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Body Segment Differences in Surface Area, Skin Temperature and 3D Displacement and the Estimation of Heat Balance during Locomotion in Hominins

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2008-06
Abstract: 

The conventional method of estimating heat balance during locomotion in humans and other hominins treats the body as an undifferentiated mass. This is problematic because the segments of the body differ with respect to several variables that can affect thermoregulation. Here, we report a study that investigated the impact on heat balance during locomotion of inter-segment differences in three of these variables: surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. The approach adopted in the study was to generate heat balance estimates with the conventional method and then compare them with heat balance estimates generated with a method that takes into account inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. We reasoned that, if the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement affect heat balance during locomotion is correct, the estimates yielded by the two methods should be statistically significantly different. Anthropometric data were collected on seven adult male volunteers. The volunteers then walked on a treadmill at 1.2 m/s while 3D motion capture cameras recorded their movements. Next, the conventional and segmented methods were used to estimate the volunteers' heat balance while walking in four ambient temperatures. Lastly, the estimates produced with the two methods were compared with the paired t-test. The estimates of heat balance during locomotion yielded by the two methods are significantly different. Those yielded by the segmented method are significantly lower than those produced by the conventional method. Accordingly, the study supports the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement impact heat balance during locomotion. This has important implications not only for current understanding of heat balance during locomotion in hominins but also for how future research on this topic should be approached.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Tools and change: The shift from atlatl to bow on the British Columbia plateau

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2009
Abstract: 

This thesis presents analyses focused on determining the function of projectile points from the Plateau Cultural area of British Columbia, including use of Shott’s (1997) method designed to classify projectile points as either atlatl darts or arrows. A total of 1065 projectile points recovered from archaeological contexts throughout the Plateau, spanning the Middle through Late Prehistoric periods, were examined. While Nesikep, Lochnore and Lehman style points were classified primarily as dart points and the Kamloops horizon points predominantly as arrow points, Shuswap and Plateau horizon groups were identified as containing points from both systems. This suggests that the two technologies coexisted for many hundreds of years and that the bow and arrow was in use on the Plateau much earlier than previously believed. A discussion of the implications of this and possible factors that influenced and affected people’s decision to choose one projectile system over the other is included.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
K
Department: 
Dept. of Archaeology - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.A.)

Pointing it out: fluted projectile point distributions and early human populations in Saskatchewan

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2009
Abstract: 

This study investigates early Paleo-Indian expansion into Saskatchewan as reflected by the distribution of fluted projectile points compared to Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene environmental changes. With an assemblage consisting solely of fluted point surface finds, this study consists of a geographic distribution analysis. An initial study of Saskatchewan’s fluted projectile points, conducted in 1966 by Tom Kehoe, made use of information from the then known database, consisting of a mere 36 artifacts. The current study examines the modern database of 78 specimens and discusses the distributions of the three separate types of fluted points found in Saskatchewan and the validity of applying terms (Clovis, Folsom, and Northwestern) derived outside the province to them. Not only does Saskatchewan’s assemblage reflect distributional differences between each fluted point type as a result of late Pleistocene/early Holocene environmental changes, but it shows typological similarities to assemblages elsewhere and changes in a time progressive manner.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
K
Department: 
Dept. of Archaeology - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.A.)

Material life and socio-cultural transformation among Asian transmigrants at a Fraser River salmon cannery

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2009
Abstract: 

This study is a comparison of the material lives of first generation Chinese labourers and Japanese fishermen at a salmon cannery along the Fraser River in British Columbia, ca. 1900-1930. The objective is to explore the nature of cultural persistence and change among migrant groups using a contextual approach that incorporates multiple data sources, considerations of structure and agency, and local and international scales of analysis. Analysis and interpretation are framed within a perspective rooted in the study of material consumption and the twin concepts of transnationalism and diaspora. Data used in this study are derived from archaeological excavation of ethnically segregated work camps at the Ewen Cannery, in combination with archival sources, historical research, and excavation results from similar sites in Western North America. Particular emphasis is on subsets of the archaeological data relating to dining and beverage consumption, with additional consideration of dress and other domestic and work habits. Results indicate Japanese fishermen combined traditional meals with meals comprised wholly or in part of Western-style foods, whereas Chinese cannery workers favoured traditional meals almost exclusively. The Chinese site is also characterized by a lack of diversity in the ceramic assemblage. Both groups, however, consumed a variety of locally produced alcoholic beverages and those imported from Europe and Asia. These behaviours are linked to contrasting patterns of labour contracting at each camp in conjunction with processes of Westernization in the homeland. Evidence suggests unique patterns of continuity and change for Chinese and Japanese workers at the Ewen Cannery that include significant parallels and contrasts. These patterns are rooted in local circumstances and ongoing relations with a homeland that was itself a source of both static memory and dynamic transformation. The significance of this research is both empirical and theoretical. It represents the first systematic attempt to compare archaeological assemblages associated with Chinese and Japanese migrants, and is to date the most in-depth archaeological study of first generation Japanese in North America outside of a relocation centre context. Finally, it presents an interpretive framework applicable to comparative studies of other migrant groups.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
R
Department: 
Dept. of Archaeology - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (Ph.D.)

