Education, Faculty of

Receive updates for this collection

A test of the somnolent mentation theory and the cognitive shuffle insomnia treatment

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2015-07-23
Abstract: 

Insomnia affects about 33% of Americans according to Harvey & Tang (2003) who called for new cognitive treatments. We will report preliminary results from a test of (a) the Somnolent Mentation theory (SMT) of sleep onset (SO) and (b) a new cognitive treatment for insomnia, the cognitive shuffle (CS), derived from the SMT (Beaudoin, 2013, 2014). According to SMT, incoherent mentation characteristic of SO is not merely a side-effect of the SO period but promotes it, meaning it is somnolent. The SMT identifies several types of insomnolent mentation, which involve sense making (e.g., problem solving). SMT postulates counter-insomnolent mentation, thought patterns that interfere with insomnolent mentation. The CS is predicted to be both somnolent and counter-insomnolent (super-somnolent). Participants either engage in constructive worry Carney & Waters (2006) or in the CS using SomnoTest an iOS app developed by CogSci Apps Corp. (led by Beaudoin) based on mySleepButton®. 

Document type: 
Conference presentation

Mending Broken Hearts: Specification for a productive practice app to assess and improve psychological treatments for romantic grief and other tertiary emotions

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2015-06-29
Abstract: 

The poster below summarizes the theory, purpose and requirements (intended functionality) of an iOS® app ("RFB") being designed to help users (1) regulate a specific emotion (romantic grief), (2) instill some of the mindware[1] of acceptance and commitment (Hayes, Strosahl & Wilson, 2011), and (3) better understand and regulate their affective states after their romantic grief is resolved. The design applies principles of meta-effectiveness theory (Beaudoin, 2015a). We intend RFB also to help researchers develop and experimentally contrast emotion regulation treatments for romantic grief and other forms of perturbance (Beaudoin, 1994) by using productive practice and other components of meta-effectiveness. Other objectives are listed in the poster below.

Document type: 
Article

Meta-effectiveness, Effectance, Mindware and Other Key Concepts for Understanding the Development of Adult Competence

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2015-05-27
Abstract: 

This article presents a list of concepts that are importants for understanding adult development of competence  (including "learning to learn") but that have not received sufficient attention in the literature on self-regulated learning.

Document type: 
Article

An Educational Video to Promote Multi-Factorial Approaches For Fall and Injury Prevention in Long-Term Care Facilities

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2014
Abstract: 

Background

Older adults living in long term care (LTC) settings are vulnerable to fall-related injuries. There is a need to develop and implement evidence-based approaches to address fall injury prevention in LTC. Knowledge translation (KT) interventions to support the uptake of evidence-based approaches to fall injury prevention in LTC need to be responsive to the learning needs of LTC staff and use mediums, such as videos, that are accessible and easy-to-use. This article describes the development of two unique educational videos to promote fall injury prevention in long-term care (LTC) settings. These videos are unique from other fall prevention videos in that they include video footage of real life falls captured in the LTC setting.

Methods

Two educational videos were developed (2012–2013) to support the uptake of findings from a study exploring the causes of falls based on video footage captured in LTC facilities. The videos were developed by: (1) conducting learning needs assessment in LTC settings via six focus groups (2) liaising with LTC settings to identify learning priorities through unstructured conversations; and (3) aligning the content with principles of adult learning theory.

Results

The videos included footage of falls, interviews with older adults and fall injury prevention experts. The videos present evidence-based fall injury prevention recommendations aligned to the needs of LTC staff and: (1) highlight recommendations deemed by LTC staff as most urgent (learner-centered learning); (2) highlight negative impacts of falls on older adults (encourage meaning-making); and, (3) prompt LTC staff to reflect on fall injury prevention practices (encourage critical reflection).

