Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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This collection contains digitized SFU theses except for those theses submitted within the last 12 months. If you cannot find the thesis you are looking for please search Recently Submitted Theses as it may be a recently submitted thesis and thus not yet available in Summit.

Creating space for authentic voice in Canada's screen industry: A case study of 'Women In the Director's Chair (WIDC)'

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-01-25
Abstract: 

Using an appreciative inquiry approach and sharing a reflexive 4-D (i.e., discovery, dreams, design, delivery / destiny) narrative that explores societal, organizational and personal perspectives, this action research study describes a specially designed, internationally respected Canadian national professional development initiative for women screen directors, entitled ‘Women In the Director’s Chair (WIDC)’. The narrative traces how this initiative came to be, and within the context of North America’s ‘waves’ of feminism, where it is placed on the landscape of Canada’s screen industry. While foregrounding a well-documented socio-cultural ‘lack of confidence’ in women leaders and in particular in women screen directors in Canada, the study contextualizes the personal ‘leadership experience’ narratives of WIDC director participants while the author makes meaning of her own leadership journey as a co-creator of the WIDC initiative. The author further explores the twenty-two-year evolution of WIDC’s transformation-oriented pedagogical design as she reflects on the positive core of WIDC and asks, ‘What is WIDC? What was learned and what’s next?’ Sharing leadership metaphors that offer guidance for navigating a ‘continuum of confidence’ and offering a theoretical map towards transformation for individual women as well as feminist or like-minded organizations, the study concludes with a call to action to adopt an appreciative growth-minded stance in order to create space for authentic voices to thrive in Canada’s screen industry, in particular the voices of female leaders.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Carolyn Mamchur
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ed.D.

The present status of the curation crisis and deaccessioning in the United States

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-01-21
Abstract: 

Archaeological collections in the United States were deemed to be in crisis in the 1970s. Federal curation guidelines were issued in 1990 with 36 CFR Part 79, followed by a call for national standards by the Society for American Archaeology. It is not clear if these were successful because the current status of collections is generally unknown. Given this, I surveyed curation practices at 11 major US archaeological repositories, impediments to their implementation of modern curation standards, and their deaccessioning policies. Although many of the individual standards were being met, around one-third of the collections do not meet all the standards. Methods used to meet standards varied across institutions, and the major contributor to collections was heritage resource management. Funding and space were the most often reported impediments. Every institution reported deaccessioning, but not all had policies. Ultimately, collections have improved since the 1970s, but further progress is needed.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Mark Collard
Department: 
Environment: Department of Archaeology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

How to slash GHG emissions in the freight sector? Policy insights from a technology adoption model of Canada

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-01-09
Abstract: 

The movement of goods through freight transportation accounts for approximately 6% of total Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions worldwide and 10% of Canada’s emissions, yet the freight sector is rarely targeted by GHG abatement research and policy. To address this gap, I use a technology adoption model (CIMS-Freight) to explore the effectiveness of policies in achieving GHG reductions in land freight (trucking and rail), and to determine scenarios that achieve Canada’s ambitious GHG reduction targets (i.e. 80% by 2050 relative to 2005 levels). To account for uncertainty in model parameters, I incorporate a Monte Carlo Analysis in which I run 1000 iterations of each simulation. My modeling results indicate that current policies (i.e. fuel efficiency standards as well as the federally proposed carbon price and low-carbon fuel standard) will not achieve 2030 and 2050 GHG reduction targets – where freight emissions will continue to rise, albeit at a lower rate than a “no policy” scenario. I also simulate the effectiveness of several individual policies: fuel efficiency standards, a carbon tax, low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS), a zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV) mandate for truck and purchase subsidy. Even at their most stringent levels, no individual policy has a high probability (at least 67% of Monte Carlo iterations) of achieving 2030 or 2050 GHG reduction targets. Finally, I find that several policy combinations can have a high probability of achieving 2050 goals, in particular a stringent ZEV mandate for trucks complemented by a stringent LCFS. While other effective policies and policy combinations are possible, it is clear that Canada’s present and proposed policies are not nearly stringent enough to reach its ambitious emissions reductions targets.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Jonn Axsen
Department: 
Environment: School of Resource and Environmental Management
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.R.M.

