Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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This collection contains digitized SFU theses except for those theses submitted within the last 12 months. If you cannot find the thesis you are looking for please search Recently Submitted Theses as it may be a recently submitted thesis and thus not yet available in Summit.

The use of historical material in contemporary British drama.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

An interesting feature of post-1956 British drama is the concern of many playwrights to explore problems of contemporary relevance from an historical perspective. It is the purpose of this thesis to examine the use of historical situations and historical settings in six selected plays of the period. ?one each by Robert Bolt, Peter Shaffer and John Gsborne and three by John Arcien?? to show that John Arden best understands the problems posed by the dramatic use of historical material. Such a topic invites any number of approaches, none of which is necessarily superior to another. One could examine the history plays in terms of the thematic concerns prevalent in the non-historical dramas of the various authors, for instance. Or one could study the political or ideological orientations as revealed, in the critical and non-dramatic writings of the playwrights and then relate such concerns to similar considerations in their history plays. In either case, the result would be relevant to our study of the use of historical material. However, because the topic is concerned primarily v/ith the dramatic use of such material, and because the works of four playwrights are under consideration, neither approach is employed. Instead, the method is constituted principally of in-depth studies of individual plays. The aesthetic and thematic aims of the authors are given full consideration, of course, but so far as possible these aims are related to the plays at hand rather than to broader and hence less manageable considerations. Common to the six plays is a decided break with the familiar fourth-wall conventions of naturalistic or realistic drama. As this study shows, however, the use of overtly theatrical devices or conventions, like the use of historical material itself, is neither new to drama nor is it a viable substitute for thematic evasions on the.author's part. Bolt's A Man for All Seasons and Shaffer's The Royal Hunt of the Sun provide convincing illustrations of this point. Conversely, a playwright's conscientious attention to such matters is insufficient to compensate for dramaturgical deficiencies. Osborne's Luther and Arden's Left-Handed Liberty prove that thematic thoroughness does not necessarily result in viable historical drama. However, Arden's Armstrong's Last Goodnight and Serjeant i'-iusgrave' s Dance illustrate that a happy combination is possible, from both an historical and dramatic point of view. These plays suggest that a playwright's success with the use of historical material.is best achieved if he is conversant v.'ith both the academic aspects of the period under consideration and the vast array of artistic conventions by which the various issues may be exploited to great dramatic effect. In other words, Arden shows that intelligent historicism and theatrical craftsmanship must be molded in such a way that neither dominates or submerges the other and in which neither can fairly be evaluated independently of the other. In so doing, Arden demonstrates that an historical approach remains a valid?? often exciting??ue by which problems of contemporary relevance can be explored.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Malcolm Page
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of English
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Irony in Alexander Pope's five major epistles.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

The thesis examines Pope's major epistles to show the range and intention of his irony. Throughout the thesis is an analysis of the methods and devices Pope uses in order to achieve irony. There is a discussion of the mock-epic and of classical and Biblical allusions which serve to contrast the values of Pope's age with those of other times. The irony of tones is examined to show the contrast between what the tone implies and the language or image suggests. Irony of manner is discussed through a study of the detachment of the speaker, whose attitude may be one of polite wonder or self-abnegation and apparent tolerance. Verbal irony, one of the main themes, is discussed as denotative, connotative, or associative irony, as well as pun, juxtaposition and zeugma. The first part, a general introduction to Pope's irony, shows that it is irony both of form and matter, and that his method is one of contrast--the contrast between expression and meaning, between appearance and reality, and between the actual and the ideal. The second, which discusses the remarkable fusion between Pope's thought and image, shows that Pope speaks through his images, rather than just using them to illustrate a point. The following three chapters examine the portraits in detail to show that Pope uses his characters to portray the qualities and habits he wishes to castigate. iii The first deals with the misers and spendthrifts in the epistles to Bathurst and Burlington, the second with inconsistency and the Ruling Passion in the epistles to a Lady and Cobham, and the last with bad poets and critics in the epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot. The last section is simply a conclusion which notes the relation between irony and value in Pope's epistles, and shows that his irony is not just negation, but that it has a core of central values and an implied moral and social judgment.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Temple Maynard
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of English
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Fabrication and application of semi-conductor radiation detectors in high resolution nuclear decay studies.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1967
Abstract: 

