Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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This collection contains digitized SFU theses except for those theses submitted within the last 12 months. If you cannot find the thesis you are looking for please search Recently Submitted Theses as it may be a recently submitted thesis and thus not yet available in Summit.

The politics of oral participation: The experiences of Chinese multilingual speakers in Canadian university classrooms

Author: 
Date created: 
2016-12-06
Abstract: 

Taking into account the increasingly diverse student body in increasingly interactive classrooms, it is crucial to enhance our understanding of the dynamics of mixed multicultural groups, and in this particular case, the oral participation and group experiences of Chinese multilingual speakers. Following scholarship from critical pedagogy, intersectionality, and language as symbolic capital, this thesis research project examines the beliefs, interactions and struggles of eight Chinese multilingual speakers in their group discussions in lower-division and upper-division courses in a middle-size Canadian university. Using ethnographic methods, participant observation and interviewing in particular, the researcher followed and observed how eight Chinese multilingual speakers, with various English proficiency levels and diverse learning cultures, participated and performed in their group discussions. Video-recordings, audio-recordings, course syllabus, lecture slides, marking rubrics, students’ writing samples and peer review forms were the main sources of data. The investigation and comparison of participants’ group experiences show that institutional structures, such as ideologies, stereotypical biases, curriculum and grading policies, could significantly affect participants’ oral participation and positionalities in their groups. Informed by scholarship in critical pedagogy and Bourdieu’s language as symbolic power, the researcher argued that some discursive structures in educational settings could largely disadvantage multilingual speakers especially those who newly arrived in North America, and cause challenges for them to participate effectively in their group projects. It is, thus, important for university educators to be aware of the power imbalances as well as the power struggles between different social groups in doing group projects. At the end of the thesis, the researcher provides some practical suggestions for more inclusive practices for instructors.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. Kelleen Toohey
Department: 
Education: Education
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

The role of lane position in right-of-way violation collisions involving motorcycles

Author: 
Date created: 
2016-12-02
Abstract: 

Low motorcycle conspicuity is believed by many researchers, drivers, and motorcyclists to be causally involved in motorcycle collisions that involve another driver. Substantial improvements in motorcycle conspicuity have been made over the last four decades, but in spite of this, motorcycle collisions involving other vehicles are on the rise, specifically the type of collision where another driver violates the motorcyclist’s right-of-way because they “did not see them”. Because the hypothesis that motorcycles lack conspicuity in traffic is so intuitively appealing and so pervasive, it has never been tested. This work provides an argument against the notion that right-of-way-violation collisions are due to poor motorcycle detection resulting from their low conspicuity and proposes an alternate hypothesis: These collisions seem related to failures in motion-perception which are partially caused by the motorcycle’s approach path in a left-of-lane position which, ironically, is partly intended to increase the motorcycle’s conspicuity.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Thomas Spalek
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Psychology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Sports analytics

Date created: 
2016-12-08
Abstract: 

This thesis consists of a compilation of four research papers. Chapter 2 investigates the powerplay in one-day cricket. The form of the analysis takes a “what if” approach where powerplay outcomes are substituted with what might have happened had there been no powerplay. This leads to a paired comparisons setting consisting of actual matches and hypothetical parallel matches where outcomes are imputed during the powerplay period. We also investigate individual batsmen and bowlers and their performances during the powerplay. Chapter 3 considers the problem of determining optimal substitution times in soccer. An analysis is presented based on Bayesian logistic regression. We find that with evenly matched teams, there is a goal scoring advantage to the trailing team during the second half of a match. We observe that there is no discernible time during the second half when there is a benefit due to substitution. Chapter 4 explores two avenues for the modification of tactics in Twenty20 cricket. The first idea is based on the realization that wickets are of less importance in Twenty20 cricket than in other formats of cricket (e.g. one-day cricket and Test cricket). The second idea may be applicable when there exists a sizeable mismatch between two competing teams. In this case, the weaker team may be able to improve its win probability by increasing the variance of run differential. A specific variance inflation technique which we consider is increased aggressiveness in batting. Chapter 5 explores new definitions for pace of play in ice hockey. Using detailed event data from the 2015-2016 regular season of the National Hockey League (NHL), the distance of puck movement with possession is the proposed criterion in determining the pace of a game. Although intuitive, this notion of pace does not correlate with expected and familiar quantities such as goals scored and shots taken.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Tim Swartz
Department: 
Science: Statistics and Actuarial Science
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

