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Living Arrangement and Life Satisfaction in Older Malaysians: The Mediating Role of Social Support Function

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2012
Abstract: 

Background

This cross-sectional and correlational survey examines the association between different types of living arrangements and life satisfaction in older Malaysians, while taking into account the mediating effects of social support function.

Methodology and Findings

A total of 1880 of older adults were selected by multistage stratified sampling. Life satisfaction and social support were measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale and Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. The result shows living with children as the commonest type of living arrangement for older adults in peninsular Malaysia. Compared to living alone, living only with a spouse especially and then co-residency with children were both associated with better life satisfaction (p<.01) and social support function (p<.01). The mediating effect of social support function enhanced the relation between living arrangements and life satisfaction.

Conclusion

This study revealed that types of living arrangement directly, and indirectly through social support function, play an important role in predicting life satisfaction for older adults in Malaysia. This study makes remarkable contributions to the Convoy model in older Malaysians.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Harm Reduction Services as A Point-Of-Entry to and Source of End-Of-Life Care and Support for Homeless and Marginally Housed Persons Who Use Alcohol and/or Illicit Drugs: A Qualitative Analysis

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2012
Abstract: 

Background

Homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs often have end-of-life care needs that go unmet due to barriers that they face to accessing end-of-life care services. Many homeless and marginally housed persons who use these substances must therefore rely upon alternate sources of end-of-life care and support. This article explores the role of harm reduction services in end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs.

Methods

A qualitative case study design was used to explore end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons in six Canadian cities. A key objective was to explore the role of harm reduction services. 54 health and social services professionals participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. All participants reported that they provided care and support to this population at end-of-life.

Results

Harm reduction services (e.g., syringe exchange programs, managed alcohol programs, etc.) were identified as a critical point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Where possible, harm reduction services facilitated referrals to end-of-life care services for this population. Harm reduction services also provided end-of-life care and support when members of this population were unable or unwilling to access end-of-life care services, thereby improving quality-of-life and increasing self-determination regarding place-of-death.

Conclusions

While partnerships between harm reduction programs and end-of-life care services are identified as one way to improve access, it is noted that more comprehensive harm reduction services might be needed in end-of-life care settings if they are to engage this underserved population.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Recommendations for Improving the End-Of-Life Care System for Homeless Populations: A Qualitative Study of the Views of Canadian Health and Social Services Professionals

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2012
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND:Homeless populations have complex and diverse end-of-life care needs. However, they typically die outside of the end-of-life care system. To date, few studies have explored barriers to the end-of-life care system for homeless populations. This qualitative study involving health and social services professionals from across Canada sought to identify barriers to the end-of-life care system for homeless populations and generate recommendations to improve their access to end-of-life care.METHODS:Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 54 health and social services professionals involved in end-of-life care services delivery to homeless persons in six Canadian cities (Halifax, Hamilton, Ottawa, Thunder Bay, Toronto and Winnipeg). Participants included health administrators, physicians, nurses, social workers, harm reduction specialists, and outreach workers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically.RESULTS:Participants identified key barriers to end-of-life care services for homeless persons, including: (1) insufficient availability of end-of-life care services; (2) exclusionary operating procedures; and, (3) poor continuity of care. Participants identified recommendations that they felt had the potential to minimize these barriers, including: (1) adopting low-threshold strategies (e.g. flexible behavioural policies and harm reduction strategies); (2) linking with population-specific health and social care providers (e.g. emergency shelters); and, (3) strengthening population-specific training.CONCLUSIONS:Homeless persons may be underserved by the end-of-life care system as a result of barriers that they face to accessing end-of-life care services. Changes in the rules and regulations that reflect the health needs and circumstances of homeless persons and measures to improve continuity of care have the potential to increase equity in the end-of-life care system for this underserved population.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

The possibility of super-somnolent mentation: A new information-processing approach to sleep-onset acceleration and insomnia exemplified by serial diverse imagining

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2013-03-31
Abstract: 

This paper proposes a new conceptual framework and techniques for sleep-onset acceleration: the somnolent mentation framework. It distinguishes between somnolent, asomnolent and insomnolent mentation. Somnolent mentation inherently accelerates sleep onset (SO). Insomnolent mentation (e.g., deliberating, ruminating or focusing on one’s arousal) interferes with SO. Deliberate mentation approaches to insomnia attempt to influence the participant’s mentation at SO. They may prescribe somnolent or counter-insomnolent mentation. Existing deliberate mentation approaches attempt mainly to counter insomnolent mentation (e.g., thought control through imagery distraction). Thus they are at best counter-insomnolent. Super-somnolent mentation is both somnolent and counter-insomnolent. Extended SO (E-SO) is defined as the period just before SO (P-SO) combined with SO. A scientific challenge is to correctly classify features of mentation as somnolent, asomnolent and insomnolent. This classification should be done both from a phenomena-based perspective—e.g., the empirical study of E-SO mentation— and from a designer-based perspective (in terms of a theory of the architecture of the human mind). This paper proposes a secondary hypothesis: the E-SO mentation emulation hypothesis. To emulate somnolent features of P-SO mentation is somnolent. This paper proposes also that some types of incoherent mentation are super-somnolent. 

