Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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This collection contains digitized SFU theses except for those theses submitted within the last 12 months. If you cannot find the thesis you are looking for please search Recently Submitted Theses as it may be a recently submitted thesis and thus not yet available in Summit.

Lithography-free oxide isolation of GaAs nanowires using the VLS growth method

Author: 
Date created: 
2017-06-28
Abstract: 

Semiconductor nanowires show significant potential for incorporation into next generation technologies due to their unique electronic, optical and mechanical properties. In order to keep pace with the rapid development of new semiconductor technologies, quick and efficient device prototyping methods are required. In this work, a lithography-free approach for the fabrication of oxide-isolated nanowire devices is developed using a combination of atomic layer deposition and the vapour-liquid-solid method. Axial growth of Al2O3 and Ga2O3-coated GaAs nanowires is restarted using an annealing step which fractures the oxide surrounding the gold nanoparticle. The oxide fracture is observed to depend on the oxide composition and thickness, annealing temperature and nanoparticle radius. The compositionaland electronic properties of the regrown nanowires are investigated and a thermal expansion mismatch model is presented to describe the observed results.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Simon Watkins
Department: 
Science: Department of Physics
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.

Treading the Line: Seeking balance in information sharing and privacy in ActionADE

Author: 
Date created: 
2017-07-13
Abstract: 

Patient data in health care offers both opportunities and challenges that benefit from study through a sociotechnical lens. This thesis examines issues related to data sharing and privacy in the context of the development and implementation of ActionADE, a system designed to enable the communication and documentation of adverse drug events (ADEs), which are the harmful and unintended consequences of medication use. This thesis first explores the current policy environment surrounding health data privacy in British Columbia as it relates to ActionADE, and then contributes patient perceptions and attitudes about data sharing and privacy in the context of ActionADE through an analysis of focus group data. This thesis results in a series of recommendations for ActionADE, in order to identify information sharing preferences, privacy concerns, and policy constraints at the outset, striking a balance between the need to both disclose and protect personal health information.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Ellen Balka
Department: 
Communication, Art & Technology: School of Communication
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Developing fluorite as a geochemical pathfinder mineral using globally reported REE-Y contents

Author: 
Date created: 
2017-05-12
Abstract: 

Discrimination diagrams have been created to begin development of fluorite as a geochemical pathfinder mineral based on a compilation of approximately 630 trace-element analyses (ICP-MS, ICP-AES, LA-ICP-MS, NAA, INAA) of fluorite from 183 deposits/localities from nearly 60 regions world-wide. A classification scheme of primary mineralization environments was determined to describe potentially economic deposits in which fluorite commonly occurs as listed here in order of representation quality: 1.) hydrothermal/epithermal vein/replacement in igneous hosts, 2.) MVT, 3.) vein/replacement in carbonate hosts, 4.) carbonatite-related, 5.) vein/replacement in metamorphic hosts 6.) SEDEX, 7.) skarn, 8.) greisen, 9.) intrusion-related Mo, 10.) cryolite, 11.) peralkaline silicate igneous rock, 12.) vein/replacement in sedimentary hosts, 13.) rare-metal pegmatite, 14.) granite-related U, and 15.) IOCG deposits. Discrimination diagrams were created using 67th percentile contours of scatter datafields per primary mineralization environment generated using ratios of REE-Y data and equations created by discriminant projection analyses. These diagrams were tested using FUS-ICP/MS analyses of fluorite handsamples sourced from eight North American deposits with predetermined primary mineralization environments assigned from literature review. Correct assignations were confidently returned for half of eight sampled deposits using 11 analyses of samples and less confidently returned for another quarter. Though the exact mechanisms controlling trace-element partitioning in fluorite are poorly understood, this study provides an improved method to discriminate between fluorite-bearing deposits.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Daniel Marshall
Derek Thorkelson
Department: 
Science: Department of Earth Sciences
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.

