Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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This collection contains digitized SFU theses except for those theses submitted within the last 12 months. If you cannot find the thesis you are looking for please search Recently Submitted Theses as it may be a recently submitted thesis and thus not yet available in Summit.

The challenge of developing sustainability in Tierra Del Fuego: Environmentalist contestation of the Rio Condor Forest Project in Chile

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2006
Abstract: 

Globally and nationally, corporations, states, and social movements are key social actors in initiatives to overcome deforestation through sustainable development projects. In Chile in the early 1990s, the Trillium Corporation of Bellingham, WA, US proposed but, after what amounted to a 13-year dispute, failed to develop the innovative Rio Condor sustainable forestry project to extract timber and foster socio-economic development in Tierra del Fuego. Based on my analysis of findings from participant observation, reports, secondary data, and 40 interviews that included representatives from Trillium, the Chilean government, environmental organizations, media and forest industry, it became evident that these key actors adapted and resisted socially constructed ideas of sustainable development and of environmentalism. In addition, the importance in recognizing ecological limits, regardless of one's take on environmentalism for socioeconomic development become evident along with revealing important lessons in the process of developing sustainability.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Marilyn Gates
Department: 
Arts and Social Scienes: Sociology and Anthropology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Re/framing Aboriginal social policy issues in the news: old stereotypes and new opportunities

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2007
Abstract: 

This dissertation examines representations of Aboriginal people and issues in the news media in historical times (1862-7) as well as in the modern era (1991-2003). Previous studies – most notably the review of Aboriginal people and the media conducted by the 1996 Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) – have found evidence of persistent patterns of racism and ethnocentrism in all forms of public discourse. Techniques of content analysis and critical discourse analysis are applied to news stories about treaty negotiations and Aboriginal child welfare issues appearing in national newspapers, major daily newspapers, community newspapers as well as Aboriginal publications. The findings of this research indicate that news reports about Aboriginal issues display ethnocentrism and stereotyping and utilize dominant news frames that contain and limit Aboriginal voices. Furthermore, the press covers critical issues, which have long historical antecedents that are little understood or known by the public, in a thoroughly de-contextualized fashion. While Aboriginal issues tend to be reported in ways that support the status quo, this reportage is not monolithic. Due to a variety of factors that influence the production of the news, including journalistic imperatives emphasizing "balance" and "objectivity," even news coverage of Aboriginal issues that is steeped in dominance must reiterate contradictions inherent in relations between mainstream Canadian society and Aboriginal people. This affords opportunities for Aboriginal people and others to foster new public discourses that challenge hegemonic values. As well, the public has demonstrated an ability, under certain conditions, to resist racist and stereotypical interpretations of events. Finally, voices of Aboriginal people are increasingly included in public discourse and most Aboriginal organizations have communications or media relations branches which systematically attempt to influence reporting on Aboriginal issues and counteract "bias" in the press. This research furnishes a media resource not only for Aboriginal people, but for anyone concerned with social justice, in analyzing the news and challenging dominant representations of Aboriginal people and issues.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Robert Anderson
Department: 
Faculty of Applied Sciences: Special Arrangements
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

U.K. social workers’ attitudes toward assisted death, policies guiding practice, and transformational collaboration: Holding fast to medico-ethical principles of beneficence, non-malfeasance and social justice

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2006
Abstract: 