Factors which determine performance of lithium-drifted semiconductor radiation detectors, particularly lithium-drifted germanium detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy, are discussed in terms of general semiconductor theory The analysis includes the effects of electronic noise and the statistical effects of radiation-induced ionization and charge collection in semiconductors. The fabrication technique is discussed for obtaining small volume planar Ge(Li) detectors and large volume (totally compensated) Ge(Li) detectors using the lithium-ion drifting process. In the case of detectors of the former type, devices have been fabricated with unusual operating characteristics; excellent resolution has been obtained from such devices at collection fields as low as 15 volts/mm. A new technique for treating the exposed surfaces of Ge(Li) detectors by coating them with a layer of CaFo which both lowers detector leakage current and protects the surface from exposure to the ambient is discussed. An estimate of the Fano factor in germanium has been made using Ge(Li) detectors. The value of F =0.11 +0.05 has been obtained, and this result as well as previous ones is discussed in terms of the charge collection efficiency of Ge(Li) detectors, the interaction of gamma-rays with matter and the radiation-induced ionization process, and recent theoretical predictions for the Fano factor. The calibration and use of Ge(Li) detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy is discussed. Detectors fabricated in this laboratory have been used as gamma-ray spectrometers in high resolution nuclear decay studies. In the study of the decay of Co and Mn two previously unobserved gamma-rays have been detected at energies of 3119 3 keV and 3SQ8.7 koV; ?? ? these new transitions result in placing of two levels in Fe at energies of 3119.3 keV and 4445.3 keV which have been previously observed only in nuclear reaction studies. The present study, which has included both single Ge(Li) detector measurements and two-parameter coincidence experiments using a Ge(Li) detector and Nal(Tl) detector, has confirmed c-fl the existence of certain other energy levels in Fe and has provided added information on spin and parity assignments to the levels. The nuclear decay study of Ge has yielded new results for the levels in Ga . A gamma-ray of energy 536.9 keV has been detected for the first time resulting in the placement of a new energy level in Ga of this energy. The previously reported gamma-ray of energy 185 ke V has been resolved with Ge(Li) detectors into two transitions of energies 181.9 keV and 189.8 keV. The existence of a gamma-ray of energy 515.0 keV has been postulated; more precise values for the energies of the other gamma -rays from the decay of Ge have been obtained and a revised decayed scheme has been constructed. Aft The decay of Ga has been studied using Ge(Li) detectors and preliminary gamma-ray data obtained.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
B.D. Pate
Department: 
Science: Chemistry Department
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

A study of student teachers' comprehending of instructional design.

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

This study explored the active process of comprehending as it occurred in individuals as compared with a group, given a similar task involving carefully controlled and sequenced instructional material, Twelve student teachers, six as individuals and six as a group, were given the task of thinking aloud during the process of trying to discover the principles employed by I.A. Richards and Christine Gibson in their design of materials for beginning reading. The number and occasions of discovery were tabulated and compared. The utterances were then analysed and compared employing I.A. Richards' schema for comprehending. There were significant differences found between the comprehending of individuals and the group. Individuals tended to make discoveries by using various language strategies. Patterns of comprehending developed and then became fixated. The individuals tended not to recognize the successes they had made. In the group context comprehending developed over time. As the trials proceeded, the group returned to earlier successes and "errors" and amplified its discoveries; helping various members to make additional discoveries and validating those that members had made, The findings were related to studies in teaching., teacher education, group process and curriculum design. Present research literature indicates a concern for multi??iant, wholistic, contextual and process oriented studies in education. The "intelligencing" and "conceptualizing" powers of the person; the "evidencing" and "convincing" powers of instructional design; the "facilitating" and "validating" powers of social interaction have been suggested by this study as dimensions of the nexus condition for comprehending. Teachers who take responsibility for seeing that learning is brought about should take into account the nexus conditions as they operate in any learning situation.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
A.R. MacKinnon
Department: 
Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Ed.

