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After 60 Years, Do The Arguments For K-12 Vouchers Still Hold?

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2016-04-15
Abstract: 

In 1955, Milton Friedman authored a foundational paper proposing a shift in funding and governance mechanisms for public K-12   schools, suggesting that parents be awarded tuition vouchers that they could use to pay for private sector education services for their children, rather than relying   on   government   provided   neighborhood   schools.   Friedman theorized three cases in which such a system might fail, requiring greater involvement of the government in the education system: the presence of a natural monopoly; substantial neighborhood effects; and a breakdown in free exchange. This article examines these concerns by applying more than 25 years of school choice research in an attempt to answer the question, “After 60 years, do the arguments for K-12 vouchers still hold?” Findings cited in this article suggest that Friedman was correct to be concerned about possible deleterious effects that may arise from a privatized system.

Document type: 
Article

The Potential of Simulation for Teacher Assessment

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2015
Abstract: 

A teacher’s classroom skills, attitudes, and behaviours are fundamental to excellent teaching. Assessing these qualities is a logistically difficult, costly, and at times, controversial task for teacher educators and school administrators. As a result, teacher hiring and subsequent professional development rely on indirect indicators that provide only limited evidence of a teacher’s potential, strengths, and areas for improvement. Simulation techniques have been used as training and feedback tools for many years in occupations where live practice is dangerous, costly, or difficult to organize. Today’s technologies are making simulations practical in new domains. In teaching they can provide practice settings, performance data, and feedback aimed at evaluating and improving a wide range of skills. Drawing from experience in medical and health education, this chapter outlines the potential for simulations to support both teacher hiring and in-service skills development, in order to support teaching excellence with new tools in the future.

Document type: 
Book chapter
File(s): 

A proposal for a study of motive processing

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1991-10-01
Abstract: 

In this paper we discuss some of the essential features and context of human motive processing, and we characterize some of the state transitions of motives. We then describe in detail a domain for designing an agent exhibiting some of these features. Recent related work is briefly reviewed to demonstrate the need for extending theories to account for the complexities of motive processing described here.

Document type: 
Technical Report
Department: 
Computer Science

Cognitive Productivity: Can Cognitive Science Improve How Knowledge Workers Use IT to Learn from Source Material?

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Abstract: 

Society depends on knowledge workers (KWs) to identify, characterize and propose solutions to the many significant challenges it faces. KWs contend with ever changing information technology (IT) and bemoan "information overload." They commonly consult literature (e.g., Allen, 2001) and use productivity software that, regrettably, fail to leverage key findings in cognitive science. Can cognitive science help KWs process information and learn with technology? Yes, provided we directly address their problems. We present the Cognitive Productivity Research Project (Beaudoin, 2014) which is: characterizing information processing (IP) challenges KWs face (e.g., cognitive illusions, missing concepts and learning strategies); exploring gaps in cognitive science, including under-explored concepts (e.g., meta-effectiveness, monitors) and phenomena (e.g., KWs' self-regulated learning when using IT tools to draw on source material); marshaling an IP architecture and principles to address these issues; and proposing practical IP strategies for KWs that emphasize meta-documentation and productive practice.

A test of the somnolent mentation theory and the cognitive shuffle insomnia treatment

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2015-07-23
Abstract: 

Insomnia affects about 33% of Americans according to Harvey & Tang (2003) who called for new cognitive treatments. We will report preliminary results from a test of (a) the Somnolent Mentation theory (SMT) of sleep onset (SO) and (b) a new cognitive treatment for insomnia, the cognitive shuffle (CS), derived from the SMT (Beaudoin, 2013, 2014). According to SMT, incoherent mentation characteristic of SO is not merely a side-effect of the SO period but promotes it, meaning it is somnolent. The SMT identifies several types of insomnolent mentation, which involve sense making (e.g., problem solving). SMT postulates counter-insomnolent mentation, thought patterns that interfere with insomnolent mentation. The CS is predicted to be both somnolent and counter-insomnolent (super-somnolent). Participants either engage in constructive worry Carney & Waters (2006) or in the CS using SomnoTest an iOS app developed by CogSci Apps Corp. (led by Beaudoin) based on mySleepButton®. 

Document type: 
Conference presentation

Mending Broken Hearts: Specification for a productive practice app to assess and improve psychological treatments for romantic grief and other tertiary emotions

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2015-06-29
Abstract: 

The poster below summarizes the theory, purpose and requirements (intended functionality) of an iOS® app ("RFB") being designed to help users (1) regulate a specific emotion (romantic grief), (2) instill some of the mindware[1] of acceptance and commitment (Hayes, Strosahl & Wilson, 2011), and (3) better understand and regulate their affective states after their romantic grief is resolved. The design applies principles of meta-effectiveness theory (Beaudoin, 2015a). We intend RFB also to help researchers develop and experimentally contrast emotion regulation treatments for romantic grief and other forms of perturbance (Beaudoin, 1994) by using productive practice and other components of meta-effectiveness. Other objectives are listed in the poster below.