Social workers play a key, but unacknowledged role regarding end-of-life decisions. The dearth of research on social workers’ attitudes toward assisted death is in stark contrast to the abundance of research on assisted death involving health care practitioners. Through analysis of data collected on members of the British Association of Social Workers (BASW) in 1998, this research examines attitudes of social workers toward assisted death (AD) including both voluntary euthanasia (VE) and assisted suicide (AS). Several hypotheses are developed from the available literature on assisted death involving social work and medical practice. The quantitative data are supplemented with written responses by BASW members. There is variation between social workers’ support of AD by country. English social workers are the most supportive, followed by Scottish, Welsh and Northern Ireland social workers. As a group, social workers support legalizing VE (72%) and AS (72.5%). A majority of social workers (69%) endorsed the Dutch model of legalized euthanasia. A minority of social workers (25%) indicated that they would report a colleague they suspected was involved in an assisted death. Catholics were less supportive of legalizing assisted death and the Dutch model of euthanasia but, regardless of religion, most social workers respect their clients’ wishes regarding end-of-life choices. Although less than 50% of social workers want to be involved in the decision-making making process with clients, over 65% indicated a willingness to engage in policy development regarding assisted death. Given their position, policy development is essential for social workers to be effective in end-of-life care. The theoretical perspective guiding the research shows that social workers support medico-ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance and social justice in assisted death. This finding places social workers in an important position regarding care of the dying. Future research should include the development and test of a collaborative model of training for all practitioners working with those facing end-of-life decisions. As a profession, social work must prepare itself for the challenges posed by growing populations of persons facing end-of-life decisions.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Brian Burtch
Department: 
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences: Special Arrangements
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

Policing As Poetry: Phenomenological And Aesthetic Reflections Upon The Bureaucratic Approach To Human Predicaments

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2005
Abstract: 

Police-citizen encounters in late modern society occur as the enactment of a bureaucratic approach to human predicaments. Police praxis depends upon the ability to translate these complex situations into bureaucratically resolvable "problems." This process of translation is part of the overall interpretation of experience, whereby meanings are created and ascribed to a given moment. The creation of meaning inherent to any kind of praxis is understandable as an elemental form of poetry. This poetic aspect of praxis represents the existential intersection of experience with the specific ontological first principles that provide the basis for its interpretation. In the case of bureaucratic praxis, such as policing, these principles enable the problematization of human being, whereby human presence becomes meaningful through its reification as abstract subjectivity. The underlying ontology of bureaucratic problematization exists in parallel form in the approach of mainstream social scientific praxis. Hence, the two forms of praxis are essentially interrelated. While the dissertation's immediate focus is upon the analysis of the ontological foundations of bureaucratic police praxis, it further represents a philosophical engagement with the disciplinary self-conception of criminology. The dissertation pursues these intersecting goals using the approach of a phenomenological aesthetics of encounter. The guiding thesis of a phenomenological aesthetics of encounter holds that the ontological foundations of praxis may be disclosed using aesthetic forms to reveal aspects of human presence, which are otherwise overlooked in the selfinterpretations of everyday action, and their second-order interpretations by mainstream social science. The dissertation presents narratives of police-citizen encounters, drawn from the author's professional experiences in policing, and interprets them through the juxtaposition of aesthetic representations of encounter, which are chosen from several genres, and used to illuminate aspects of human presence that are effaced when it is approached as an abstract, reified "problem." These reflections upon the ontological foundations of praxis and their enactment in policing lead to an explanation of the inherently self-subverting nature of the bureaucratic approach to human predicaments, and of allied approaches in mainstream criminology. If it is truly to progress, praxis must develop critical knowledge of its underlying first principles.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Robert Gordon
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: School of Criminology
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

Intellectual identity and the culture industry: Critical thought about intellectuals and mass culture from Adorno to Seinfeld

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2006
Abstract: 