Risk taking in individual and group decision making : problems of inquiry.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

The growing complexity of contemporary technological society leads to an ever increasing need to rely on the process of group decision making in preference to individual decision making. Since 1961, a considerable number of studies have been published which are concerned with the specific question of whether there exist differences in the degrees of risk taking between individual and group decisions. Most of these studies have been based on the administration of the so-called "dilemma-cf-choice" questionnaire -developed by Wallach and Kogan in 1959 - to various experimental subjects in laboratory settings. It appears that the major pertinent researchers who used that questionnaire have assumed that it adequately simulates complex real-life decision making. However, this assumption appears to be questionable. Most of the studies that have been conducted since 1961 have indicated that group decisions have a significant tendency to be riskier than the average of the individual decisions which were made by the members of the groups prior to the group decision making. On the other hand, some of these studies have indirectly thrown considerable doubts on these findings, and it would appear that the risky shift in group decisions may be an artifact which - iv - results from the particular manner in which the dilemma-of-choice questionnaire frequently has been administered. Because the dilemma-of-choice questionnaire, furthermore, does not seem to be a suitable instrument if used for the investigation of complex risk taking by individuals and groups, it would appear, then, that there exists a definite problem of inquiry. In order to arrive at a better understanding of the phenomenon of complex risk taking, a theoretical analysis of a number of major variables has been undertaken. This analysis shows that past attempts to deal with complex risk taking have not done justice to the enormous complexity of the phenomenon. Furthermore, the conceptual framework that has been used in the past is naive and does not help to achieve a proper assessment of complex risk taking. The present paper suggests a new definition of decision-making involving risk and offers a neuu language as well as new tools for the analysis of complex risk taking. The creation of a more sophisticated conceptual framework permits a fresh approach to the investigation of the phenomenon. It is furthermore shown that such investigations would have to be field rather than laboratory studies. However, the question of what constitutes a "risky" decision is so complex that an objective assessment of "riskiness" frequently will be difficult, if not impossible. This difficulty is compounded by the fact that the nature of complex group decision making appears to be such that it might be impossible to say whether it differs in riskiness from individual decision making: Complex decision-making problems which would require group decision making are generally so involved that they would not allow for individual decision making to begin with. The conclusion is drawn that, for now and the near future, research into the question of differences in risk taking in complex individual and group decision making may barely be worth the effort. The only way out of this predicament appears to be to concentrate on the study of complex real-life risk taking by individuals. The results gained from such studies might conceivably enable us to develop, at some future time, methods for studying group risk taking so that it then might become possible to compare individual to group risk taking.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Robert J.C. Harper
Department: 
Education: Behavioral Science Foundations
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Ed.

The Collins' Overland or Russian Extension Telegraph project : a pioneer attempt to establish telegraphic communication between North America and Europe.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

The primary significance of the Collins' Overland Telegraph or Western Union Russian Extension is as a chapter in the history of communications. A pioneer attempt to establish telegraphic communications between North America and Europe, via Bering Strait, the Collins* Overland Project was ultimately a failure. The successful laying of an Atlantic cable by Cyrus Field in 1866 removed the basic raison d etre of the overland route and led to the halting of construction. While a failure in the sense that the project did not succeed in establishing an intercontinental communications link, it did bring important secondary benefits to both British Columbia and Alaska. It was, in other words, a relatively successful failure. In British Columbia mining and exploration were stimulated and the internal communications system of the colony vastly improved. In Alaska the telegraph expeditions were responsible for the first systematic examination of the flora, fauna and geology of the area. Members of the telegraph project were thus able to play a minor but significant role in the purchase of Alaska by providing much useful data on the valuable new territory. The study of the Collins1 Overland scheme was made easier by the literacy of the members of the project. The many unpublished papers and diaries as well as published memoirs which survived the scheme form the basis for the thesis. Especially helpful were the published documents made available by the Western Union Telegraph Company. Three published articles, Charles Vevier's "The Collins' Overland Line and American Continentalism" , 2 Corday Mackay's "The Collins' Overland Telegraph" , and J.S. Galbraith's "Perry McDonough Collins at the Colonial Office" , provided a starting point and in some cases references to documents otherwise unavailable.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
G.L. Cook
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: History Department
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Three contributions to the theory of recursively enumerable classes.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1967
Abstract: 