Conclusions

Educational videos are an important tool available to researchers seeking to translate evidence-based recommendations into LTC settings. Additional research is needed to determine their impact on practice.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Living Arrangement and Life Satisfaction in Older Malaysians: The Mediating Role of Social Support Function

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2012
Abstract: 

Background

This cross-sectional and correlational survey examines the association between different types of living arrangements and life satisfaction in older Malaysians, while taking into account the mediating effects of social support function.

Methodology and Findings

A total of 1880 of older adults were selected by multistage stratified sampling. Life satisfaction and social support were measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale and Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. The result shows living with children as the commonest type of living arrangement for older adults in peninsular Malaysia. Compared to living alone, living only with a spouse especially and then co-residency with children were both associated with better life satisfaction (p<.01) and social support function (p<.01). The mediating effect of social support function enhanced the relation between living arrangements and life satisfaction.

Conclusion

This study revealed that types of living arrangement directly, and indirectly through social support function, play an important role in predicting life satisfaction for older adults in Malaysia. This study makes remarkable contributions to the Convoy model in older Malaysians.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Harm Reduction Services as A Point-Of-Entry to and Source of End-Of-Life Care and Support for Homeless and Marginally Housed Persons Who Use Alcohol and/or Illicit Drugs: A Qualitative Analysis

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2012
Abstract: 

Background

Homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs often have end-of-life care needs that go unmet due to barriers that they face to accessing end-of-life care services. Many homeless and marginally housed persons who use these substances must therefore rely upon alternate sources of end-of-life care and support. This article explores the role of harm reduction services in end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs.

Methods

A qualitative case study design was used to explore end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons in six Canadian cities. A key objective was to explore the role of harm reduction services. 54 health and social services professionals participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. All participants reported that they provided care and support to this population at end-of-life.

Results

Harm reduction services (e.g., syringe exchange programs, managed alcohol programs, etc.) were identified as a critical point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Where possible, harm reduction services facilitated referrals to end-of-life care services for this population. Harm reduction services also provided end-of-life care and support when members of this population were unable or unwilling to access end-of-life care services, thereby improving quality-of-life and increasing self-determination regarding place-of-death.

Conclusions

While partnerships between harm reduction programs and end-of-life care services are identified as one way to improve access, it is noted that more comprehensive harm reduction services might be needed in end-of-life care settings if they are to engage this underserved population.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Recommendations for Improving the End-Of-Life Care System for Homeless Populations: A Qualitative Study of the Views of Canadian Health and Social Services Professionals

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2012
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND:Homeless populations have complex and diverse end-of-life care needs. However, they typically die outside of the end-of-life care system. To date, few studies have explored barriers to the end-of-life care system for homeless populations. This qualitative study involving health and social services professionals from across Canada sought to identify barriers to the end-of-life care system for homeless populations and generate recommendations to improve their access to end-of-life care.METHODS:Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 54 health and social services professionals involved in end-of-life care services delivery to homeless persons in six Canadian cities (Halifax, Hamilton, Ottawa, Thunder Bay, Toronto and Winnipeg). Participants included health administrators, physicians, nurses, social workers, harm reduction specialists, and outreach workers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically.RESULTS:Participants identified key barriers to end-of-life care services for homeless persons, including: (1) insufficient availability of end-of-life care services; (2) exclusionary operating procedures; and, (3) poor continuity of care. Participants identified recommendations that they felt had the potential to minimize these barriers, including: (1) adopting low-threshold strategies (e.g. flexible behavioural policies and harm reduction strategies); (2) linking with population-specific health and social care providers (e.g. emergency shelters); and, (3) strengthening population-specific training.CONCLUSIONS:Homeless persons may be underserved by the end-of-life care system as a result of barriers that they face to accessing end-of-life care services. Changes in the rules and regulations that reflect the health needs and circumstances of homeless persons and measures to improve continuity of care have the potential to increase equity in the end-of-life care system for this underserved population.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

The possibility of super-somnolent mentation: A new information-processing approach to sleep-onset acceleration and insomnia exemplified by serial diverse imagining

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2013-03-31
Abstract: 

