literature Review

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2017-09-18
Abstract: 

Background: Current research indicates that expectant and new fathers with mental health problems can be less attentive and nurturing toward their children and their partner. These behaviours can negatively affect child wellbeing and development, spousal relations, and family functioning. Yet relatively little is known about paternal mental health risks. Methods: To identify risk factors associated with paternal mental health problems, prenatal and postnatal, a critical literature review was undertaken of observational studies published in English-language academic journals between 2012 and 2017. CINAHL, Education Source, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO were searched; 552 studies were initially identified and screened; 52 were assessed in detail; and 12 met inclusion criteria.

Findings: Methodologically, the quality of the 12 included studies varied and included both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches, as well as a randomized controlled trial, in samples ranging in size and representativeness. Potential risk factors associated with paternal prenatal mental health problems included adverse childhood experiences and childbirth fear. A number of potential risk factors emerged from the literature assessing paternal postnatal mental health problems, including: low relationship quality; employment and income concerns; and, past and current mental health problems. Discussion: As noted by other authors, more prospective longitudinal studies are needed to better identify risk and protective factors associated with paternal prenatal and postnatal mental health. Additionally, previous authors have noted that a shared understanding of how to evaluate risk factors is needed to advance research such as this. Methodologically, strategies are also needed to reduce attrition among study participants in longitudinal studies and in randomized controlled trials, especially among men with mental health problems, a problem noted in several of the studies reviewed here. Future studies would also benefit from larger, randomly selected, and more representative sample populations.

There may nevertheless be policy and practice implications, based on the literature to date. For example, interventions such as asking about relationship quality in maternal mental health screening could help to identify male partners who may be experiencing mental health challenges. Based on the quality of the data, it is premature to recommend more extensive policy and practice interventions until more research is conducted.

Conclusions: The policy, practice and research communities, as well as Canadians in general, need to better understand and address paternal mental health – an underappreciated public health problem which can greatly affect child and family wellbeing.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Charlotte Waddell
Department: 
Faculty of Health Sciences

Cannabis Impairment in the Workplace: A Jurisdictional Analysis of Drug Testing Policies and Recommendations in the Context of Canadian Legalization and Regulation

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2017-08-18
Abstract: 

Cannabis impairment can affect safety in the workplace. However, the proposed Cannabis Act does not include a framework for cannabis impairment in the workplace, as workplace health and safety in Canada is a provincial jurisdiction for most industries. In British Columbia, workplace health and safety is regulated by the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (OHSR) under the Workers Compensation Act (WCA). Part 4 – General Conditions of the OHSR contains regulations for impairment in the workplace in sections 4.19 and 4.208,9. These regulations emphasize the employee’s duty to report any impairment that could put their own safety or that of other workers at risk, and the employer/supervisor’s responsibility to not knowingly permit a person who is impaired and may endanger themselves or others to remain at the workplace.

However, the presence of these regulations does not necessarily translate into the risk of cannabis impairment in the workplace being reduced in practice. The implementation of this policy approach relies on individuals having to report use of a drug which has historically been criminalized, and may continue to face stigmatization even after legalization occurs. Additionally, cannabis impairment is more complex than other impairing substances such as alcohol, and may not be well enough understood by workers or employers for them to identify when an individual’s cannabis use may affect their safety at work. While objective drug testing based on analysis of bodily fluids is a growing field of research in the context of driving and workplace impairment, the methods for detecting cannabis impairment are still being developed, and the use of the wrong methods have the consequence of punishing individuals for nonproblematic cannabis use rather than the act of performing an activity such as driving or working while impaired.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 

Exploring the Phenomenon of Premature Aging in People with Disability

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project

Best Practices and Policies to Strengthen the Human Security of Displaced Syrian Women and Girls

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project

Best Practices and Policies to Strengthen the Human Security of Displaced Syrian Women and Girls

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project

Bridging the Gap to Strongest Families in British Columbia, Canada

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project

Bridging the Gap to Strongest Families in British Columbia, Canada

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project

Breastfeeding Experiences of Immigrant Women in Canada: Paths to Improvement

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project