intellectual Identity and the Culture Industry: Critical Thought about Inte11'ectuals and Mass Culture discusses the life of the intellect and the intellectual as they relate, or fail to relate to, the problems of mass culture. In Chapter One, I evaluate the work of Theodor W. Adorno. I consider Adorno's critique of jazz as the prototype for his formidable assault on the culture industry at large and its role in the downfall of intellectual discourse. I identify comedy as a potentially subversive strain within mass culture. I advance what is not so much a methodological or historical approach to intellectuals and mass culture, but an attitude toward the phenomena under investigation, one that is, following Adorno, both uncompromising and intellectually rigorous. Chapter Two charts the fate of the intellectual both in and outside of ac:ademia, particularly as addressed by critiques of The Last Intellectuals. Russell Jacoby, Andrew Ross, Richard A. Posner and Noam Chomsky are discussed in terms of intellectual life in our time. Chapter Three surveys the mass cultural landscape, singling out the television comedy Seinfeld as exemplary of the best of what mass culture is capable of, demonstrating my own ability to 'do' Critical Theory, and to forward a cultural critique reflecting moral, ethical and spiritual criteria of judgment. The partial absence of a completely unified resolution between these two chapters resonates with an apprehension of the Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School as breaking with the intellectual tradition of foundationalism that emphasizes unity. As such what is presented is a critical alternative to the dominance of the intellectual tradition running from Descartes through positivism. I contend that the problem of intellectual life in relation to mass culture resists harmonious integration into a singular conceptual totality, because I maintain hope that the individual intellect can retain a degree of integrity and efficacy in spite of a monolithic cultural apparatus bent on deluding us at the junciture where culture comes to function as social control.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Jerald Zaslove
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Special Arrangements: English, Humanities, Fine Arts, Communication - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.A.)

Medicine, metaphors and metaphysics: An interdisciplinary analysis of the ethical, medical and sociocultural questions raised by therapeutic equivalence

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2006
Abstract: 

The practice of medicine is the latter-day solution to that intensely human and social predicament we call illness. Medical discourse, however, increasingly tends towards guidelines, protocols, cost considerations and other institutionally-derived issues. This dissertation examines a single concept, therapeutic equivalence, and utilizes it as a metaphor for this focal shift, arguing that this reduced perspective not only ignores the considerable socio-cultural context in which illness takes place, but adversely affects the paradigms and practice of medicine - as well as research, policy and clinical care. Therapeutic equivalence is the basis for a health (pharmaceutical) policy usually called reference-based pricing, used in many jurisdictions and institutions around the world (such as New Zealand's Pharmac, the BC Reference Drug Program and the majority of American HMO's), in which pharmacoeconomic analyses determine the most costeffective drug(s) within a certain class of drugs in order to restrict general access. Using the well-studied BC reference drug program (RDP) as its primary example, this work examines the regulatory and evidentiary framework of the term 'equivalence', analyzes the medical research on therapeutic equivalence and delves into the deeper socio-cultural and epistemological questions the term raises to demonstrate how institutional and statistical interpretations of pathology now dominate medical discourse. The many uncertainties, ambiguities and variations inherent to physiology, pharmacodynamics and pharn~acokinetics are thus ignored; risk is minimized and subjective states and individual narratives of illness, largely disregarded. Moving from drug classificationsldefinitions and the conceptual underpinnings of medical research to the increased convergence of corporate and research interests, this work examines the limitations of ontological disease classifications which assume knowledge is static and questions the current emphasis on biomarkers and numeric results (e.g., blood pressure or cholesterol readings). This work argues that such classification systems are limiting and frame illness in reductionist ways - and have ethical, iatrogenic, medical, social and personal consequences. Broader and more nuanced communications, with greater patient input, are called for. Keywords: equivalence, therapeutic equivalence, reference based pricing, reference drug program, health economics, ethics of pharmaceutical policy, health policy criticism, epistemology of health, sociology of pharmaceutical policy, patient involvement, participatory action research and empowering patients

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Patricia M. Howard
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Special Arrangements: Communication, Business Administration - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

A context, categorization and measurement of international learning outcomes

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2006
Abstract: 