Document type: 
Article

Meta-effectiveness, Effectance, Mindware and Other Key Concepts for Understanding the Development of Adult Competence

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2015-05-27
Abstract: 

This article presents a list of concepts that are importants for understanding adult development of competence  (including "learning to learn") but that have not received sufficient attention in the literature on self-regulated learning.

Document type: 
Article

An Educational Video to Promote Multi-Factorial Approaches For Fall and Injury Prevention in Long-Term Care Facilities

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2014
Abstract: 

Background

Older adults living in long term care (LTC) settings are vulnerable to fall-related injuries. There is a need to develop and implement evidence-based approaches to address fall injury prevention in LTC. Knowledge translation (KT) interventions to support the uptake of evidence-based approaches to fall injury prevention in LTC need to be responsive to the learning needs of LTC staff and use mediums, such as videos, that are accessible and easy-to-use. This article describes the development of two unique educational videos to promote fall injury prevention in long-term care (LTC) settings. These videos are unique from other fall prevention videos in that they include video footage of real life falls captured in the LTC setting.

Methods

Two educational videos were developed (2012–2013) to support the uptake of findings from a study exploring the causes of falls based on video footage captured in LTC facilities. The videos were developed by: (1) conducting learning needs assessment in LTC settings via six focus groups (2) liaising with LTC settings to identify learning priorities through unstructured conversations; and (3) aligning the content with principles of adult learning theory.

Results

The videos included footage of falls, interviews with older adults and fall injury prevention experts. The videos present evidence-based fall injury prevention recommendations aligned to the needs of LTC staff and: (1) highlight recommendations deemed by LTC staff as most urgent (learner-centered learning); (2) highlight negative impacts of falls on older adults (encourage meaning-making); and, (3) prompt LTC staff to reflect on fall injury prevention practices (encourage critical reflection).

Conclusions

Educational videos are an important tool available to researchers seeking to translate evidence-based recommendations into LTC settings. Additional research is needed to determine their impact on practice.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Living Arrangement and Life Satisfaction in Older Malaysians: The Mediating Role of Social Support Function

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2012
Abstract: 

Background

This cross-sectional and correlational survey examines the association between different types of living arrangements and life satisfaction in older Malaysians, while taking into account the mediating effects of social support function.

Methodology and Findings

A total of 1880 of older adults were selected by multistage stratified sampling. Life satisfaction and social support were measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale and Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. The result shows living with children as the commonest type of living arrangement for older adults in peninsular Malaysia. Compared to living alone, living only with a spouse especially and then co-residency with children were both associated with better life satisfaction (p<.01) and social support function (p<.01). The mediating effect of social support function enhanced the relation between living arrangements and life satisfaction.

Conclusion

This study revealed that types of living arrangement directly, and indirectly through social support function, play an important role in predicting life satisfaction for older adults in Malaysia. This study makes remarkable contributions to the Convoy model in older Malaysians.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Harm Reduction Services as A Point-Of-Entry to and Source of End-Of-Life Care and Support for Homeless and Marginally Housed Persons Who Use Alcohol and/or Illicit Drugs: A Qualitative Analysis

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2012
Abstract: 

Background

Homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs often have end-of-life care needs that go unmet due to barriers that they face to accessing end-of-life care services. Many homeless and marginally housed persons who use these substances must therefore rely upon alternate sources of end-of-life care and support. This article explores the role of harm reduction services in end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs.

Methods

A qualitative case study design was used to explore end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons in six Canadian cities. A key objective was to explore the role of harm reduction services. 54 health and social services professionals participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. All participants reported that they provided care and support to this population at end-of-life.

Results

Harm reduction services (e.g., syringe exchange programs, managed alcohol programs, etc.) were identified as a critical point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Where possible, harm reduction services facilitated referrals to end-of-life care services for this population. Harm reduction services also provided end-of-life care and support when members of this population were unable or unwilling to access end-of-life care services, thereby improving quality-of-life and increasing self-determination regarding place-of-death.

Conclusions

While partnerships between harm reduction programs and end-of-life care services are identified as one way to improve access, it is noted that more comprehensive harm reduction services might be needed in end-of-life care settings if they are to engage this underserved population.

Document type: 
Article
File(s):