Designing eBooks to facilitate mathematical dialogue during shared reading

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-01-15
Abstract: 

This research aimed to investigate the impact of variation in eBook design, specifically hotspots, on caregiver-preschooler dyads’ communications about mathematics story content during shared reading. Two eBooks were designed and compared. Hotspots in the math eBook guided joint attention to mathematically-related activated features; hotspots in the emotion-action eBook guided joint attention to emotions and actions of the characters. The hotspots were matched in number and type across both eBooks. The narrative and illustrations remained consistent between the two eBooks. The dyads’ interaction with different types of hotspots; and their use of spoken utterances and gestures were compared across the two conditions. Thirty-two dyads participated in this study; 16 in each group. Findings showed that, in both groups, all caregivers and children used spoken utterances and gestures, albeit to different extent, to express the mathematics content in the narrative. However, spoken utterances and gestures that aligned with mathematics occurred more frequently among dyads in the math condition compared to the other condition. Further, caregivers in the math condition responded to hotspots by asking high-level cognitive questions, and both caregivers and children in this condition reacted mostly by repeating what was heard. In the emotion-action condition, dyads reacted emotively to the hotspots. Findings also showed that dyads in the math condition – as opposed to their peers - tended to discuss the embedded mathematics activities. Thematic analysis was done to explore in more depth the interplay between the acting on the hotspot and the narrative concerning the communication about mathematics as the dyads discussed two activities embedded in the story. Three themes emerged regarding scaffolding of mathematical ideas, co-construction of ideas, as well as seeking self-discovery and agency of the child. Findings from the Caregiver Satisfaction Questionnaire showed differences across conditions in regards to the children’s attention; and similarities in perceptions of the children’s enjoyment and willingness to share eBooks in the future. Findings from this research raise implications for the future designs of eBooks; particularly regarding the content and placement of the hotspots.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Phil Winne
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Developing a vector light sensor

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-01-10
Abstract: 

Over the past few decades, numerous sensors have been invented for the measurement of light intensity. In most cases, a setup external to the sensor is required to detect the direction of an incoming beam of light. In this work, the design, fabrication, and characterization of a novel light sensor is described. The three-dimensional structure of the sensor allows it to detect both the intensity as well as the direction of the incident light beam, hence becoming a vector light sensor (VLS). The sensor structure is based on creating photodiodes on sidewalls of miniaturized raised or inverted pyramids etched in silicon. Each photodiode was formed by selective doping of the material on each facet of the pyramid, forming a photodiode with the P-type substrate. A set of signal processing algorithms was developed to estimate the direction and the distance of a light source from the sensors. The light sensing devices with both raised and inverted pyramid structures were then fabricated in a cleanroom based on silicon microfabrication technologies. Throughout the process, the lithography step for the textured surface needed to be optimized. An interface circuit was designed and used to amplify and process the signals from the devices. The device operation was verified experimentally to estimate the direction of a light beam. The small size and low power consumption of the individual sensors make them suitable for applications were simple distance and direction estimation is required. The sensors can be arrayed to provide light-field information in the plane of sensor.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Behraad Bahreyni
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.Sc.

Decision feedback scheme for spatial modulation

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-01-25
Abstract: 

Spatial Modulation (SM) is a newly developed Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technique where the antenna/spatial constellation is used as an information carrying unit in addition to the modulation constellation. Traditional SM techniques rely on periodic insertion of the pilot symbols to estimate the channel state information; however, it reduces the effective throughput. A differential SM (DSM) technique was developed to circumvent the need of channel estimation altogether. However, the computational complexity of the DSM increases exponentially with the increase of antennas and becomes impractical even for a moderate antenna array. In this scenario a novel clustering based decision feedback (CB-DFB) scheme is proposed in this thesis which similar to DSM does not require any pilot symbols, and yet has a very low complexity. A generalized CB-DFB scheme is later proposed which further overcomes the constraints of traditional SM techniques and increases the overall throughput.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Paul Ho
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.Sc.

Human lung cell responses caused by roadside particle types

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-01-22
Abstract: 

Particulate matter (PM), especially traffic-derived particles, is associated with adverse effects on human health. An in vitro dose-response methodology using human lung cells A549 was adopted to investigate lung cell culture responses [cytokine expression Interleukin (IL) –6, IL-8, and cell death] following incubation with traffic-derived particles. The basis of this study was to investigate interactions between the known components on ambient particles proximal to roadways. In using ambient particle type ERM-CZ120, and laboratory mimics of PM, cellular responses clearly indicate the importance of insoluble particle types that are internalized via endocytosis. Particle size appears to not be a principal factor, but particle-air interface chemistries, while not investigated in this work, are likely important. The soluble species used herein did not effect a response when introduced alone, but when combined with insoluble particle types, the cellular response in excess of the insoluble particle alone was measured. A probable mechanism is that the insoluble particles function as carriers, via endocytosis, and that process provides an access route for internalization of soluble species. As evidenced by one set of experiments, prediction of overall cellular response to a given dose of a specific particle type is not trivial. Ferrous iron, when introduced with silica particles, effected significant down-regulation of expressed cytokines, whereas lead ions effected significant up-regulation, but when ferrous iron and lead ions were co-administered with silica particles, cytokine expression was down-regulated. These results indicate the necessity to measure specific cellular responses as an outcome following a dose with a specific particle composition of insoluble and soluble components for which detailed physical and chemical composition information is known, and not to extrapolate to other particle types.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. George R. Agnes
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Refining the chronostratigraphy of the Lower Nanaimo Group, Vancouver Island, Canada, using detrital zircon geochronology