The movement of scholars to centres of learning - academic mobility - predates both the nation state and the university. As notions of statehood evolved, the state assumed responsibility for educating its citizenry, authority which has stood the test of time. Institutions evolved relying on external support in exchange for suasion over what was taught and to whom, evolving a dynamic symbiosis as all players realized positive outcomes from their engagement in education. In today's more complex context, each player continues to realize value in supporting education and in supporting international student mobility. This dissertation places the activity of mobility in historical, political, educational and global contexts that illustrate the evolving role of the state in supporting higher education, and the state's continuing attempts to influence the course of education through the more modern activity of student mobility. Trends such as globalization and massification are addressed, as is internationalization, to explain the rationale of the state for this continued engagement and the motivations of primary stakeholders - the state, the institution and the individual - to support study abroad. Positive outcomes are achieved by all players, hence their ongoing support. But what are these outcomes? A continuum of potential international learning outcomes is established from which the primary stakeholders choose hoped-for outcomes to motivate their engagement; these include economic and linguistic imperatives as well as intellectual, social and personal/attitudinal outcomes. The literature review leads to a methodology and research instrument used on a population of sojourners to test for the achievement of these outcomes and if achievement is significantly and causally related to the study abroad activity itself. or perhaps to some other variable. Data are conclusive and corroborate previous studies in showing positive intellectual and personal outcomes. Recommendations are made on the current research and for other research topics germane to the field of outcomes study. Of import is an exploration of the data's applicability for practitioners in pursuing outcomes-motivated programming, and the adaptation of new mobility models to replace much of the laissez-faire mobility programming common today, towards achieving sought-after outcomes and the internationalization objectives of institutions.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Jan Walls
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Special Arrangements: Humanities, Education and Political Science - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

Laser induced dielectric breakdown and mechanical damage in silicate glasses.

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

Dielectric breakdown and mechanical damage in silicate glasses under high intensity laser radiation is investigated in detail. A Q-switched ruby laser is used to induce photoconductivity in soda glass., fused quartz and quartz crystal. 27 The number of charge carriers produced per laser pulse of 10 -2 -1 photons cm s is accounted for by multiphoton ionization of nonbridging oxygens in the silicon oxygen network. The relative magnitude of the effect proves that the photoconductivity does not result from ionization of sodium in glass as extensively quoted in literature. The lifetime of the charge carriers produced is estimated to be 10 s. Prom thermoelastic considerations a criterion for the validity of possible damage mechanisms is established. It is shown that stimulated Brillouin scattering cannot give rise to an effective absorption of 50 cm in the focal volume as required by the thermoelastic considerations. It is proposed and established that the mechanical damage is caused by the acceleration of primary electrons produced by multiphoton ionization, leading to a fully developed electronic instability in few nanoseconds. At this electron density the absorption in the focal volume is 10 cm" , and is responsible for the complete absorption of the laser pulse at intensities above the threshold for breakdown. The diffusion and recombination of electrons are found to be negligible, the only rate limiting - iii - process being the loss of electron energy to the lattice. The variation in the threshold intensity for breakdown in different glasses is due to the variations in the elastic scattering cross section. The study of the mechanical damage caused by a laser pulse., leads to the estimation of the surface energy of the (-material, which in the case of soda glass is found to be 10 ergs/cm The enhancement of the photoconductivity signal is obtained when -5 -4 a second laser pulse comes within the time 10 -5 x 10 sec. of the first pulse. The additional number of electrons produced by the second pulse is accounted for by the ionization of the color centers,, caused by trapping the electrons produced by the first pulse. - iv -

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
K.E. Rieckhoff
Department: 
Science: Department of Physics
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

Luminescence studies in cadmium sulphide.

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

This thesis describes some properties of the luminescence from single crystals and evaporated thin films of CdS under optical and electron beam excitation. A comparison . of optical and electron beam excitation mechan-ismSj as applied to the study of luminescence from solids,, is made. It is concluded that the variable penetration depth of high energy electrons with accelerating voltage can be readily used to distinguish between surface and bulk effects,, and that electron beam excitation can be used to advantage when the efficiency of a radiative process is low and high excitation intensity is required. The main advantage of optical excitation is in the vertical excitation of electrons from lower to higher energy levels which arises from the negligible momentum of the incident photons. Optical excitation spectra of various bound exciton emission lines in single crystals of Cds are , presented . It is shown that -the complex responsible for the so-called I, emission ^ due to the annihilation of an exciton bound to a neutral acceptor,, is created by the direct formation of bound excitons on the impurity site and by the formation of free or intrinsic excitons which are subsequently trapped on the impurity. The complexes responsible for the so-called 1 and I,- emission are also created by the formation of intrinsic excitons but more importantly they are created by direct phonon assisted formation of excitons bound to neutral and ionized impurities. It is concluded that the impurity involved is a donor. Electron beam excited luminescence from evaporated thin films of CdS is obtained. The transitions giving rise to this luminescence are identified as resulting from the recombination of free electrons with bound holes (free-bound emission) and from the recombination of bound electrons with bound holes (bound-bound emission) with the simultaneous emission of n LO phonons (n = 0,, 1, 2, ...). It is shown that if the films are coated with a 2000A thick layer of SiO , causing the CdS energy bands to be bent down at the X SiO - CdS interface,, the peak position of the free-bound emission x is shifted toward higher energies when the incident electrons have a small penetration depth (low energy). This is shown to result from an accumulation layer of electrons at the SiO - CdS inter- X. face .

