Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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This collection contains digitized SFU theses except for those theses submitted within the last 12 months. If you cannot find the thesis you are looking for please search Recently Submitted Theses as it may be a recently submitted thesis and thus not yet available in Summit.

Marginal Loglinear Models for Three Multiple-Response Categorical Variables

Author: 
Date created: 
2016-12-09
Abstract: 

A lot of survey questions include a phrase like, “Choose all that apply”, which lets the respondents choose any number of options from predefined lists of items. Responses to thesequestions result in multiple-response categorical variables (MRCVs). This thesis focuses on analyzing and modeling three MRCVs. There are 232 possible models representing different combinations of associations. Parameters are estimated using generalized estimating equations generated by a pseudo-likelihood and variances of the estimators are corrected using sandwich methods. Due to the large number of possible models, model comparisons based on nested models would be inappropriate. As an alternative, model averaging is proposed as a model comparison tool as well as to account for model selection uncertainty. Further the calculations required for computing the variance of the estimators can exceed 32-bit machine capacity even for a moderately large number of items. This issue is addressed by reducing dimensions of the matrices.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Thomas Loughin
Department: 
Science: Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.Sc.

Model-based Outlier Detection for Object-Relational Data

Author: 
Date created: 
2016-12-06
Abstract: 

Outliers are anomalous and interesting objects that are notably different from the rest of the data. The outlier detection task has sometimes been considered as removing noise from the data. However, it is usually the significantly interesting deviations that are of most interest.Different outlier detection techniques work with various data formats. The outlier detection process needs to be sensitive to the nature of the underlying data. Most of the previous work on outlier detection was designed for propositional data. This dissertation focuses on developing outlier detection methods for structured data, more specifically object-relational data. Object-relational data can be viewed as a heterogeneous network with different classes of objects and links.We develop two new approaches to unsupervised outlier detection; both approaches leverage the statistical information obtained from a statistical-relational model. The first method develops a propositionalization approach to summarize information from object-relational data in a single data table.We use Markov Logic Network (MLN) structure learning to construct the features for the single data table and to mitigate the loss of information that usually happens when features are generated by manual aggregation. By using propositionalization as a pipeline, we can apply many previous outlier detection methods that were designed for single-table data.Our second outlier detection method ranks the objects as potential outliers in an object-oriented data model. Our key idea is to compare the feature distribution of a potential outlier object with the feature distribution of the object’s class. We introduce a novel distribution divergence concept that is suitable for outlier detection. Our methods are validated on synthetic datasets and on real-world datasets about soccer matches and movies.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Oliver Schulte
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Computing Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Representation of the négresse, Trauma and Marronnage in Post-Slavery Narratives

Date created: 
2016-12-09
Abstract: 

The notion of the négresse, even though derogatory, is often used in post-slavery narratives in reference to the black female body. However, the representations of this notion and the persona is rooted in white patriarchal hegemony and its enabling institutions. I explore in this research, the representations of the négresse in literary narratives that recount her lived experiences through the historical events of slavery and in the contemporary structure of post-slavery. I theorize the concepts of trauma, and marronnage in the lived experiences of the black female body in the structure of post-slavery through the reading of Maryse Condé’s Moi, Tituba sorcière…Noire de Salem, Toni Morrison’s Beloved and Marie-Célie Agnant’s Le livre d’Emma. I use these three texts because they portray an identical characterization of the négresse that fits into the spatiotemporal continuums of slavery and post-slavery. This research aims to examine the concept of post-slavery as a contemporary ideology yet historically dependent, based on transferred racial-gendered prejudices that the négresse experiences. I reveal the historical construction and representation of the négresse as a model by which the contemporary black female body is defined and by which the négresse’s contemporary lived experiences are formed. I identify Eurocentric and male hegemonic narratives as limitations that repress the stories of the négresse. Therefore, this thesis supports the need for more intersectional criticism specific to the black female body.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Jorge Calderon
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of French
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

The investigation of the beta decay of 46K: Detailed spectroscopy of the low-lying structure of 46Ca with the GRIFFIN Spectrometer

Date created: 
2016-11-25
Abstract: 

