Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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This collection contains digitized SFU theses except for those theses submitted within the last 12 months. If you cannot find the thesis you are looking for please search Recently Submitted Theses as it may be a recently submitted thesis and thus not yet available in Summit.

The motif of the 'quest' in the early works of W. H. Auden.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

None

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Robin Blaser
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of English
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

The transcendental symbol.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

This thesis constitutes a preliminary consideration of the artistic creative process in Romantic transcendental art, whereby chaos is transformed into cosmos. Tt deals with the disintegration of world orders and the Romantic crisis of consciousness, at the discovery of process in a world which was earlier thought to be static. In the face of a chaotic environment, a world in flux, the language of art experienced some radical transformations, both from the standpoint of what it was called upon to do in establishing order in the world, and in its organic relationship to the artist as creator. There is consideration given to the nature of the transformation of consciousness, and to the Word as a "transcendental symbol" which both makes use of and resolves the dialectical nature of process in the creative act. Consideration is given to the Word as the symbol which unites Being and becoming. For the Romantic poet to shape chaos into cosmos, it was necessary for him to discover the significance of himself both in relation to the ground of order in Being, and his place in relation to the flux of the world. Hence considerable attention is given to the creative character of the artist, and to the -IV- artist's use of his creative tools. In this context I have dealt with three figures who were 'avowed' transcendentalists - Carlyle, EmersOn, and! Thoreau - but kept ray discussion open enough so that the consideration nay also be extended to other Romantic poets. In considering these three, I have selected works where the concern for the discovery of the right relationship of nan to Divine Being and to the world of phenomena is uppermost. In each instance the central question of the activity of the Creative \ Word, the tool of creation, in bringing a True cosmos out of chaos is uppermost. In each case the artist finds that the reorient-ation of consciousness frora the world of process to a Centre in Being, brings new resources of language, a discovery of the significance of the act of creation, an appreciation of the True value of the external creation, and a restored sense of order in a dynamic universe. I deal with the work of Carlyle for the purpose of considering the rhythms of the Romantic revolution of consciousness, Emerson for the discovery of the nature of man's relationship to Divine Being, and Thoreau for his application of the creative process in the actualization of the Divine Word in forn. The central value of the thesis centers in its consideration of the root question of Romanticism, which is the discovery, in the face of external disintegration, of a Divine Centre and source of order within the human being which, through the activity of the Creative Word in the creative process, could be made flesh, so brin^inr order into the flux of the external creation.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Robert H. Dunham
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of English
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Light and electron microscope investigations of the germination of Lactuca sativa L. embryos

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1967
Abstract: 

The structure of Lactuca sativa Ij. embryos was studied using light and electron microscopy. Dry embryos and seedlings ranging from 12 to 108 hrs. old were examined. Material for light microscopy was fixed in 10% acrolein and embedded in glycol methacrylate. Material for electron microscopy was fixed in glutaraldehyde and post-fixed in osmium tetroxide; it was embedded in araldite-DDSA. In general, cells of dry embryos are filled with reserve proteins and lipids. Nuclei, mitochondria, ribosomes, and some membranes appear to be only slightly changed by their dehydrated state. Plastids and the endoplasmic reticulum are less well-defined and other organelles are absent from the dry embryo. Variations in the structure of the plastids and the protein bodies suggest differences in the degree of dormancy of different parts of the embryo. Reactivation of cells begins just behind the root apex and progresses through the hypocotyl and acropetally in the cotyledons. Changes in the structure of organelles and reserve materials are described. Plastids undergo the most marked changes. Cells of the root tip, hypocotyl, and cotyledons each have a characteristic type of plastids.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
L. M. Srivastava
Department: 
Science: Biological Sciences Department
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.

Assessment of visual discrimination in infants : comparison of a conditioning method with traditional preference methods