This paper proposes a new conceptual framework and techniques for sleep-onset acceleration: the somnolent mentation framework. It distinguishes between somnolent, asomnolent and insomnolent mentation. Somnolent mentation inherently accelerates sleep onset (SO). Insomnolent mentation (e.g., deliberating, ruminating or focusing on one’s arousal) interferes with SO. Deliberate mentation approaches to insomnia attempt to influence the participant’s mentation at SO. They may prescribe somnolent or counter-insomnolent mentation. Existing deliberate mentation approaches attempt mainly to counter insomnolent mentation (e.g., thought control through imagery distraction). Thus they are at best counter-insomnolent. Super-somnolent mentation is both somnolent and counter-insomnolent. Extended SO (E-SO) is defined as the period just before SO (P-SO) combined with SO. A scientific challenge is to correctly classify features of mentation as somnolent, asomnolent and insomnolent. This classification should be done both from a phenomena-based perspective—e.g., the empirical study of E-SO mentation— and from a designer-based perspective (in terms of a theory of the architecture of the human mind). This paper proposes a secondary hypothesis: the E-SO mentation emulation hypothesis. To emulate somnolent features of P-SO mentation is somnolent. This paper proposes also that some types of incoherent mentation are super-somnolent. 

This paper presents no new empirical data. However, from the new conjectures, several predictions can be derived, new treatments developed, and new possibilities investigated. From the incoherent mentation principle the serial diverse imagining (SDI) family of techniques is derived. From this and related considerations SDI is expected to be super-somnolent.

Department: 
Education

Harm Reduction Services as a Point-of-Entry to and Source of End-of-Life Care and Support for Homeless and Marginally Housed Persons who Use Alcohol and/or Illicit Drugs: A Qualitative Analysis

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2012
Abstract: 

Background: Homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs often have end-of-lifecare needs that go unmet due to barriers that they face to accessing end-of-life care services. Many homeless andmarginally housed persons who use these substances must therefore rely upon alternate sources of end-of-life careand support. This article explores the role of harm reduction services in end-of-life care services delivery tohomeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs.Methods: A qualitative case study design was used to explore end-of-life care services delivery to homeless andmarginally housed persons in six Canadian cities. A key objective was to explore the role of harm reduction services.54 health and social services professionals participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. All participantsreported that they provided care and support to this population at end-of-life.Results: Harm reduction services (e.g., syringe exchange programs, managed alcohol programs, etc.) were identifiedas a critical point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housedpersons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Where possible, harm reduction services facilitated referrals toend-of-life care services for this population. Harm reduction services also provided end-of-life care and supportwhen members of this population were unable or unwilling to access end-of-life care services, thereby improvingquality-of-life and increasing self-determination regarding place-of-death.Conclusions: While partnerships between harm reduction programs and end-of-life care services are identified asone way to improve access, it is noted that more comprehensive harm reduction services might be needed inend-of-life care settings if they are to engage this underserved population.

Document type: 
Article

A Computational Investigation of the Evolution of Vision

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1990
Abstract: 

The computational syntax and terminology proposed by Lamontagne(1987) were used to investigate the problem of the phylogenesis of visual perception. In particular, an attempt was made to specify Lamontagne's principle of adjacency. This principle states that a relevant natural mutation will cause an offshoot to have one or more levels of informational grouping than its parents, where each specific group contains units of information which are adjacent, along one or many continua, to the pivotal unit of that group. A number of assumptions were proposed to constrain the investigation space. Among them was the pairwise-grouping hypothesis, a hypothesis belonging to the set of possible instances of the adjacency principle. This hypothesis states that any formal epistemic entity of level n--that is, n:EE--receives input only from pairs of (n-1):EEs. Given a two amplitude retinal domain, the assumptions were found to predict offspring capable of detecting line segments and some of their orientations. With a multiamplitude retinal domain, however, the pairwise-grouping hypothesis and the general principle of adjacency were found to have difficulty in accounting for smooth contrast detection. Formal neural network solutions were proposed to overcome that and related difficulties.