Love hurts: Predicting trajectories of marital satisfaction from couples’ behaviour during discussions of interpersonal injuries

Author: 
Date created: 
2017-07-13
Abstract: 

Interpersonal injuries are inevitable in intimate relationships (cf. Fincham, 2000) and addressing the emotional fallout from these experiences is challenging. Although interpersonal injuries have important consequences for relationships (Lemay et al., 2012), little is known about the dyadic process that facilitates the resolution of hurt feelings and helps couples to maintain or to strengthen relationship well-being. I examined whether couples’ observed behaviour during discussions of interpersonal injuries predicted trajectories of marital satisfaction over two years. Multilevel modelling indicated that marital satisfaction declined over two years, and wives’ positive behaviour during discussions of husbands’ hurt feelings buffered declines in wives’ satisfaction. Specifically, wives who were more emotionally positive had increases in marital satisfaction, whereas wives who were less emotionally positive had decreases in marital satisfaction. Husbands’ and wives’ negative behaviour during discussions of husbands’ hurt feelings hastened declines in marital satisfaction for both spouses. Couples’ behaviour during discussions of wives’ hurt feelings did not moderate trajectories of marital satisfaction, with one exception. Husbands who asked more questions during the discussion of wives’ hurt feelings had increases in marital satisfaction, whereas husbands who asked fewer questions had decreases in marital satisfaction over time. Couples’ ability to navigate discussions of hurt feelings following interpersonal injury may be critical for repairing and maintaining relationship well-being.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Rebecca Cobb
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Psychology
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

Refining local sea-levels through settlement change in Kanish and Waiatt Bays, Quadra Island

Date created: 
2017-06-06
Abstract: 

Post-glacial sea-level histories along the Pacific Northwest Coast are complex and heterogeneous, varying significantly temporally and spatially. Even well-refined regional sea-level curves do not allow us to understand and appreciate the effect this dynamism had on lived lives, particularly in cases where sea-level changed up to several meters in an instant. This thesis details how human settlement histories, intimately connected to sea-level, may be used to provide well-refined relative sea-level curves on a local scale. Archaeological reconstructions of settlement histories in Kanish and Waiatt Bays, Quadra Island reveal extremely localized sea-level variations, including at least one tectonic event affecting deposits in Waiatt Bay. Overall agreement of our sea-level estimates with that of broader regional models indicates that intensive coring of settlement sites is an accurate and efficient means of accumulating powerful datasets, which can provide important insights into past environmental and cultural histories.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dana Lepofsky
Department: 
Environment: Department of Archaeology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Occasioning flow in the mathematics classroom: optimal experiences in common places

Date created: 
2017-06-28
Abstract: 

This research looks at several mathematics high-school classrooms through the lens of Csíkszentmihályi’s flow theory: optimal matching of skills and challenge, clear goals and feedback, loss of temporal awareness, intense concentration, a sense of control, merging of action and awareness, loss of self-consciousness and autotelic experience. The study focuses on creating and maintaining the flow experience in students. In order to uncover successful pedagogical interventions, the students are surveyed through questionnaires and interviews. The study discusses the crucial role of collaboration and of mathematical tasks in occasioning the flow experience, how students differ in experiencing flow, and how they learn to seek and re-create the flow experience. The study also examines the students’ unfavourable perception of textbooks, the students’ negative experiences of boredom and apathy, and the precarious relationship between teacher flow and student flow.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Peter Liljedahl
Nathalie Sinclair
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis (Education) ) M.Sc.

A comparative study of authoritarianism, perceived threat of terrorism, and anti-immigrant attitudes

Date created: 
2017-08-16
Abstract: 

Given the recent electoral success of populist political actors who promote anti-immigrant platforms and rhetoric based on the fear of terrorism, this study examines to what extent the threat of terrorism affects how individuals view immigrants. Existing research suggests that large-scale threats to national security, such as terrorism, can mobilize widespread support beyond the far-right for punitive or discriminatory policies toward groups or individuals associated with the threat. Literature on perceptions of threat suggest that an individual’s sensitivity and responsiveness to threat is based on cognitive traits that determine how one handles uncertainty and societal change. These cognitive traits are referred to as an individual’s level of authoritarianism. Using data from the World Values Survey, I find that individuals with higher levels of authoritarianism are more sensitive to the perceived threat of terrorism in Germany, Poland, and the US, while the reverse is possible in the Netherlands.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Steve Weldon
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Political Science
Thesis type: 
(Research Project) M.A.