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

The purpose of the present research was to develop a conditioning procedure with which to assess the visual discrimination, ability of infants, and to compare the results of this method with those obtained by traditional visual fixation preference methods. Infants twelve weeks of age were presented with black and white checkerboard stimuli varying on a physically graded dimension from 4x4- to 20x20 squares. Each stimulus was paired with a 2^x2^ checkerboard and measures of fixation time, span, and number of looks were recorded relative to each stimulus. Three groups of S_s were tested by the visual fixation preference procedures. In an effort to establish a procedure that was sensitive to the preferences of individual S_s, the stimulus presentation technique was varied among the groups. The results indicated, however, that the groups did not differ significantly with respect to the number of S_s evidencing discrimination. An operant conditioning procedure, designed to increase fixation time to one stimulus of a pair by presenting contingent visual stimulation as a reinforcer, was shown to be effective relative to a control procedure in which no reinforcement was administered. In comparison, with the visual fixation preference procedure, the experimental procedure was consistently superior in providing evidence of discrimination by individual 3_s. In comparisons with the criterion preference procedure, a modified preference procedure, the experimental procedure was usually iii superior for finding information about discrimination abilities of individual S_s. In addition, group results obtained for the preference studies indicated that infants twelve weeks of a,~'e most preferred a 10x10 checkerboard stimulus. These results were related to a theory of stimulus selection proposed by Dernber and Earl. Both zhe criterion preference procedure for groups of S_s, and the experimental procedure for individual S_s, indicated that the twelve-week-o-ld infants could discriminate the Ioxl6 from the checkerboard.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Jean Koepke
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of Psychology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

The making of an Anglo-Saxon hero.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

Modern literary criticism of Beowulf has raised the poem' far above its value as merely an historical document. That the author worked primarily as an artist, and only secondarily as an historian of the Anglo-Saxon pre-migration period, is widely recognized. Nor did he merely retell an older folktale about heroes and monsters, although the main events, the three great fights, are arranged chronologically. Rather, the poet has fixed in his mind the ideals of a pre-Christian heroic society, and he designs his poem to reveal these ideals through the character and actions of Beowulf, presented first as a young retainer nnd then as an old king. Beowulf comes into the story as he comes into the land of the Danes---as a complete stranger; but In the exchange of speeches it is evident that he is no wandering adventurer seeking personal glory. He has come to help the Danes in their twelve-year feud against Grendel, and he awaits Krothgar's permission to act as the Danish champion. The first 700 lines of the poem lead up to Krothgar's entrusting his great hall, the symbol of Danish glory, to Beowulf's protection, and the actual fight is thus only a crowning point, verifying all that has been revealed of Beowulf---his great strength and his equally great courage. Although there is a leap in the chronological progression of events after Beowulf returns to his Geatish king---we are suddenly told that he became king and has ruled well for fifty years---there is no break in the poet's imaginative progression. Krothgar had preached to Beowulf the virtues of good kingship, declaring that the young thane has only to use well those gifts which God has given him, and which he has already displayed. It is with this knowledge of Beowulf's character that we must interpret his last great fight, in which he again reveals the qualities he had shown against the descendants of Cain. His death is given also an historical significance, set as it is between the earlier wars of the Geats and Swedes and the future wars in which his people expect to be defeated. Beowulf has given the Greats fifty years of peace---not by overcoming possible enemies, but, we are led to believe, by his character alone. The last 350 lines of the poem concentrate upon the profound sorrow of the Geats in the death of their king: for they realise that their loss is even the loss of their living ideal of heroic conduct and of their own security.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
M.A. Mason
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of English
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

The use of historical material in contemporary British drama.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

An interesting feature of post-1956 British drama is the concern of many playwrights to explore problems of contemporary relevance from an historical perspective. It is the purpose of this thesis to examine the use of historical situations and historical settings in six selected plays of the period. ?one each by Robert Bolt, Peter Shaffer and John Gsborne and three by John Arcien?? to show that John Arden best understands the problems posed by the dramatic use of historical material. Such a topic invites any number of approaches, none of which is necessarily superior to another. One could examine the history plays in terms of the thematic concerns prevalent in the non-historical dramas of the various authors, for instance. Or one could study the political or ideological orientations as revealed, in the critical and non-dramatic writings of the playwrights and then relate such concerns to similar considerations in their history plays. In either case, the result would be relevant to our study of the use of historical material. However, because the topic is concerned primarily v/ith the dramatic use of such material, and because the works of four playwrights are under consideration, neither approach is employed. Instead, the method is constituted principally of in-depth studies of individual plays. The aesthetic and thematic aims of the authors are given full consideration, of course, but so far as possible these aims are related to the plays at hand rather than to broader and hence less manageable considerations. Common to the six plays is a decided break with the familiar fourth-wall conventions of naturalistic or realistic drama. As this study shows, however, the use of overtly theatrical devices or conventions, like the use of historical material itself, is neither new to drama nor is it a viable substitute for thematic evasions on the.author's part. Bolt's A Man for All Seasons and Shaffer's The Royal Hunt of the Sun provide convincing illustrations of this point. Conversely, a playwright's conscientious attention to such matters is insufficient to compensate for dramaturgical deficiencies. Osborne's Luther and Arden's Left-Handed Liberty prove that thematic thoroughness does not necessarily result in viable historical drama. However, Arden's Armstrong's Last Goodnight and Serjeant i'-iusgrave' s Dance illustrate that a happy combination is possible, from both an historical and dramatic point of view. These plays suggest that a playwright's success with the use of historical material.is best achieved if he is conversant v.'ith both the academic aspects of the period under consideration and the vast array of artistic conventions by which the various issues may be exploited to great dramatic effect. In other words, Arden shows that intelligent historicism and theatrical craftsmanship must be molded in such a way that neither dominates or submerges the other and in which neither can fairly be evaluated independently of the other. In so doing, Arden demonstrates that an historical approach remains a valid?? often exciting??ue by which problems of contemporary relevance can be explored.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Malcolm Page
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of English
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Irony in Alexander Pope's five major epistles.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

