Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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This collection contains digitized SFU theses except for those theses submitted within the last 12 months. If you cannot find the thesis you are looking for please search Recently Submitted Theses as it may be a recently submitted thesis and thus not yet available in Summit.

Prolonged multilingualism among the Sebuyau: An ethnography of communication

Author: 
Date created: 
2020-08-13
Abstract: 

This thesis describes the Sebuyau language and seeks to explain how this small group as maintained their culture and way of speaking in the shadow of very large languages like Malay, English and Chinese. I use the ethnographic method to study this ethnic group. Specifically, I based this ethnography of communication on two texts told by twenty-four people, who all belong to the community of practice of Keluarga Church. The study is divided into two broad areas. Part of the thesis is more synchronic linguistics, and describes the lexicon, phonology and morphology of Sebuyau. The conclusion is that Sebuyau is a variety of Iban. The lexicon exhibits considerable borrowing from languages that are no longer spoken in the area – such as Sanskrit. But most of the non-Sebuyau words are English or Malay. There are some lexicographic signs of the beginning of language shift to Malay, but the phonology shows signs that the language is being reincorporated into Iban. The other theme of the thesis is an examination of the reasons why Sebuyau has not been swallowed up by Malay or some other language. It is a more general description of the history and linguistic ecology of the area in Malaysia that is their homeland. In particular, the study shows how the linguistic ecology has helped the Sebuyau maintain their identity and way of speaking.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Panayiotis Pappas
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Linguistics
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Dress up for big boys: Cowboy culture of the urban rodeo

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-07-30
Abstract: 

Billed as The Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth, the Calgary Stampede is one of the West’s most celebrated events with visitors, from near and far, partaking and reveling in Southern Alberta’s Western heritage. This event is a celebration of Alberta’s western past and, as such, the Stampede has continually encouraged its attendees to dress up in Western (cowboy) attire in order to (re)capture the Western spirit. The cowboy has unremittingly been held up as an exceptional model of hegemonic masculinity, which, in turn, is celebrated and reinforced each year during the Stampede’s live action performances. A study was then conducted on this form of masculinity by interviewing local males who use the attire to construct a short-term dominant masculine identity for the ten days in direct contrast to their daily normal lives.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Jen Marchbank
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Gender, Sexuality, and Women's Studies
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Figure 8

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-07-31
Abstract: 

Figure 8 is a 35-min video recording of a solo movement performance that explores displacement, ancestry and identity through the lens of gesture. Based on interviews conducted with eight of the artist's family members from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the work follows the artist as she situates them in her home and moves through their gestures using mimesis. Set within an improvisational structure, the piece is split into five sections that offer a different relationship to the gestures as influenced by the audio, use of the objects, space, and costume. The sound score interlaces portions of each family member’s voice clips from the interviews with distortion, repetition, and pop references while the gestures are repeated until they begin to dissolve in a process of entropy. The piece was envisioned as a live show in the theatre but transformed into an online performance due to COVID-19, and as a result was able to be shared with, experienced, and witnessed by the very people it was seeking to treasure.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Steven Hill
Department: 
Communication, Art & Technology: School for the Contemporary Arts
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.F.A.

Neurocognitive functioning and associated symptoms of psychosis in homeless and precariously housed adults with multimorbidity

Author: 
Date created: 
2020-08-24
Abstract: 

It has been fairly well-established that discrete psychiatric symptoms, such as the positive, negative, and general symptoms of psychosis, are differentially related to distinct deficits in neurocognition. Less well-known are the relationships between symptoms of psychosis and profiles of neurocognitive strengths and weaknesses and no previous study has delineated these relationships in homeless and precariously housed persons living with multimorbidity. Using a unique three-factorial solution on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in a large sample of marginalized persons living in the Downtown Eastside in Vancouver, Canada, we examined the relationships between neurocognitive profiles derived by Latent Profile Analysis and symptoms of psychosis and other psychiatric and psychosocial variables. A three-class solution was found to be of optimal fit, consisting of a comparatively cognitively higher-functioning subgroup, with a relative strength in fluid reasoning (Class 1), and two comparatively cognitively impaired subgroups: one subgroup displaying the same profile of relative strength as Class 1 (Class 2), and a selectively severely cognitively impaired subgroup with a relative strength in attentional control, processing speed, and encoding and retrieval (Class 3). Subsequent between-group comparisons revealed that the two cognitively impaired subgroups overall suffered from more severe symptoms of psychosis and worse psychosocial and adaptive functioning. Our findings contrast the links between cognitive profiles and symptoms of psychosis detected in clinical samples featuring patients with schizophrenia, underscoring the importance of considering the unique interrelationships between neurocognition and psychosis that exist in marginalized persons with multimorbid conditions when implementing targeted intervention strategies.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Allen Thornton
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Psychology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

A novel commensal proxy for tracing indigenous interaction in the Ceramic Age Lesser Antilles, Caribbean: Ancient mitochondrial DNA of Agouti (Dasyprocta sp.)