Atypical Neuronal Oscillatory Synchrony of the Auditory Steady State Response in Down Syndrome

Author: 
Date created: 
2017-08-18
Abstract: 

The mechanisms by which the brain coordinates a constant flood of information to provide a unified perception of reality remains poorly understood. Mounting evidence suggests that information integration is closely related to oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency band. Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) reportedly struggle with higher cognitive processes, but existing knowledge representing the neuronal oscillatory dynamics of the DS brain remains limited. Cortical circuit dysfunction can be probed by the examination of phase coherence of the Auditory Steady State Response (ASSR). Using a measure of phase coherence to assess oscillatory synchrony in the auditory cortices, results show evidence of reduced inter-hemispheric phase locking in the gamma band at the group level (N=12) for DS individuals (p < 0.01) compared to control participants. These findings indicate the DS brain does not integrate information as effectively as non-DS individuals do, contributing to a deeper understanding of the neurophysiological correlates of DS symptomology.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Sam Doesburg
Teresa Cheung
Department: 
Science: Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.

Exploring the reversibility of marine climate change impacts under CO2 removal from the atmosphere

Author: 
Date created: 
2017-08-11
Abstract: 

Artificial carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere, also referred to as “negative CO2 emissions”, has been proposed as a measure for mitigating climate change and restoring the climate system to a target level (e.g., 2 C) after overshoot. Previous studies have demonstrated that the changes in surface air temperature due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions can be reversed through negative CO2 emissions, while some oceanic properties, for example thermosteric sea level rise, show a delay in their response to net-negative emissions. This research aims to investigate the reversibility of changes in ocean conditions after the implementation of CDR on centennial timescales with a focus on ocean biogeochemical properties. We use RCP2.6 and its extension until year 2300 as the reference scenario and design a set of temperature and cumulative CO2 emissions “overshoot” scenarios based on other RCPs. The University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM), a climate model of intermediate complexity, is forced with these emission scenarios. We compare the response of select ocean variables (seawater temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen) in the overshoot scenarios to that in the reference scenario at the time the same amount of cumulative emissions is achieved. Our results suggest that the overshoot and subsequent return to a reference CO2 cumulative emissions level would leave substantial impacts on the marine environment. Although the changes in global mean sea surface variables (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen) are largely reversible, global mean ocean temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH differ significantly from those in the reference scenario. Large ocean areas exhibit temperature increase as well as pH and dissolved oxygen decrease relative to the reference scenario without cumulative CO2 emissions overshoot. Furthermore, our results show that the higher the level of overshoot, the lower the reversibility of changes in the marine environment.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Kirsten Zickfeld
Karen Kohfeld
Department: 
Environment: Department of Geography
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.

"Without trust, research is impossible": Administrative inertia in addressing legal threats to research confidentiality

Author: 
Date created: 
2017-08-18
Abstract: 

The last two decades have seen the development of formalized federal research ethics policies in countries such as the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. The focus of these policies has been researchers; comparatively little attention has been paid to the university administrations who provide the context in which those review bodies operate and whose resources are integral to protecting research participants when external threats arise. Far from being staunch defenders of academic freedom and protecting those who participate in research, university administrators in Canada have more commonly revelled in "edgy" research until the subpoena arrives, and then promptly thrown the researchers under the proverbial bus. In Canada, the federal ethics policy now requires university administrations to "support" their researchers when a legal threat arises, and "encourages" them to have policies in place that articulate how they will do so. Two years later, few policies exist. This thesis will review the record of administrative support for cases where research confidentiality is threatened, and present the results of a national survey of REB chairs, administrators, and REB staff, as to the current state of these policies and the impediments to their creation.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Ted Palys
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: School of Criminology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.