The calcium region is currently a new frontier for modern shell model calculations, and detailed experimental data from these nuclei is critical for a comprehensive understanding of the region.Due to its very low natural abundance of 0.004%, the structure of the magic nucleus 46Ca has not been studied in great detail. Some excited states were previously identified by various reaction mechanisms, and few gamma rays were placed in the level scheme from results of beta-decay experiments equipped with limited detection capabilities. A high-statistics data set of the beta decay of the 46K 2- ground state into the excited states of 46Ca was measured with the GRIFFIN spectrometer located at TRIUMF-ISAC in December of 2014. A radioactive beam consisting almost entirely of 46K was implanted at the center of the GRIFFIN array, and the emitted gamma rays were detected by 15 high-purity germanium clover detectors. From forty hours of data collection, 430 million gamma-gamma coincidences were observed and analysed to construct the 46Ca level scheme. In total, 194 gamma rays were identified and placed into the level scheme; 150 of these transitions were observed for the first time. Angular correlations between pairs of gamma rays were analysed to investigate the spin assignments of the observed excited states. Correlations were investigated for 18 of the 42 observed excited states, and it was possible to confirm 7 previously reported spin assignments, and assign 3 new spins of 3-, 2-, and 3- for the 4435, 5052, and 5535 keV states, respectively. The measured half-life of the 96.41(10) s is in agreement with previous results. From the observed beta feeding intensities of this work, it is suggested that the 46K 2- ground state may contain more proton s1/2 character than has been previously believed. This is due to the strong population of the 5052 keV 2$^-$ state and the absence of observed feeding to the 46Ca ground state.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Corina Andreoiu
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

Breathing New Life into Comic Collections: Drawn & Quarterly's Choice to Reformat & Republish for a Young Readership

Author: 
Abstract: 

Graphic novels and comic reprints have recently surged in popularity due to Hollywood adaptations and bestselling titles such as Art Spiegelman’s Maus and Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis. Despite these successes, publishers still struggle to find the right audience for many comic collections. This report focuses on Drawn & Quarterly’s decision to reprint two comic collections in smaller, kid-friendly editions. It analyzes why D+Q decided to reformat the Janssons’ Moomin comics and Mizuki’s Kitaro manga for specific readerships, with a focus on the emerging genre of crossover literature. The importance of accessibility for serialized comics/manga and crossover literature is underlined as a reason why these titles are ideal for a redesign, and the production work done by the D+Q staff to turn each title into a “kid-friendly” work is explained. Lastly, the report offers insight on how publishers can use D+Q’s tactic for their own success.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Hannah McGregor
Department: 
Communication, Art & Technology: Publishing Program
Thesis type: 
(Project Report) M.Pub.

Developmental antecedents of sadness and anger rumination: Examining the roles of attachment and affect regulation

Author: 
Date created: 
2016-12-01
Abstract: 

The role of rumination in the development and maintenance of psychopathology has been well established. Far less is known however, about possible precursors to this repetitive thinking style. The current study examined two potential developmental antecedents of rumination: insecure attachment and affect regulation. Reports of attachment anxiety and avoidance with maternal figures were examined as predictors of both sadness and anger rumination in a sample of high-risk youth. Affect dysregulation and suppression were also assessed as potential mediators of these associations. Participants completed questionnaires at three time points within a five-year period, with the current study examining associations concurrently at Time 1 and prospectively across Time 2 and 3. Gender differences in these relationships were also assessed. Participants at Time 1 were 159 adolescents (84 males, 75 females) between the ages of 12 and 18 years (M = 15.41, SD = 1.52). Concurrent and prospective associations were tested within a path analysis framework. With respect to concurrent relationships at Time 1, statistically significant associations were found between affect dysregulation and anger rumination for females and males. The association between anger rumination and attachment anxiety was small to moderate, and not statistically significant. Associations between sadness rumination and both attachment avoidance and affect suppression were also not statistically significant for either gender. When examining relationships across time, attachment anxiety significantly predicted increased anger rumination only in females. Affect dysregulation was significantly associated with higher levels of anger rumination for both females and males. Despite this, affect dysregulation did not mediate the association between attachment anxiety and anger rumination. With respect to sadness rumination, attachment avoidance was found to be a significant predictor in females. Implications of these findings for preventative and intervention efforts are discussed.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Marlene Moretti
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Psychology
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

The Influence of Group Music Therapy on Residents with Dementia in a Special Care Unit

Date created: 
2016-12-05
Abstract: 

Empirical evidence on the influence of music therapy on persons with dementia in residential care homes is fairly limited. Residents often experience a low quality of life due to the prevalent medical model of care that focuses on health-related outcomes, rather than a person-centered approach to support and care for the whole person. This qualitative study explored the influence of group music therapy on quality of life in residents with dementia living in a special care unit. Data were generated through focused, ethnographic observations, interviews, document analysis and a focus group. The data provide a rich and in-depth understanding on the process and outcomes related to group music therapy’s influence on residents’ care home experience. The findings provide substantive insights on the role of music therapy in improving the quality of life for residents with dementia and have practice implications for music therapy programming in residential care facilities.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Habib Chaudhury
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Gerontology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

End-To-End and Direct Human-Flying Robot Interaction

Date created: 
2016-08-19
Abstract: 