Linearly stabilized schemes for the time integration of stiff nonlinear PDEs

Date created: 
2016-12-09
Abstract: 

In many applications, the governing PDE to be solved numerically will contain a stiff component. When this component is linear, an implicit time stepping method that is unencumbered by stability restrictions is preferred. On the other hand, if the stiff component is nonlinear, the complexity and cost per step of using an implicit method is heightened, and explicit methods may be preferred for their simplicity and ease of implementation. In this thesis, we analyze new and existing linearly stabilized schemes for the purpose of integrating stiff nonlinear PDEs in time. These schemes compute the nonlinear term explicitly and, at the cost of solving a linear system with a matrix that is fixed throughout, are unconditionally stable, thus combining the advantages of explicit and implicit methods. Applications are presented to illustrate the use of these methods.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Steve Ruuth
Department: 
Science: Department of Mathematics
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.

Mechanisms of new Ru-ferrocene and binuclear Ru metallochemotherapeutics and the Ru metastasis inhibitor NAMI-A

Author: 
Date created: 
2016-11-14
Abstract: 

Ruthenium-based anticancer compounds have become a leading area of development in medicinal chemistry. Ru(III) complexes, such as the antimetastatic compound imidazolium [trans-RuCl4(1H-imidazole)(DMSO-S)] (NAMI-A), where DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide, have shown promising results in clinical trials. Furthermore, reports of organometallic Ru(II) arene complexes, such as [RuCl2(η6-p-cymene)(pta)] (RAPTA-C), where pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane, demonstrate that these types of compounds also have excellent chemotherapeutic potential. In this work, three families of new bimetallic drug candidates based on these types of Ru anticancer compounds have been developed, with the goal of generating multifunctional complexes with new biological activities. The first type of complex is ferrocene-functionalized pyridine analogues of NAMI-A. Inclusion of ferrocene generates bifunctional complexes with cytotoxicity from the ferrocene groups and antimetastatic activity from the Ru center. The second family of complexes described in this work is analogues of RAPTA-C with the pta ligand replaced with ferrocene-functionalized pyridine, imidazole, and piperidine ligands. These compounds have strong anticancer and antibiotic activities, which correlate quantitatively with the reduction potential of the ferrocene centers, implicating generation of reactive oxygen species as the origin of activity. The third family of complexes, asymmetric bimetallic complexes comprised of a Ru(III) NAMI-A-type center coupled to Ru(III) DNA intercalating groups via pyrimidine, have been synthesized. Functionalization with dipyrido[3,2-a:2’, 3’-c]phenazine (dppz) in particular led to strong DNA interactions and high cytotoxic activity. In this work, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and NMR have been used to study the ligand-exchange processes of the complexes and their interactions with proteins. In particular, NMR was used to investigate the complicated solution behavior of NAMI-A. Furthermore, NMR studies of the complex with human serum albumin and human serum transferrin indicate non-specific coordination to histidine residues and changes in ligand exchange kinetics due to protein interactions.

Document type: 
Thesis
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. Charles J. Walsby
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

The Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for Violence Risk – Youth Version (SAPROF-YV): The Association Between Protective Factors and Aggression in Adolescents

Author: 
Date created: 
2016-12-07
Abstract: 

The Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for Violence Risk – Youth Version (SAPROF-YV; de Vries Robbé et al., 2015) is a new measure of protective factors that is used with a risk-focused tool, such as the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY; Borum et al., 2006), to provide a more balanced assessment of risk. The present study investigated the relationship between the SAPROF-YV and aggression in a sample of 69 adolescents. Using a retrospective study design, files were reviewed at an inpatient treatment facility and a probation office. Results indicated that the SAPROF-YV demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with the SAVRY. The SAPROF-YV was predictive of the absence of verbal and physical aggression; however, it did not add incrementally to SAVRY Risk factors. Finally, some evidence suggested the SAPROF-YV was more predictive for higher risk adolescents than lower risk adolescents. Implications for research and clinical applications are discussed.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Jodi Viljoen
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Psychology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Physical modeling of water fluxes in the catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

Author: 
Date created: 
2016-12-02
Abstract: 