Priority arguments are applied to three problems in the theory of rce. classes. Chapter I: A conjecture of P. R. Young in A Theorem on Recursively Enumerable Classes and Splinters, PAMS 17,5 (1966), pp. 1050-1056, that an r.e. class can be constructed with any pre-assigned finite number of infinite r.e. subclasses, is answered in the affirmative. Chapter II: Standard classes and indexable classes were introduced by A. H. Lachlan (cf. On the Indexing of Classes of Recursively Enumerable Sets, JSL 31 (1966-),, pp. 10-22). A class C- of r.e. sets is called sequence enumerable if the r.e. (3- is indexable => fl. is subclass enumerable, but none of the implications can be reversed. Chapter. Ill: A partially ordered set (&,<} is represented by the r.e. class G- if (&,<} is isomorphic to (C-,E). Sufficiently many p.o. sets are proved representable to verify a conjecture of A. H. Lachlan that representable p.o. sets and arbitrary p.o. sets are indistinguishable by elementary sentences.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Name is illegible
Department: 
Science: Mathematics Department
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

Political socialization of elementary school children : an empirical study.

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

This study was designed to explore Che effects of visual perceptual abilities as determinants of school achievement and to provide some information about two tests in this area. Other aspects of achievement were also examined. The Bender Gestalt Test and the Raven Progressive Matrices (1947) were administered to two hundred and fifty-six children in kindergarten, grade one and grade two. One hundred and twenty-two children were classified as low achievers and one hundred and thirty-four as average achievers. .The effects of achievement level, grade level, age within grade, and sex, upon the children's visual perceptual performance scores were studied. The two achievement groups were examined to note similarities or differences in the children's date of birth, age within grade and sex. The results indicate that both the Bender Gestalt Test and the Raven Progressive Matrices discriminate significantly between children in the three grade levels and between children in the two achievement levels. Neither test significantly discriminated between male,and female or between young and old within the grades. Birthdate (May to August) did not relate significantly to achievement. Birthdate (September to January) did relate significantly to achievement as did age within grade. The sex of the children was also found to be significantly related to achievement' level. iv These results were discussed and implications for further research in the area of predictive visual perceptual screening devices were advanced. Implications for the study of the effects of sex, birthdate and age within grade on school achievement were also discussed.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
David C Potter
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of Political Science, Sociology and Anthropology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

The partitive in French : a comparison of four analyses

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

Four analyses of the forms du, de la, de 1* , des and dg were compared in order to evaluate the insights they were able to provide into the so-called partitive forms. i ?f Grevisse's Le Bon Usage was chosen as an example of a traditional analysis which uses multiple criteria of classification, meaning, structure and function. The first full structural analysis of the noun system in French, Gramma ire structurale du fran^ais by Jean Dubois, was chosen as an analysis in which only the syntagmatic relationships of the speech chain are taken into account in setting up the various systems in the language. The treatment of the partitive article by Gustave Guillaume was chosen as an analysis which claims to show the operation of the mental processes which underlie the observable phenomena in the speech chain. Finally an article by Kaurice Gross, "Sur une regie de 'cacophonie1 ", which develops a suggestion made by Chomsky for a T-rule relaying to the partitive, was chosen as an analysis claiming to show the operation of processes which relate the underlying and the superficial structures of the language. Comparison of the four analyses revealed that it was 'the idea of language process as it is embodied in T-rules that gave the neatest account of the distribution of 'partitive' de in relation to du, de la, de 1', and des. It was the requirement of generality of application of T-rules .that gave the only motivated description of the formation of the partitive as a combination of precosition de and the generic article le. It was the application of one or both of two deletion rules that linked a wider range of phenomena than could be related by the other types of analyses.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Brian Newton
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: French Department
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Recombination kinetics in CdS.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1967
Abstract: 

