Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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This collection contains digitized SFU theses except for those theses submitted within the last 12 months. If you cannot find the thesis you are looking for please search Recently Submitted Theses as it may be a recently submitted thesis and thus not yet available in Summit.

Uptake and evolution of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis : a survey of plant divisions.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

The exchange of CO2 in light was studied in plants of six divisions. The rates of CO2 uptake in light, of CO2 evolution in darkness, and the concentration of CO2 at C02 compensation point were measured in a closed system with an infrared gas analyser. The CO2 evolution rate in light was then calculated from these measurements. Rates of C02 exchange and CO2 compensation points were similarly measured at several concentrations of oxygen between 2% and 100%. The CO concentration at CO compensation point was a linear function of O2 concentration in eleven of the twelve species studied. The CO2 compensation point of corn was not affected by O2 . At 60% O2, the inhibition of rates of CO2 uptake was of the same magnitude in all species studied. The minimum rate of CO2 evolution in light was found to be at least twice the rate of CO2 evolution in the dark in ten of eleven species.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
C.D. Nelson
Department: 
Science: Department of Biological Sciences
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.

Interband optical absorption in semiconductors.

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

A unified, treatment of the direct. Intel-band optical absorption in semiconductors in the presen'.-;.- f external static electric and magnetic fields., is presented in tne framework of the 'effective mass approximation1. A general expression for tne absorption coefficient Is derived, wnlcn in une appr..?par at el.y which may provide the values of effective masses .in alilerent bands. The experimental conditions,, and the validity criterion for the perturbation theory., are thoroughly discussed. Some attention :.i s paid to the study of magnetic field induced surface states. Whereas suen states have been observed recently in metals, there is no experimental or theoretical evidence as to whether or not these states exist in semiconductors. We have theoretically predicted that such states do in fact exist even in semiconductors. The experimental conditions under which surface states may be detected experimentally in semiconductors are discussed. The arguments are supported with quantitative calculations,, where possible. Throughout the entire presentation we nave restricted ourselves to the study of direct band gap semiconductors. - 11 -

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
R.R. Haering
Department: 
Science: Department of Physics
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

The Anglo-Asante War of 1873-1874 : a narrative and analysis.

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, it is intended to be the narrative of a war which resulted in a radical change in British policy on the West Coast of Africa. Second, it is an attempt to assess, in military terms, the manner in which the British conducted their campaign against the Asarite in 1873-1874. The information upon which the study is based was secured primarily from the Colonial Office Confidential Print, the Sessional Papers of the British Parliament, and several edited collections of documents - notably those compiled by J.J. Crooks, G.E. Metcalfe, and C.W. Mewbury. In addition, however, works published by many of the participants themselves proved to be invaluable. Although studies published by V/.V.T. Claridge, U. Kimble, and W.E.F. Ward were used somewhat extensively, secondary materials provided little more than background information. As an introduction, the growth of British involvement on the Gold uoast and the development of the Anglo-Asante dispute is traced from the time of the first British contact with the region up to the very eve of war. The study then proceeds to examine in detail the conduct of the campaign against the Asante. Finally, because the official documents and much of the primary source material present a distorted view of the roles played by the various participants, an attempt is made to re-evaluate the - IV - performance of those participants. This approach has revealed that much of what was written of this war was either biased or incomplete. For example, Colonel R.W. Harley, the Administrator of the Gold uoast until October 1S?3, was a ?who received little recognition for his role in the war yet he is revealed as a man who accomplished much in the face of almost overwhelming odds. Similarly, the Fanti tribesmen, who were consistently reviled for their laziness and cowardice at this time, emerge in a considerably better light. In addition, the role which Captain John Glover, R.M., played in the war is proven to have been much more significant than hitherto acknowledged. Above all, Major-General Sir Garnet Uolseley, who is often referred to as one of Britain's greatest generals, is proven in this instance to have been a soldier of far less merit than previously supposed.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Alexander Peter Kup
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of History
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Field effect investigations in thin cadmium sulfide films.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1967
Abstract: 