This paper presents no new empirical data. However, from the new conjectures, several predictions can be derived, new treatments developed, and new possibilities investigated. From the incoherent mentation principle the serial diverse imagining (SDI) family of techniques is derived. From this and related considerations SDI is expected to be super-somnolent.

Department: 
Education

Harm Reduction Services as a Point-of-Entry to and Source of End-of-Life Care and Support for Homeless and Marginally Housed Persons who Use Alcohol and/or Illicit Drugs: A Qualitative Analysis

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2012
Abstract: 

Background: Homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs often have end-of-lifecare needs that go unmet due to barriers that they face to accessing end-of-life care services. Many homeless andmarginally housed persons who use these substances must therefore rely upon alternate sources of end-of-life careand support. This article explores the role of harm reduction services in end-of-life care services delivery tohomeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs.Methods: A qualitative case study design was used to explore end-of-life care services delivery to homeless andmarginally housed persons in six Canadian cities. A key objective was to explore the role of harm reduction services.54 health and social services professionals participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. All participantsreported that they provided care and support to this population at end-of-life.Results: Harm reduction services (e.g., syringe exchange programs, managed alcohol programs, etc.) were identifiedas a critical point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housedpersons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Where possible, harm reduction services facilitated referrals toend-of-life care services for this population. Harm reduction services also provided end-of-life care and supportwhen members of this population were unable or unwilling to access end-of-life care services, thereby improvingquality-of-life and increasing self-determination regarding place-of-death.Conclusions: While partnerships between harm reduction programs and end-of-life care services are identified asone way to improve access, it is noted that more comprehensive harm reduction services might be needed inend-of-life care settings if they are to engage this underserved population.

Document type: 
Article

A Computational Investigation of the Evolution of Vision

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1990
Abstract: 

The computational syntax and terminology proposed by Lamontagne(1987) were used to investigate the problem of the phylogenesis of visual perception. In particular, an attempt was made to specify Lamontagne's principle of adjacency. This principle states that a relevant natural mutation will cause an offshoot to have one or more levels of informational grouping than its parents, where each specific group contains units of information which are adjacent, along one or many continua, to the pivotal unit of that group. A number of assumptions were proposed to constrain the investigation space. Among them was the pairwise-grouping hypothesis, a hypothesis belonging to the set of possible instances of the adjacency principle. This hypothesis states that any formal epistemic entity of level n--that is, n:EE--receives input only from pairs of (n-1):EEs. Given a two amplitude retinal domain, the assumptions were found to predict offspring capable of detecting line segments and some of their orientations. With a multiamplitude retinal domain, however, the pairwise-grouping hypothesis and the general principle of adjacency were found to have difficulty in accounting for smooth contrast detection. Formal neural network solutions were proposed to overcome that and related difficulties.

Public Virtual World Gaming in Asia: Preparatory Fieldwork for Site Selection, Protocol Testing and Research Instrument Development

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2011-01-31
Abstract: 

Provides an overview of the fieldwork conducted as a background for fact finding, reconnaissance, and refinement of logistics in local contexts for the LAN gaming studies. The inclusion of different cultures and peoples in these contacts were designed to provide alternative forms of observation regarding public/private behaviour, according to varying environmental and situational constraints. The goal of the study was oriented around tool and protocol development and exploration of conditions, constraints, and best prospects for field sites for VERUS LAN studies. The field research was conducted in order to further: a) test the research protocols (tools and methods) for the LAN studies in specific Asian and Middle Eastern media ecologies, giving a rough sketch of what virtual world gaming looks like in various parts of the world; b) develop and hone the field research instruments for the purposes of the VERUS project; c) touch upon themes encountered in this iteration of fieldwork; d) inform future iterations of this fieldwork.

Document type: 
Technical Report

The Eyes Have It: Measuring Spatial Orientation in Virtual Worlds to Explain Gender Differences in Real Ones

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2010-06-21
Abstract: 

Here, we explore how 3D, networked
virtual worlds - in particular Second Life, which enables users to create and modify their own
environments - can act as a kind of 'virtual' laboratory for studying gender difference. By
tracking users' eye movements as they navigate a virtual rendition of the Morris Water
Maze (the 'gold standard' for measuring gender difference in spatial orientation, navigation
and mobility), this work constitutes an empirical basis for claims that we have attempted to
make in the context of ethnographic work with female and male video game players, both
novice and expert: that mastery of, and the ability to competently navigate through space,
both real and virtual, is as much (if not more) learned and acquired, as it inheres in the
bodies and brains of differently-sexed subjects.

Document type: 
Technical Report