Author: 
Date created: 
2020-08-07
Abstract: 

The agouti (Dasyprocta sp.) was one of the many commensal species humans translocated to the Caribbean from South America as early as ca. A.D. 500. Their widespread archaeological presence in the Lesser Antilles, including on Carriacou, Grenada, makes them valuable proxies for reconstructing pre-Columbian human interactions between the islands and continent. This study applies a genetic commensal model to agouti, a novel commensal proxy offering an ideal opportunity for commensal research. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was extracted from archaeological agouti bones from seven sites across the Lesser Antilles. Of 30 tested, 26 specimens (Sabazan (n = 5) and Grand Bay (n = 19) on Carriacou, Macabou (n = 1) on Martinique, and BK77 Grand Case (n = 1) on Saint Martin) were successfully amplified. Analysis shows that archaeological sequences belong to Dasyprocta leporina and relate to a single continental clade, likely from northern South America or Trinidad. This is the first study to provide genetic evidence for species identification of archaeological Caribbean agouti. Results provide new data informing continental and Caribbean agouti population structure and offer insight into the origin and dissemination of agouti in the Caribbean. Agouti appear to have rapidly established viable, reproducing populations on Carriacou around ca. A.D. 400/600, but the population status on other islands is unclear. This study contributes to the ongoing discussion regarding the relationships between humans and continental translocates in the Caribbean and emphasizes the potential of the commensal model for the global study of ancient translocations and island interactions. Analytic findings are significant for the archaeological, ecological, and genetic study of the Caribbean and South America, prompting the need for continued study of Caribbean commensals and additional sampling focusing on pre-Columbian agouti from coastal South America. Results highlight the potential of the commensal model for the global study of ancient translocations and island interactions. This study also brings to light new data for both pre-Columbian and modern agouti, informing upon the Caribbean agouti’s taxonomic classification and population structure in the Caribbean and South America. Finally, results have implications for Caribbean ecology, refining the timing of potential ecological repercussions brought on by translocates in the islands.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Christina Giovas
Department: 
Environment: Department of Archaeology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Statistical analysis of event times with missing origins aided by auxiliary information, with application to wildfire management

Author: 
Date created: 
2020-08-20
Abstract: 

Motivated partly by analysis of lightning-caused wildfire data from Alberta, this dissertation develops statistical methodology for analyzing event times with missing origins aided by auxiliary information such as associated longitudinal measures and other relevant information prior to the time origin. We begin an analysis of the motivating data to estimate distribution of time to initial attack since a wildfire starts burning with flames, i.e. duration between the start time and initial attack time of a fire, with two conventional approaches: one neglects the missing origin and performs inference on the observed portion of duration and the other views the observation on the event time of interest subject to interval censoring with a pre-determined interval. The counterintuitive/non-informative results of the preliminary analysis lead us to propose new approaches to tackling the issue of missing origin. To facilitate methodological development, we first consider estimation of the duration distribution with independently and identically distributed (iid) observations. We link the unobserved time origin to the available longitudinal measures of burnt areas via the first-hitting-time model. This yields an intuitive and easy-to-implement adaption of the empirical distribution function with the event time data. We establish consistency and weak convergence of the proposed estimator and present its variance estimation. We then extend the proposed approach to studying the association of the duration time with a list of potential risk factors. A semi-parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) regression model is considered together with a Wiener process model using random drift for longitudinal measures. Further, we accommodate the potential spatial correlation of the wildfires by specifying the drift of the Wiener process as a function of covariates and spatially correlated random effects. Moreover, we propose a method to aid the duration distribution estimation with lightning data. It leads to an alternative approach to estimating the distribution of the duration by adapting the Turnbull estimator with interval-censored observations. A prominent byproduct of this approach is an estimation procedure for the distribution of ignition time using all the lightning data and the sub-sampled data. The finite-sample performance of proposed approaches is examined via simulation studies. We use the motivating Alberta wildfire data to illustrate the proposed approaches throughout the thesis. The data analyses and simulation studies show that the two conventional approaches with current data structure could give rise to misleading inference. The proposed approaches provide intuitive, easy-to-implement alternatives to analysis of event times with missing origins. We anticipate the methodology has many applications in practice, such as infectious diseases research.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Joan Hu
John Braun
Department: 
Science: Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Performing identity at the arts edge: Developing radio memoir through the excavation of living inquiry

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-07-30
Abstract: 

In this thesis, I explore how community radio is a pedagogical and artistic platform that fosters personal agency, memoir, transformation and the unfolding of identity. Within the forum of an arts-based radio program, I witness how music, lyrics, broadcasting and personal reflections merge to inspire the surfacing of life’s lost moments, a collection of personal memories. This discovery evolves into a narrative loop between broadcaster and self, which leads to the excavation and interweaving of music and memory, and the alchemy of the radio tales. To this end, I explore autobiography, my mother’s lived experience and personal agency which unfold to become a storied musical memoir. While my research is largely informed by the scholarly work of Jerome Bruner, Lynn Fels, Walter Gershon, Mary Karr, Karen Meyer, Celeste Snowber, Sean Street, and Maxwell van Manen, it is further influenced by scholars whose work reflects arts and music education and is punctuated by songs and song lyrics. Research data for the radio tales and thesis is generated through several avenues: (1) Performative Inquiry explores how radio surfaces musical soundscape while unfolding musical lost moments that reflect lived experience. (2) Living Inquiry explores how writing a living document alongside radio production inspires the surfacing of lost moments and a collection of twenty-seven radio tales; (3) Acousmatic Modality, explores how reflective listening practices unpack contextual insights of lived experience. New understandings emerge through acousmatic dialogue, is comprised of living inquiry, lost moments. radio tales and one’s musical soundscape. My research reveals that everyone has a living story and a musical soundscape, thereby illustrating the universality of radio tales. Within this pedagogical and artistic platform, community radio acts as a springboard for the surfacing of musical soundscapes, the excavation of lost moments, the alchemy of radio tales and the unfolding of identity. The radio tales are offered throughout the thesis, as text and audio, with attached hyperlinks to redirect the reader to the SFU Repository where the audio files are stored.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Lynn Fels
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Functionalization of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles via the silanol-alcohol condensation reaction