The zooarchaeology of great house sites in the San Juan Basin of the American Southwest

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2008
Abstract: 

This dissertation considers animal remains from great houses in the San Juan Basin of the American Southwest. The archaeofauna from an outlying great house, Albert Porter Pueblo in the central Mesa Verde region, occupied between Pueblo II and III (A.D. 1020-1280), indicates that turkey increased in importance over time compared to cottontails. Artiodactyls are not common in the assemblage, suggesting continuous hunting pressure on large game. Only subtle differences were noted between faunas from the great house when compared to residential units. Most notably, turkeys are more common in the great house during all time periods compared to surrounding residences. Ritual animals were located in all contexts, suggesting that everyone in the settlement had access to ceremonies. The mounds from Pueblo Bonito, a great house in Chaco Canyon dating to Pueblo II (A.D. 1050-1105) were recently re-excavated by reopening Neil Judd’s excavations from the 1920s. The fauna from the mounds is dominated by cottontails. The frequency of deer in the assemblage is similar to other Classic Bonito faunas from Chaco Canyon. The overall composition of the fauna is similar to other great houses and small sites within Chaco Canyon. Most of the artiodactyl remains are from young animals, a pattern that is consistent with intensive hunting. A regional overview of faunas dating from Basketmaker II to Pueblo III (A.D. 1-1300) indicates that cottontails increased over time, whereas artiodactyls decline. Turkey became important in the northern San Juan Basin during Pueblo III. A number of processes resulted in variations in animal usage over time. Highly prized artiodactyls were intensively hunted as human populations grew over time. Some taxa are associated with particular environments. For example, conditions in the northern San Juan Basin favour cottontails and turkeys, whereas in the drier southern portions, jackrabbits are more common. Economic and ritual usage of animals at great houses in the San Juan Basin was similar to that at contemporaneous settlements. No evidence was found to contradict the interpretation that farming communities in the San Juan Basin were organised by a peer-polity form of interaction during Pueblo II and III.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
J
Department: 
Dept. of Archaeology - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (Ph.D.)

The socio-economic role of salt in Northern Highland Ethiopia

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2008
Abstract: 

Salt is a known cross-cultural item of early trade with documented socio-political consequences. Written records on the Ethiopian salt industry go back at least 2,000 years. This dissertation is an ethnoarchaeological investigation of the socio-economic role of the salt trade in northern Ethiopia. Ethnoarchaeological methods are used to explore all aspects of the salt trade in an attempt to provide a basis to understand the role of salt as an economic item, in socio-cultural developments as well as aid the interpretation of the archaeological record. Conducted in the Tigrai and Afar regions of northern Ethiopia, this study identifies groups involved in the salt industry and confirms that the salt trade is vibrant. Aspects of the technology used to extract, transport, and process salt, remain unchanged from what was described by earlier visitors to Ethiopia. While some archaeological correlates of the salt trade such as ropes, skins and plant material may not preserve, stones used to sharpen axes, and metal axes used to extract and shape salt would likely preserve. The remains of pack animals used to transport salt may also preserve. Overall, the salt trade would leave a thin footprint in the archaeological record. Socially, the results of this study suggest that participation in the salt trade confers wealth, which may be used to gain and maintain social status today, a benefit that could have been the same in the past.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
C
Department: 
Dept. of Archaeology - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (Ph.D.)

El hospital de la real caridad: a historical archaeology of institutional power at a late Spanish colonial period hospital in the Ecuadorian Andes

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2008
Abstract: 