The ability to predict the electrochemical performance of the catalyst layer (CL) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) hinges on a precise knowledge of the water balance. The key effective properties of this layer, like gas diffusivity and vaporization exchange rate constant, control water distribution and fluxes in the complete cell. Unfortunately, the knowledge of relevant properties of CLs is rare and not available with sufficient accuracy. A physical model of water fluxes in CLs is proposed to develop a methodology for the determination of the effective properties of CLs. For the purpose of this work, the CL is considered exclusively as a medium for vapor diffusion, liquid water permeation, and vaporization exchange. The presented model exploits an analogy of the water transport problem to the processes involved in charge transfer in a porous electrode, which is represented by the famous transmission line model (TLM). The expectation is that this analogy could lead to a diagnostic tool with similar capabilities as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in rationalizing the response of CLs to varying conditions and in extracting parameters of water transport and vaporization exchange. An analytical solution under steady state and isothermal conditions is presented that rationalizes the relation between controlled environmental conditions and the net water flux under partial saturation. The analysis of water flux data using this solution provides a method for the extraction of the net vaporization exchange rate, the activation energy of vaporization, vapor diffusivity, and the temperature exponent of the vapor diffusivity, which allows the transport mechanism of vapor diffusion in the CL to be identified. Transient analysis with a periodic perturbation is then explored. The overall impedance of water transport and the response function of a voltage change to a vapor change are analyzed for a specific scenario, where no effluence of liquid water from the CL is permitted. The methodology based on the transient analysis provides not only a way to extracting the effective properties of the CL, but also a way to estimate the liquid saturation in the CL.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Michael H. Eikerling
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Developing Minimally Impactful Protocols for DNA Analysis of Museum Collection Bone Artifacts

Author: 
Date created: 
2016-11-17
Abstract: 

This study has addressed the issue of destructive testing on museum collection artifacts from two perspectives. Firstly, interviews were conducted with museum professionals from across Canada to identify their specific concerns regarding access to their collections. Secondly, this information was then used to help develop a minimally impactful DNA sampling technique that may lead to greater access to museum collections for research. The development of this sampling technique involved successive rounds of testing conducted on bone samples including modern samples, unmodified archaeological samples, and museum artifacts from two different museums. The DNA sampling was done using a precision hand drill which produced a small amount of bone powder collected for analysis and species identification. The results from the study indicate that it was possible to develop a successful, comprehensive and reliable minimally impactful DNA sampling technique that is tailor-made to address the concerns and ethical responsibilities of museum professionals.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dongya Yang
Department: 
Environment: Department of Archaeology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Beyond the book: Metadata practices at the University of British Columbia Press

Date created: 
2016-12-05
Abstract: 

This project report focuses on book metadata practices at the University of British Columbia Press. Metadata management has become essential for publishers in recent decades, as book buying has moved online. This report details the significance of metadata, how publishers use it, how customers (both institutional and individual) benefit from it, and how (good) metadata increases sales. Metadata has become increasingly complex, with varying deadlines, standards, levels, and granularity putting immense pressure on publishers to keep current. This project report analyzes the University of British Columbia Press’ metadata operations to identify its challenges and successes. The report also draws on the current literature of metadata “best practices” for publishers. In tandem, these resources clarify optimal future directions and recommendations for the Press.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
John Maxwell
Department: 
Communication, Art & Technology: Publishing Program
Thesis type: 
(Project Report) M.Pub.

Precision microwave spectroscopy of the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5

Date created: 
2016-11-21
Abstract: 

The heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 demonstrates remarkable similarities to the high-Tc cuprates in many of its properties including proximity to antiferromagnetism, quasi-two-dimensionality, d-wave superconductivity, and departures from Fermi liquid behaviour in the normal state. It is also a “high-Tc” superconductor in the context of the heavy fermions. The experimental technique of microwave cavity perturbation has been used to measure the electrodynamics of a single crystal of CeCoIn5 over a range of temperatures, from 80 mK to 35 K, in a dilution refrigerator. Measurements at multiple frequencies required the development of an in-situ technique for the bolometric detection of the surface resistance. This has allowed conductivity spectra to be acquired, resulting in several important results. First, the resolution of an unexplained fractional power law in the penetration depth has been achieved by properly isolating the nodal quasiparticle contribution, revealing a previously unseen linear temperature dependence in CeCoIn5, as expected for a d-wave superconductor. Second, the temperature evolution of the microwave conductivity spectra implies that the effective mass of the quasiparticles continues to change below Tc, hinting that quantum criticality remains important even in the superconducting state. Third, conductivity spectra that are strikingly similar to those from YBa2Cu3O6+y suggest a strong connection in the underlying charge dynamics, as both CeCoIn5 and YBa2Cu3O6+y show a collapse in the quasiparticle scattering rate below Tc. Finally, the spectra indicate the presence of multiband effects.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
David Broun
Department: 
Science: Department of Physics
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.