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-09-10
Abstract: 

The surface properties of nanoparticles play an important role in their interactions with their surroundings. Silane reagents have been used for surface modifications to silica shells on iron oxide nanoparticles, but using these reagents presents some challenges. Some of these challenges include the moisture sensitivity of silane reagents and the formation of multilayers. An alternative approach to modifying the surfaces of these silica shells was developed to impart different terminal functional groups, such as a thiol, alcohol, or carboxylic acid, through the use of alcohol-based reagents. This reaction was initiated through convective heating and microwave-assisted heating. This approach to surface functionalization of the core-shell particles was verified through analytical measurements and the attachment of gold nanoparticles. The silanol-alcohol condensation reaction was also extended to the mixed functionalization of the silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with both thiol and carboxylic acid functionalized alcohol reagents. The processes and results for the silanol-alcohol condensation reaction were also compared with silanization process. The use of the silanol-alcohol condensation reaction could be extended further to other surface functionalization through the use of additional alcohol-based reagents.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Byron Gates
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.

Quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of biotransformation rates for bioaccumulation assessment: Focus on organic sunscreen agents in rainbow trout

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-08-26
Abstract: 

An improved understanding of chemical biotransformation has been identified as a key requirement for the bioaccumulation assessment of commercial chemicals. In vitro biotransformation assays, in combination with in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) represents one initiative to generate chemical biotransformation rates for use in bioaccumulation modeling efforts. However, rigorous evaluation of the IVIVE approach requires studies with well-matched animals to ensure in vitro tests adequately predict in vivo biotransformation potential. Therefore, the overarching objective of this thesis was to evaluate factors that may influence the extrapolation of hepatic in vitro biotransformation rate constants (kdep) using well-matched studies with rainbow trout. Hydrophobic organic ultraviolet filters (UVFs) 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), and octocrylene (OCT) represented model chemicals in this investigation. The first study showed that measured kdep values for UVFs were highly dependent on the selected assay concentration. Modeled bioconcentration factors (BCF) derived from kdep measured at concentrations well below corresponding Michaelis-Menten constants (KM) were closer to empirical BCFs than those calculated from kdep measured at higher test concentrations. A corresponding in vivo study demonstrated that during standardized dietary exposures that measured UVF concentrations in trout were well below the previously derived KM values This demonstrated that biotransformation pathways in trout operate under first-order conditions and that working at an appropriate concentration range in in vitro assays (i.e., C0 << KM) can be expected to improve estimates of in vivo biotransformation potential. In a final study, an existing IVIVE model was expanded to consider biotransformation in both the intestinal epithelia and liver. For chemicals biotransformed at higher rates by hepatic S9 fractions (e.g., EHMC), the ‘liver only’ IVIVE model was sufficient in estimating whole-body biotransformation rate constants (kMET). For chemicals biotransformed at higher rates in intestinal S9 fractions (i.e., OCT), the inclusion of both hepatic and intestinal activities improved estimates of kMET relative to the in vivo data generated here. The results of this study indicate that current ‘liver only’ IVIVE approaches may underestimate kMET for chemicals that undergo substantial intestinal biotransformation. The presented findings suggest that the future use of quantitative IVIVE methods for bioaccumulation assessment require greater consideration of extrahepatic biotransformation.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Frank Gobas
Department: 
Science: Biological Sciences Department
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Perceptions of inconsistent reports of long-term autobiographical memory

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-08-29
Abstract: 

Delayed criminal cases are prevalent in Canada, but how these delayed reports are perceived has not yet been investigated. The present study examined perceptions of delayed and inconsistent reports of autobiographical memory. Participants viewed a witness making a statement that was either consistent or inconsistent with a previous report about a crime that took place 1-day, 2-years, or 15-years ago. Participants were asked to rate the witness’ credibility, make verdict decisions, and recommend a sentence length. Participants found an inconsistent witness to be less cognitively competent, honest, and more suggestible. Perceived credibility was not impacted by delay but verdict decisions were. This finding may have implications for the justice system if triers of fact do not consider the possibility that witnesses testifying after a long delay may recall fewer, and potentially different, details, and that inconsistencies across repeated interviews may not always be indicative of a completely inaccurate report.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Deborah Connolly
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Psychology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.