Hospitals have a 500-year history in the Americas but have received limited study. This is particularly true of Latin American hospitals operating during the Spanish Colonial Period. This work seeks to redress this problem by examining the Hospital de la Real Caridad, an 18th century hospital for Indigenous people, in the colonial city of Riobamba, Ecuador. Combining existing published sources, archival evidence, and archaeology, this work examines the Hospital de la Real Caridad’s role beyond medical provision: namely its social role. Erving Goffman’s study of the “total institution” provides the theoretical framework used to examine the social context in which the hospital operated. Total institutions isolated their inmates, strip them of their identity, and model new behaviour. Using documentary and archaeological evidence, the Hospital de la Real Caridad is shown to engage in this process. Through the use of surveillance, religious teaching, colonial medicine and majolicas, a glazed ceramic associated with the colonial elite, Indigenous people were isolated and modelled behaviour supporting the colonial system. Archaeological testing at the Hospital de la Real Caridad resulted in the recovery of large quantities of brick and carved stone; materials associated with elite structures which demarcated the hospital from the rest of colonial society. Separation of artifacts associated with Indigenous women from those used in preparing drugs confirms the trepidation felt towards female Indigenous medical practitioners by the state.. Majolica recovery rates consistent with mestizo assemblages in the Andes are interpreted to symbolically portray the ideal behaviour the institution sought to model for its patients. Indigenous people did not experience the institutional process universally when engaging with the medical system and were able to use it to their own advantage. A series of applications were made for release from tribute labour, owed to the Crown by Indigenous people, for medical reasons. Changes in the application process are interpreted as an attempt by the state to curb a abuse of medical release from tribute labour. Hospitals were fundamental components of the urban landscape, settings where changes in medical philosophy were implemented, and unique locations where colonial processes were experienced by Indigenous people.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
R
Department: 
Dept. of Archaeology - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (Ph.D.)

Seeds of imperialism: a core/periphery study in the Eastern Roman Empire

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2008
Abstract: 

This dissertation examines the archaeobotanical record within the working framework of World-Systems Theory to test core/periphery relations in the Eastern Mediterranean. The goals of this research are: determining if the archaeobotanical record supports Caesarea as a core port city in the Byzantine period; identifying the changing role of Caesarea through time; understanding the function of agricultural trade in the local economy; and if changes in agricultural practices can be indicated by weed species. The village of Khirbet Qana and the settlement of Humayma were used as examples of periphery sites that were occupied during the same periods as Caesarea. Analysis of quantification methods to examine taxon diversity, evidence of trade and intensity of agriculture were used as primary indicators of the socio-economic systems that existed at classical sites. Results yielded a low number of seeds per sample, limiting the validity of taxon diversity as a measure. Instead, ubiquity and density were deemed better indicators of the variety of taxa. The botanical assemblage indicates that Caesarea acted as a core in the Byzantine period with its large number of exotic or luxury species, its large variety of plant taxa and the evidence of agricultural trade represented by the waterlogged remains recovered from the harbour. The Islamic period saw a shift from core to semi-periphery as indicated by the smaller quantities of agricultural trade goods recovered and a decline in the variety of taxa recovered. In the Crusader period it was expected that Caesarea would show as a periphery site; however, the botanical remains recovered shared a similar pattern with the Byzantine period, though with slightly less taxonomic variety and density of remains per sample. This suggests that the Crusader period was representative of a semi-periphery and not a periphery as was expected. Likewise the site of Humayma was thought to be a periphery but the archaeobotanical assemblage supports a semi-periphery site. It was determined that more information is required to confirm a periphery status for Khirbet Qana.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
A
Department: 
Dept. of Archaeology - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (Ph.D.)

Archaeology and local governments: the perspectives of First Nations and municipal councillors in the Fraser Valley, B.C.

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2008
Abstract: 

Local governments are in a position to act as bridges between the publics they represent and the management of archaeological heritage. Since First Nations and municipal councillors in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia, make decisions on behalf of their communities, I focus this thesis on their perspectives of archaeology. Through surveying and interviewing local government representatives, seven key themes emerged: Relevance, Knowledge, Interest and Exposure, Value, Protection Issues, Management Responsibility, and Working Together. First Nations and municipal councillors’ perspectives reveal general areas of divergence on the relevance, protection, and management of archaeological heritage, and convergence on the values of archaeology and working together on heritage issues. Although local governments uniquely situate archaeology through distinct views, they can bridge this disconnect through dialogue on shared perspectives. I provide recommendations to encourage this process of communication between First Nations and municipal governments, and their publics, on the management of archaeological heritage.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
D
Department: 
Dept. of Archaeology - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.A.)

FORDISC and the determination of ancestry from craniometric data

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2008
Abstract: 

FORDISC is a computer program designed to determine ancestry from human skeletal remains. It is widely used, yet its accuracy has been challenged. In this study, 200 specimens from one of FORDISC's reference samples are used to investigate four issues that are central to debate: (1) the inclusion of the source population in the reference sample, (2) the influence of sex, (3) the impact of variable number, and (4) the effect of different anatomical regions. The results indicate that the source population must be present and the sex of the specimen known before FORDISC can provide an accurate determination of ancestry. Additionally, a determination will be successful only if more than 10 measurements pertaining to multiple anatomical regions are used. Even when these conditions are met, few determinations may be considered unambiguously correct. Overall, FORDISC performed below expectations and the results suggest that the program should be used cautiously.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
M
Department: 
Dept. of Archaeology - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.A.)