Field effect investigations on thin cadmium sulfide films have yielded a method of controlling the surface potential. The control of the surface potential is achieved by the successive evaporation of two dielectrics, GaF2 and SiO. The SiO produces donor-like surface states at the CdS surface,, while CaF2 produces acceptor-like surface states. By evaporating a thin layer of CaF2 between the CdS and SiO., the effect of the donor-like surface states on the surface conduction of CdS may be reduced. Thus, by proper choice of the CaF3 thickness, any surface potential between the limits of SiO and CaF2 may be obtained. The analysis, construction, and performance of a new evaporated, thin-film transistor capable of withstanding over 300 V is described. This thin-film transistor will switch a current of 100p.a with a gate voltage of less than 50 V, and is particularly suited as a transistor controlled switch. The large increase in operating voltage is achieved, by changes in the device geometry, material characteristics, and through careful control of the CdS surface potential by 'the method, described above. Devices were constructed with an incremental saturation resistance of 200Mi7, and a maximum operating voltage in excess of 350 V. These transistors were used to switch electro- luminescent lamps with gate voltages of 50 V in less than 0.2 msec. The transistors with semiconducting layers of CdS, utilizing CaF3 _, Si03 and Ge03 insulators and Al electrodes^ were fabricated on glass substrates by vacuum evaporation. In related experiment it was found that an evaporated CaP3 layer could be used to vary the surface potential of germanium,, and the effects of controlling the surface potential of a Ge(Li) p-i-n diode were observed. A thickness of 150 to 200 A of CaF3 appeared to restore the surface potential in the intrinsic region to the bulk value,, and thus resulted in a lower surface leakage current. - 11 -

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
R.R. Haering
Department: 
Science: Department of Physics
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

An analysis of the audio-lingual approach as applied to methods of teaching Russian.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1967
Abstract: 

Problem:The term audio-lingual approach is used to denote a specific pedagogical orientation which grew out jgf_language-teaching programmes for United States military personnel during the Second World War. Its basic distinction from the traditional approaches is that language is to be taught as speech rather than as writing and grammar, as a living vehicle of communication rather than as a fossilized set of printed rules and paradigms. Language-learning, as defined audio-lingually, involves the acquisition of skills in speaking and understanding speech, while reading and writing are secondary skills based on the spoken language. Despite the acknowledged superiority over traditional methods, however, the new approach has not met with widespread acceptance. Its radical requirements have brought opposition from grammar-oriented language--teachers. Linguists themselves have challenged its effectiveness in actual classroom experience. Not all textbooks or teaching-methods purported to be based on the audio-lingual approach apply its principles to the same degree. Analysis: In considering the success of the audio-lingual approach itself we first examine its basic tenet regarding the primacy of speech and its IV claimed significance in the teaching of foreign languages. The specific challenges to this claim (especially those based on the principles of gradation and rate of learning) are then discussed as to their validity and conclusions drawn accordingly. In the next chapter the parallel development of both hearing and speaking skills is considered, together with the problem of interference from the learner's native tongue; contextual factors such as dialect, style, tempo, and vehicle of presentation are also taken into account here. Finally we turn our attention to the actual assimilation of language-material by the learner in the classroom situation. The aim in each case is to determine what factors are essential to or desirable in a successful audio-lingual teaching-method, S The second part of the thesis is devoted to an analysis of four i audio-lingual textbooks for beginning Russian students (Cornyn's Beginning Russian, Modern Russian by Dawson, Bidwell, and Humesky, Basic Conversational Russian by Fairbanks and Leed, and the A-LM Russian: Level One} on the basis of the criteria already established in the first part. The analysis covers not only the presentation and assimilation of audio--lingual skills in general, but also some of the individual difficulties involved in the mastery of those skills as far as teaching Russian to English-speaking students is concerned. Conclusions: A comprehensive summary in diagram form compares the treatment of different items in the audio-lingual approach by the four teaching-methods discussed. General conclusions are then divided into two parts: a) the recommendation that in audio-lingual methods sufficient attention be given to the learner's age and degree of literacy, his ability to understand as well as produce fluent speech, and his awareness of the finer points of contrast between the new language and his own; b) conclusions as to how well each of these considerations is treated in the different textbooks. A further final comment is made as to the success with which each of the teaching-methods, from an over-all viewpoint, applies the principles of the audio-lingual approach.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Edward R. Calhoun
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of Modern Languages
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Étude morphologique et syntaxique du français parlé par un groupe de jeunes gens a Maillardville (C.B.).

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

None

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
G.L. Bursill-Hall
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of Modern Languages
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Language structure and verse structure.