In high-purity cadmium sulfide crystals,, at low temperatures and high excitation intensities, emission lines attributed to free and bound exciton recombination are observed in the spectral range 4860 to 5090 A. In addition, the main peaks of two broad emission bands, which are repeated at lower energies with the simultaneous emission of one or more longitudinal optical phonons, are observed at about 51^-0 and 5180 A.. The high energy band, which is d.ominant at liquid, nitrogen temperatures, is d.ue to free electrons recombining with holes bound at cadmium vacancy acceptors. The low energy band, which is dominant at liquid helium temperatures, is due to electrons bound to shallow donors recombining with the bound holes. The photoluminescence efficiency and photoconductivity response of cadmium sulfide crystals were measured and the data interpreted in terms of an energy band model involving the donor and acceptor levels previously established as being involved in the radiative transitions. In addition, an effective recombination center (consisting of deep acceptor-like recombination centers) and non-radiative surface recombination centers are required to account for the non-radiative transitions. The results of the thesis are divided into four topics and are summarized below. The first topic deals with the controversy in the literature regarding the origin of the high energy emission band at about 51^-0 A. Two recent papers, which identify this band, as being due to bound electron-to-bound hole transitions, are analyzed and. it is shown that their conclusions are incorrect. Further ii, analysis and experiments show that their data support the free electron-to-bound electron interpretation of other authors. The second topic was the effect of surface recombination centers on the luminescence efficiency. These states are believed to be mainly chemisorbed oxygen ions. Non-radiative surface recombination is reduced by applying an electric field to counteract the electric field in the charge depletion layer next to the surface, or by phot o-d.es orb ing the oxygen ions. This electric field d.raws minority carriers to the surface where they recombine non-radiatively. The luminescence efficiency is found to be lowest when the electron-hole pairs are generated.,, closest to the surface. This is interpreted as meaning that a greater fraction of the carriers can reach the surface to recombine and that ambipolar diffusion of carriers into the interior of the crystal does not take place. It was also found, that heating CdS briefly in a nitrogen ambient produces free-to-bound and bound-to-bound transitions associated with nitrogen acceptors 130 meV above the valence band. The nitrogen impurities are near the surface since these band.s are removed by a short etch in concentrated hyd.rochloric acid. The third topic was the recombination kinetics of excitons and the bound, electron-to-bound hole luminescence. In all cases, the exciton efficiency increases with increasing excitation intensity as expected since the formation of excitons depends on the prod.uct of the free carrier densities. The bound-to-bound emission efficiency is high and varies slowly with excitation intensity. The efficiency falls slowly both at high and at ill. low excitation intensity. The fall-off in efficiency at high excitation intensity is accompanied by an increase in efficiency of the free-to-bound emission band. The decrease in efficiency at low excitation intensities may be due to non-radiative surface recombination. The last topic was the recombination kinetics of the free electron-to-bound hole luminescence. Using the energy band model mentioned earlier, the data was analyzed to obtain the electron and hole lifetimes, the luminescence efficiency, and the electron and hole capture cross-sections of the cadmium vacancy acceptor and the other d.eep recombination center. The internal luminescence efficiency is near unity as long as the minority carriers (holes) are quickly captured by the radiative recombination centers (cadmium vacancies). At high temperature the luminescence efficiency is low because the cadmium vacancy centers act as traps rather than recombination centers, while at high excitation intensities the efficiency drops because the radiative transitions saturate.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
K. Colbow
Department: 
Science: Physics Department
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.