Health Sciences, Faculty of

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International Organization and Health/Disease

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2010
Document type: 
Book chapter

The 2011 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework: Global Health Secured or a Missed Opportunity?

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2011
Abstract: 

In early 2007 the Indonesian government announced that it would cease sharing H5N1 influenza virus samples with the World Health Organization (WHO)’s Global Influenza Surveillance Network.  At the heart of the government’s complaint was the fact that samples were being passed by the WHO to pharmaceutical companies that developed, and patented, influenza vaccines that the Indonesian authorities could not purchase.  The decision gained widespread support among advocates of greater equity of access to medicines, and in response, the WHO established an intergovernmental process to agree a framework for influenza virus-sharing. The process officially concluded in April 2011 and a new Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework (PIPF) was agreed at the 64th World Health Assembly in May 2011. This paper investigates the events that prompted the re-examination of a technical cooperation system that has provided effective global health security on influenza for sixty years, and evaluates the framework that has now been agreed. Drawing the distinction between functional and moral-political benefits, the paper argues that PIPF more accurately represents a diplomatic standoff – one that has now been effectively sidelined with the passage of the agreement – rather than genuine reform. In fact, the PIPF papers over fundamental disagreements regarding authority in global health governance, the relationship between the WHO and governments, and the role of private industry. The paper concludes by examining an alternative mechanism that would arguably better address the inherent tensions between national and collective interests, and achieve the functional and moral-political benefits that the negotiations set out to achieve.

 

 

 

Document type: 
Article

The Trade and Health Imperative: Managing the Pursuit of Health and Wealth

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2008
Document type: 
Article

Corporate Power and Social Policy: The Political Economy of the Transnational Tobacco Companies

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2009
Abstract: 

Drawing on published tobacco document research and related sources, this articleapplies Farnsworth and Holden’s conceptual framework for the analysis of corporatepower and corporate involvement in social policy (2006) to the transnational tobaccocompanies (TTCs). An assessment is made of TTCs’ structural power, the impactupon their structural position of tobacco control (TC) policies, and their use of agencypower. The analysis suggests that, as a result of the growth of TC policies from the1950s onwards, TTCs have had to rely on political agency to pursue their interestsand attempt to reassert their structural position. The collapse of the Eastern bloc andthe liberalisation of East Asian economies presented new structural opportunities forTTCs in the 1980s and 1990s, but the development of globally coordinated TCpolicies facilitated by the World Health Organisation’s Framework Convention onTobacco Control has the potential to constrain these.

Document type: 
Article

Civil Society Organizations and the Functions of Global Health Governance: What Role within Intergovernmental Organizations?

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2010
Abstract: 

Amid discussion of how global health governance should and could be strengthened, the potential role of civil society organizations has been frequently raised. This paper considers the role of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in four health governance instruments under the auspices of the World Health Organization – the International Code on the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Health Regulations and Codex Alimentarius - and maps the functions they have contributed to. The paper draws conclusions about the opportunities and limitations CSOs represent for strengthening global health governance (GHG).

Document type: 
Article

Bridging the Divide: The Global Governance of Trade and Health

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2009
Abstract: 

The main institutions responsible for governing international trade and health, theWorld Health Organization and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT),replaced by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995, were established after theSecond World War. The two domains largely operated separately for many decadeswithin their respective domains. The growth and expansion of world trade over thepast half century amid economic globalisation, and the increased importance of healthissues to the functioning of a more interconnected world, brings the two domainscloser together on a broad range of issues. This has given rise to a number ofinstitutional challenges. Foremost is the capacity of these institutions to govern theirdomains effectively, not only in carrying out their functional roles, but ensuring goodgovernance. Where trade and health issues come together, how well do existinginstitutions work together? Fundamental questions have been raised on both counts.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Brazil’s Ascendance: The Soft Power Role of Global Health Diplomacy

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2011
Document type: 
Article

What is ‘Global Health Diplomacy'? A Conceptual Review

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2011
Abstract: 

While global health diplomacy (GHD) has attracted growing attention, accompanied by hopes of its potential to progress global health and/or foreign policy goals, the concept remains imprecise.  This paper finds the term has largely been used normatively to describe its expected purpose rather than distinct features.  This paper distinguishes between traditional and “new diplomacy”, with the latter defined by its global context, diverse actors and innovative processes.  A more concise definition of GHG supports the development of a research agenda for strengthening the evidence base in this rapidly evolving area.

Document type: 
Article