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1967
Abstract: 

This thesis sets out to find ways of discussing the structure of English verse purely in terms of language without recourse to extra-linguistic metrical abstraction. Transformation-generative grammar and other linguistic theories are brought together wherever possible in order to search out linguistic tools for the analysis of verse structure. The 'structure1 of verse is taken to include verse movement and verse language, but not poetlo form or content. Section I This section sets out to develop the phonemic clause as a possible unit of verse structure. The role of Juncture and intonation in verse movement are considered as well as that of stress, and so is the connection of the perception of suprasegmentals with the underlying phrase structure. The syllable Is considered as the segmental unit of language and its traditional role In verse theory is discussed. The verse line is considered both as a graphic unit and in its relationship to spoken language. Juncture is found to be the factor common to both the phonic division of speech and the graphic division of verse. Verse is divided into two main types according to structure: metered and unmetered verse. The language elements of both metered and unmetered verse are examined together with the possible effect of breathing, and other physiological rhythms, on verse movement. Rules are postulated for the generation of a hypothetical verse line as an extension of H.B. Stookwell's rules for Intonation in the generation of a sentence. Section II In this section, six examples of unmetered verse are analysed according to Juncture divisions into phonemic clauses and are discussed according to underlying phrase structure and other linguistic features. In all six poems, a second analysis is made according to the poet's reading of the poem. A graphic recording of the voice sound was made in each case, and for the live readings, there was also a graphic recording of breath by means of a respiration curve synchronised with the voice. Conclusions The conclusions of this thesis are that verse structure can be analysed In terms of Juncture and the phonemic clause. That Juncture plays a significant part In the movement of verse and offers a practicable division point for the setting up of a unit of verse movement. That the poet's particular use of verse language is an extension of the main language. That in any physical observation of verse readings, the limitations of perception must be taken into account. That although breathing patterns as observed suggest possible connections with the verse line, no general conclusions can be drawn at this point.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Lionel Kearns
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of English
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Time, death, and mutability : a study of themes in some poetry of the Renaissance - Spenser, Shakespeare, and Donne

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

This study was undertaken in order to examine some examples of Renaissance poetry in the light of the themes of love, death, time, and mutability. The scope of the thesis has been restricted to the Mutabilitie Cantos and the Fowre Hymnes of Edmund Spenser; the Sonnets and Ovidian poems of Shakespeare; and the Songs and Sonets and Divine Poems of John Donne. The emphasis of the thesis rests on the poetry of John Donne; but to appreciate better the power of his synthesis of the sacred and profane, the author first examines the Christian idealism of Spenser and the "realism" of Shakespeare. Spenser is seen as the poet of ideals. He looks beyond the world of decay and time to a "Sabaoth of the Soul". His Hymnes. while not denying the possibility of love in time, see no way for romantic love to transcend death* Nor is earthly love of the same nature as man's love for God. Shakespeare, while recognizing the sway that Time holds over man, asserts the ability of love in friendship?and its expression in verse??triumph over change and decay. Unlike Spenser, he is not interested in ideal or eternal existences. Both poets have affinities with Donne. Like Spenser, Donne speaks in terms of eternity. Like Shakespeare, he affirms man's ability to overcome time and change in this world of mutability. His argumentative style and his synthesis of sacred and profane love set him apart. This study examines the varieties of experience found in his love poetry, culminating in his statement in such poems as The Canonization, The Anniversarie, and The Exstasie, that romantic love assumes the eternal stature of sacred love, yet never loses its attachment to physical experience. In his religious verse also love varies; man can be an inconstant lover of God f as well as of women. But always Donne stresses the continuity of experience from love of women to love of God, and the ability of both kinds of love to withstand time and change. The thesis has tried to avoid identification of life with art, the poet with the poem. Sources and antecedents have been used only where they illuminate the themes under scrutiny. Throughout the study, the ordering used for the poems is not intended to be chronological. The study is a triptych, examining the individual poets without drawing conclusions as to the superiority of one statement over another.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
F. Candelaria
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of English
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

A content analytic study of the newspaper coverage of an educational controversy at Simon Fraser University.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