As the application domain of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) expands to the consumer market and with recent advances in robot autonomy and ubiquitous computing, a new paradigm for human-UAV interaction has started to form. In this new paradigm, humans and UAV(s) are co-located (situated) and use natural and embodied interfaces to share au- tonomy and communicate. This is in contrast to the traditional paradigm in Human-UAV interaction in which the focus is on designing control interfaces for remotely operated UAVs and sharing autonomy among Human-UAV teams. Motivated by application domains such as wilderness search and rescue and personal filming, we define the required components of end-to-end interaction between a human and a flying robot as interaction initiation (ii) approach and re-positioning to facilitate the interaction and (iii) communication of intent and commands from the human to the UAV and vice versa. In this thesis we introduce the components we designed for creating an end-to-end Human-Flying Robot Interaction sys- tem. Mainly (i) a fast monocular computer vision pipeline for localizing stationary periodic motions in the field of view of a moving camera; (ii) a cascade approach controller that combines appearance based tracking and visual servo control to approach a human using a forward-facing monocular camera; (iii) a close-range gaze and gesture based interaction system for communication of commands from a human to multiple flying UAVs using their on-board monocular camera; and (iv) a light-based feedback system for continuous commu- nication of intents from a flying robot to its interaction partner. We provide experimental results for the performance of each individual component as well as the final integrated sys- tem in real-world Human-UAV Interaction tests. Our interaction system, which integrates all these components, is the first realized end-to-end Human-Flying Robot Interaction sys- tem whereby an uninstrumented user can attract the attention of a distant (20 to 30m) autonomous outdoor flying robot. Once interaction is initiated, the robot approaches the user to close range (≈ 2m), hovers facing the user, then responds appropriately to a small vocabulary of hand gestures, while constantly communicating its states to the user through its embodied feedback system. All the software produced for this thesis is Open Source.

Document type: 
Thesis
Senior supervisor: 
Richard Vaughan
Greg Mori
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Computing Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Energy profiling and performance optimization for network-related transactions in virtualized cloud

Author: 
Date created: 
2016-12-13
Abstract: 

Networking and machine virtualization play critical roles in the success of modern cloud computing. The energy consumption of physical machines has been carefully examined in the past, including the impact from network traffic. When it comes to virtual machines (VMs) in cloud data centers, it remains unexplored how the highly dynamic traffic affects the energy consumption in virtualized environments. In this thesis, we first present an empirical study on the interplay between energy consumption and network transactions in virtualized environments. Through the real-world measurement on both Xen- and KVM-based platforms, we show that these state-of-the-art designs bring significant overhead on virtualizing network devices and noticeably increase the demand of CPU resources when handling network traffic. Furthermore, the energy consumption varies significantly with traffic allocation strategies and virtual CPU affinity conditions, which was not seen in conventional physical machines. Next, we study the performance and energy efficiency issues when CPU intensive tasks and I/O intensive tasks are co-located inside a VM. A combined effect from device virtualization overhead and VM scheduling latency can cause severe interference in the presence of such hybrid workloads. To this end, we propose Hylics, a novel solution that enables an efficient data traverse path for both I/O and computation operations, and decouples the costly interference. Several important design issues are pinpointed and addressed during our implementation, including efficient intermediate data sharing, network service offloading, and QoS-aware memory usage management. Based on our real-world deployment in KVM, Hylics can improve computation and networking performance with a moderate amount of memory usage. Moreover, this design also sheds new light on optimizing the energy efficiency for virtualized systems.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Jiangchuan Liu
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Computing Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.

A Shot Quality Adjusted Plus-Minus for the NHL

Date created: 
2016-12-19
Abstract: 

We explore two regression models for creating an adjusted plus-minus statistic for the NHL. We compare an OLS regression models and a penalized gamma-lasso regression model. The traditional plus-minus metric is a simple marginal statistic that allocates a +1 to players for scoring a goal and a -1 for allowing a goal according to whether they were on the ice. This is a very noisy and uninformative statistic since it does not take into account the quality of the other players on the ice with an individual. We build off of previous research to create a more informative statistic that takes into account all of the players on the ice. This previous research has focused on goals to build an adjusted plus-minus, which is information deficient due to the fact that there are only approximately 5 goals scored per game. We improve upon this by instead using shots which provides us with ten times as much information per game. We use shot location data from 2007 to 2013 to create a smoothed probability map for the probability of scoring a goal from all locations in the offensive zone. We then model the shots from 2014-2015 season to get player estimates. Two models are compared, an OLS regression and a penalized regression (lasso). Finally, we compare our adjusted plus-minus to the traditional plus-minus and complete a salary analysis to determine if teams are properly valuing players for the quality of shots they are taking and allowing.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. Tim Swartz
Department: 
Science: Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.Sc.