Author: 
Date created: 
2018-12-17
Abstract: 

Convergent-margin basins (CMBs) are rich in broadly coeval detrital zircon (DZ) owing to the proximity of active magmatic belts. Consequently, DZ geochronology can be employed to assess the utility of stratigraphic frameworks developed for these basins. This study uses DZ data to assess the utility of lithostratigraphy developed for the Cretaceous-aged lower Nanaimo Group in the Georgia Basin, Canada. Results show that the basal lithostratigraphic unit of the Nanaimo Group, the Comox Formation, comprises strata that are neither time correlative nor genetically related. The three lithostratigraphic units directly overlying the Comox Formation (Haslam, Extension, and Protection formations) comprise strata with similar genetic affinities, indicating that deposition of these units was not entirely sequential, and contemporaneous in some locales. Further, sediment provenance evolved through time, which the existing lithostratigraphic framework does not reflect. This work demonstrates that DZ geochronology can effectively test the utility of stratigraphic frameworks in CMBs.

Document type: 
Thesis
Senior supervisor: 
Shahin E. Dashtgard
Department: 
Science: Department of Earth Sciences
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.

River network structuring of climate and landscape effects in salmon watersheds

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-01-09
Abstract: 

Climate change is altering historic patterns of temperature and precipitation worldwide with significant implications for the abiotic and biotic dynamics of river ecosystems. Flowing downhill, precipitation aggregates into creeks, streams and eventually rivers, forming a branching network over the landscape architecturally similar to the branches, limbs and trunk of a tree. Linking disparate locations, these river networks integrate the varied expressions of climate within a watershed. Thus, the river network offers a framework for understanding how spatial patterns of climate are organized and become manifest in rivers. By considering the river network's structuring of climate and landscape interactions, we might better understand how climate and land-use change impact river ecosystems and more clearly identify particularly vulnerable biota. In chapter 2, I examine how river networks dampen signals of climate change in hydrologic flow by integrating varied flow trends from upstream. I demonstrate that by integrating a diverse climate portfolio, the network accumulates changing flow regimes of different volatility, direction and magnitude, such that on average downstream climate change trends are moderated. In chapter 3, I consider the match-mismatch potential of juvenile salmon migrating towards the springtime zooplankton resource pulse in the estuary. I show that populations further from, and whose climate is more dissimilar to, the estuary, are more likely to miss the peak zooplankton bloom. These findings suggest migratory distance influences phenological mismatch risk among populations. My fourth chapter develops an unsupervised machine learning method for cleaning stream temperature data to facilitate big data studies. In chapter 5, I gathered temperature data at over 100 locations throughout a watershed the size of Ireland, over 4 years at 2-hour intervals resulting in over 1 million data points. These data informed a spatial stream network model that quantified how landscape features and river connectivity control seasonal temperature dynamics. These temperature dynamics across space and time revealed that different adult salmon migrations have very different exposures to warm temperatures. Collectively, these findings illustrate that river networks: 1. integrate and dampen signals of climate change, 2. structure phenological match-mismatch patterns and 3. organize thermal exposure potential of biota.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Jonathan Moore
Department: 
Science: Biological Sciences Department
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

On the role of possibility in action execution and knowledge in the Situation Calculus

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-01-11
Abstract: 

Formalization of knowledge is an important aspect of reasoning about change. We review how knowledge is formalized in the Situation Calculus (a logical formalism for reasoning about action and change) and discuss the problems that occur when unexecutable actions (those actions whose preconditions are not met at the time of execution) are involved. We then provide a generalized framework that addresses these problems by tracing back source of the problem to the answer provided to the Frame Problem in the Situation Calculus. We develop a more generalized form for Successor Sate Axioms based on the new account of the solution to the Frame Problem and show how this solves the problems related to involvement of unexecutable actions.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
James Delgrande
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Computing Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.