The thesis examines Pope's major epistles to show the range and intention of his irony. Throughout the thesis is an analysis of the methods and devices Pope uses in order to achieve irony. There is a discussion of the mock-epic and of classical and Biblical allusions which serve to contrast the values of Pope's age with those of other times. The irony of tones is examined to show the contrast between what the tone implies and the language or image suggests. Irony of manner is discussed through a study of the detachment of the speaker, whose attitude may be one of polite wonder or self-abnegation and apparent tolerance. Verbal irony, one of the main themes, is discussed as denotative, connotative, or associative irony, as well as pun, juxtaposition and zeugma. The first part, a general introduction to Pope's irony, shows that it is irony both of form and matter, and that his method is one of contrast--the contrast between expression and meaning, between appearance and reality, and between the actual and the ideal. The second, which discusses the remarkable fusion between Pope's thought and image, shows that Pope speaks through his images, rather than just using them to illustrate a point. The following three chapters examine the portraits in detail to show that Pope uses his characters to portray the qualities and habits he wishes to castigate. iii The first deals with the misers and spendthrifts in the epistles to Bathurst and Burlington, the second with inconsistency and the Ruling Passion in the epistles to a Lady and Cobham, and the last with bad poets and critics in the epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot. The last section is simply a conclusion which notes the relation between irony and value in Pope's epistles, and shows that his irony is not just negation, but that it has a core of central values and an implied moral and social judgment.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Temple Maynard
Department: 
Arts and Social Sciences: Department of English
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

A study of student teachers' comprehending of instructional design.

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

This study explored the active process of comprehending as it occurred in individuals as compared with a group, given a similar task involving carefully controlled and sequenced instructional material, Twelve student teachers, six as individuals and six as a group, were given the task of thinking aloud during the process of trying to discover the principles employed by I.A. Richards and Christine Gibson in their design of materials for beginning reading. The number and occasions of discovery were tabulated and compared. The utterances were then analysed and compared employing I.A. Richards' schema for comprehending. There were significant differences found between the comprehending of individuals and the group. Individuals tended to make discoveries by using various language strategies. Patterns of comprehending developed and then became fixated. The individuals tended not to recognize the successes they had made. In the group context comprehending developed over time. As the trials proceeded, the group returned to earlier successes and "errors" and amplified its discoveries; helping various members to make additional discoveries and validating those that members had made, The findings were related to studies in teaching., teacher education, group process and curriculum design. Present research literature indicates a concern for multi??iant, wholistic, contextual and process oriented studies in education. The "intelligencing" and "conceptualizing" powers of the person; the "evidencing" and "convincing" powers of instructional design; the "facilitating" and "validating" powers of social interaction have been suggested by this study as dimensions of the nexus condition for comprehending. Teachers who take responsibility for seeing that learning is brought about should take into account the nexus conditions as they operate in any learning situation.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
A.R. MacKinnon
Department: 
Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Ed.

Fabrication and application of semi-conductor radiation detectors in high resolution nuclear decay studies.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1967
Abstract: 