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
R.R. Haering
Department: 
Science: Department of Physics
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

Hydrostatic pressure in relation to the synchronous culture of algae in open and closed systems.

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

Chlorella ellipsoidea cultured using conventional methods under a 14: 10 light-dark regime in Bai j eririck ' s medium at 25?+ 1?with 700 ft-c illumination resulted in synchronous division with an n number of 4. Under identical conditions of light intensity, temperature, culture medium, and light-dark regime but in a closed system which was designs to study the effects of hydrostatic pressure on synchronous algae cultures, synchronous cell division did not occur and the n number was 2 or less at 1 atm. The most significant difference in the culture conditions arises because the concentrations of dissolved gases (mainly CCu and O^) remain relatively constant throughout the growth cycle in the open system while the gases vary in concentration continuously during the cycle in the closed system. In the closed system C>2 increases continuously c?CO-p decreases during the light period; the reverse is true in the dark. Analyses of the rati.os of dry weight, protein content, and cell size showed increases of approximately 2 in the closed system and 4 in the open system. The intent of this study was to determine effects of hydrostatic pressure on the physiology and morphology of algae. Therefore it was essential to develop techniques for successful culture in a closed system. Various modifications of culture conditions were made in attempts (only partially successful) to obtain equal growth in the two systems. 11 The effects of variations in some environmental parameters on the n number, dry weight, protein concentration, and cell size in the open and closed systems were investigated. With varied growing conditions of light intensity (15-700 ft--c), light- dark regimes (14: 10, 16: 8, 18: 6, 6: 18, 8: 16, 10: 14), media (Beijerinck, Burr, Sorokin, Tamiya and Morimura, and Beijerinck's modified with bicarbonate), CC^ concentration (0-100% saturation), and the addition of organic substances (glycolate, ascorbate, dithiothreitol) the n number and the ratios of increase in the other growth criteria were 4 in the open system but never more than 2 in the closed system. The n number and ratios of increase in dry weight, protein content and cell size were 4 in the open system at atmospheric Cu concentration but only 2 or less at high 02 (50 and 95%) concentration. These results indicate that high C>2 is probably responsible for the descrepancies in the n number and the rEitios of increase of the other criteria between the open and closed systems. Photosynthetically evolved 0^ in the closed system during the light period appears to be sufficient to induce this Warburg Effect. It was hypothesized that the Warburg Effect is responsible for the observed differences in increases in the growth criteria in the open and closed systems. Experiments were carried out to determine if photosynthetically evolved 02 was inhibiting cell growth. Using the Biological Oxygen Monitor algal samples were exposed to ? concentrations varying from 0 to 100% saturation at 25?with 700 ft-c Ill illumination. On the basis of these results which have indicated a decrease in the relative rates of O^ evolution at high 02 concentrations, it was concluded that Op evolved in the closed system could be responsible for the inhibition of photosynthesis. Synchronous growth under pressure has not yet been obtained. However, pressure effects on cell division were investigated. The n number was 4 in cells dividing while exposed to pressures of up to 200 atm, but pressures above 335 atm completely inhibited cell division. A possible mutagenic effect of pressure exposure on algal cells was considered.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
William Vidaver
Department: 
Science: Department of Biological Sciences
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.