Tho purple or lh;;. r!-.?-s i j; was i.o lU'.srribe the newspaper coverage or a particular educational issue us in;; the methodology of content analysis. Because communication is vital to all educational activities, it is essential that educators be continually increasing their knowledge of this process in order to facilitate effective learning. For nearly two weeks in March of 1967, Simon Fraser University was the setting of an educational controversy that involved the administration, faculty and students. The conflict, which was initiated by the behavior of a group of teaching assistants, generated community-wide and province-wide interest. It was the coverage of this conflict by the local press that was examined in this study. It was hypothesized that the editorial attitude toward a specific issue would affect communication in the news columns concerning that issue. The newspaper reporter was considered a gatekeeper because he controls che flow of news in a communication channel. In order to obtain a general picture of the local press coverage of Simon Fraser University, it was necessary to examine the history of the relationship between the university and the newsmen. This was achieved through a story-count analysis of articles about Sixor. Fraser which appeared during the period from July, 1963 to March, 1967, inclusive. An analysis of the gatekeeping behavior of the newspapers involved an examination of the total related content flowing through the news channel and was accomplished by utilizing various content analytic methods. These were; contingency analysis, a qualitative IV procedure that seeks Lo cxar.M-.-.c the pro'oabil: ly Chat a specified symbol will be drawn r.iven that other spec i fii'd sy~.bo"l:; are in that or related units; evaluative assertion analysis, a quantitative procedure for ".ensuring the evaluative intensity and direction ot certain concepts; direction analysis, which involved determining the evaluative direction of each paragraph.; and a display index, which provided scores on the display variables that given one item prominence over another. A questionnaire was also given to the local education editors, in order to gain information about their background and duties. \snaile the results of the background analysis and the analysis of the gatekeeping behavior seemed to support the hypothesis they did not prove anything but only suggested that the gatekeeping behavior of these particular newspapers, in this paricular case, seeir.ed to have been effected by the editorial attitude. However, several variables were discussed which may have affected the results. These included: the social organization of the newsroom; the attitudes and perceptions of the reporter; selectivity; the physical production of the newspaper; the student press; polarization of the conflict; and the responsibility of the newspaper. It was suggested that education, as a discipline, must pay more heed to the role of communication in the educational process and must be prepared to support research in this area.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Robert J.C. Harper
Department: 
Education: Department of Behavioural Science Foundations
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Ed.

School for pass-whites.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1967
Abstract: 

The argument is pursued that the social structure of a suburban high school in South Africa can be related to the racial policy of the central government, the mores of the residents of the suburb, and the career ambitions of school teachers. Data collected, mainly by means of observer participation, in the suburb and in the school, is adduced in support of the argument. Description proceeds from the general to the particular: from a broad overview of race-relations in the suburb to a portrayal of the school as a facilitating mechanism in the process of passing for White, thence to a discussion of the effects of this involvement on the formal and informal structure of the teaching staff. The socio-economic and cultural affinity between the suburb's Whites and Coloureds permits of the emergence of cross-cutting loyalties between the two groups based on the socio-economic categories of "respectable" and "roff" rather than on colour and provides a favourable environment for pass-Whites. Passing for White is not an act essentially different from the wider process of upward social mobility as found among the Coloured people. It is not an act but a process involving anticipatory socialization and the creation of conditions of face-to-face segmentary interaction in which Whites might make ad hoc decisions which cumulatively add verisimilitude to the passer's claim to White status. Passers find in White schools one of the segmentary roles necessary for their purpose; passing is and has been for some decades endemic to many schools in South Africa. The Principal of the school on which this study focuses enrols to ? his school pass-Whites "acceptable to the community." He does so in iv response to a declining White enrolment, to pressures exerted by a relatively "colour-blind" community, and to pressures exerted by a school board which makes use of the school as a "buffer" institution. At the same time, for fear of having the school reclassified "Coloured" by the provincial educational bureaucracy, he attempts to exclude the "obviously" Coloured??n when they have White identity cards and the support of the school board. Compounding the Principal's tribulations is the disparate social-class backgrounds of teachers and pupils which provide grounds for disputes over the goals of vocational and regulatory training and the means whereby these goals are to be attained. Disciplinary problems ensue, the school's extra-curriculum withers away, and the school class?? members of which owe no allegiance to houses, clubs or socieities such as might cut across their allegiance to the class??omes the pre-eminent unit of social structure in the school. Teachers, deprived of the means par excellence of dividing and ruling their pupils (the creation and manipulation of cross-cutting allegiances) face in the class-room a solidary body of pupils united in their opposition to middle-class adult authority; this fact further compounds the school's ill-repute. Association with a pass-White and working-class school imperils the career ambitions of teachers so difficulty is experienced in attracting recruits to the teaching staff and in moderating their rate of turnover. A marked cleavage develops between transient recruits and long-term teachers. Long-term teachers, prevented for various reasons from quitting the school, experience frustration and indulge in perennial scapegoating activity. The Principal, caught between opposing pressures exerted by parents, teachers and arms of government, forfeits the V respect of his teachers and loses ground in his battle with the Vice-Principal for ascendency over the staff.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
D.G. Bettison
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of Political Science, Sociology and Anthropology
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.