Factors which determine performance of lithium-drifted semiconductor radiation detectors, particularly lithium-drifted germanium detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy, are discussed in terms of general semiconductor theory The analysis includes the effects of electronic noise and the statistical effects of radiation-induced ionization and charge collection in semiconductors. The fabrication technique is discussed for obtaining small volume planar Ge(Li) detectors and large volume (totally compensated) Ge(Li) detectors using the lithium-ion drifting process. In the case of detectors of the former type, devices have been fabricated with unusual operating characteristics; excellent resolution has been obtained from such devices at collection fields as low as 15 volts/mm. A new technique for treating the exposed surfaces of Ge(Li) detectors by coating them with a layer of CaFo which both lowers detector leakage current and protects the surface from exposure to the ambient is discussed. An estimate of the Fano factor in germanium has been made using Ge(Li) detectors. The value of F =0.11 +0.05 has been obtained, and this result as well as previous ones is discussed in terms of the charge collection efficiency of Ge(Li) detectors, the interaction of gamma-rays with matter and the radiation-induced ionization process, and recent theoretical predictions for the Fano factor. The calibration and use of Ge(Li) detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy is discussed. Detectors fabricated in this laboratory have been used as gamma-ray spectrometers in high resolution nuclear decay studies. In the study of the decay of Co and Mn two previously unobserved gamma-rays have been detected at energies of 3119 3 keV and 3SQ8.7 koV; ?? ? these new transitions result in placing of two levels in Fe at energies of 3119.3 keV and 4445.3 keV which have been previously observed only in nuclear reaction studies. The present study, which has included both single Ge(Li) detector measurements and two-parameter coincidence experiments using a Ge(Li) detector and Nal(Tl) detector, has confirmed c-fl the existence of certain other energy levels in Fe and has provided added information on spin and parity assignments to the levels. The nuclear decay study of Ge has yielded new results for the levels in Ga . A gamma-ray of energy 536.9 keV has been detected for the first time resulting in the placement of a new energy level in Ga of this energy. The previously reported gamma-ray of energy 185 ke V has been resolved with Ge(Li) detectors into two transitions of energies 181.9 keV and 189.8 keV. The existence of a gamma-ray of energy 515.0 keV has been postulated; more precise values for the energies of the other gamma -rays from the decay of Ge have been obtained and a revised decayed scheme has been constructed. Aft The decay of Ga has been studied using Ge(Li) detectors and preliminary gamma-ray data obtained.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
B.D. Pate
Department: 
Science: Chemistry Department
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

Risk taking in individual and group decision making : problems of inquiry.

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1968
Abstract: 

The growing complexity of contemporary technological society leads to an ever increasing need to rely on the process of group decision making in preference to individual decision making. Since 1961, a considerable number of studies have been published which are concerned with the specific question of whether there exist differences in the degrees of risk taking between individual and group decisions. Most of these studies have been based on the administration of the so-called "dilemma-cf-choice" questionnaire -developed by Wallach and Kogan in 1959 - to various experimental subjects in laboratory settings. It appears that the major pertinent researchers who used that questionnaire have assumed that it adequately simulates complex real-life decision making. However, this assumption appears to be questionable. Most of the studies that have been conducted since 1961 have indicated that group decisions have a significant tendency to be riskier than the average of the individual decisions which were made by the members of the groups prior to the group decision making. On the other hand, some of these studies have indirectly thrown considerable doubts on these findings, and it would appear that the risky shift in group decisions may be an artifact which - iv - results from the particular manner in which the dilemma-of-choice questionnaire frequently has been administered. Because the dilemma-of-choice questionnaire, furthermore, does not seem to be a suitable instrument if used for the investigation of complex risk taking by individuals and groups, it would appear, then, that there exists a definite problem of inquiry. In order to arrive at a better understanding of the phenomenon of complex risk taking, a theoretical analysis of a number of major variables has been undertaken. This analysis shows that past attempts to deal with complex risk taking have not done justice to the enormous complexity of the phenomenon. Furthermore, the conceptual framework that has been used in the past is naive and does not help to achieve a proper assessment of complex risk taking. The present paper suggests a new definition of decision-making involving risk and offers a neuu language as well as new tools for the analysis of complex risk taking. The creation of a more sophisticated conceptual framework permits a fresh approach to the investigation of the phenomenon. It is furthermore shown that such investigations would have to be field rather than laboratory studies. However, the question of what constitutes a "risky" decision is so complex that an objective assessment of "riskiness" frequently will be difficult, if not impossible. This difficulty is compounded by the fact that the nature of complex group decision making appears to be such that it might be impossible to say whether it differs in riskiness from individual decision making: Complex decision-making problems which would require group decision making are generally so involved that they would not allow for individual decision making to begin with. The conclusion is drawn that, for now and the near future, research into the question of differences in risk taking in complex individual and group decision making may barely be worth the effort. The only way out of this predicament appears to be to concentrate on the study of complex real-life risk taking by individuals. The results gained from such studies might conceivably enable us to develop, at some future time, methods for studying group risk taking so that it then might become possible to compare individual to group risk taking.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Robert J.C. Harper
Department: 
Education: Behavioral Science Foundations
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Ed.