Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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This collection contains digitized SFU theses except for those theses submitted within the last 12 months. If you cannot find the thesis you are looking for please search Recently Submitted Theses as it may be a recently submitted thesis and thus not yet available in Summit.

Caribou is Life: An Ethnoarchaeology of Ethen-eldèli Denesųłiné Respect for Caribou

Author: 
Date created: 
2016-12-06
Abstract: 

Descendent communities request that archaeological practices in Canada change to address and incorporate their traditional values and needs. Directed by the Ethen-eldèli Denesųłiné, this study centres on their relationship to barrenland caribou. This research serves as a case study on how to close gaps between archaeological and indigenous communities by integrating community guidance and differing worldviews. This collaboration addresses how the relationship between the Ethen-eldèli Denesųłiné and the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq caribou herds helps to maintain cultural continuity. The study uses interviews of knowledge holders to understand how Denesųłiné relate to caribou. It documents variations in Denesųłiné techniques of caribou harvest, migration routes, and seasonal rounds. It provides data on how technological, social, and ecological changes affect cultural resilience. Because of the unprecedented ecological change occurring in the barrenland caribou ranges, this research has particular value for the Denesųłiné. This community-oriented study uses ethnohistorical and ethnoarchaeological methods to understand Denesųłiné rules of caribou harvest and to show how Denesųłiné embed their respect for caribou in hunting, butchery, and management practices. The Ethen-eldèli Denesųłiné believe that caribou is life. They show respect to caribou in numerous ways and believe that these attitudes and behaviours preserve and perpetuate their way of life.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
John Welch
Department: 
Environment: Department of Archaeology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

A comparison of self-efficacy between pregnant women who use cigarettes versus electronic nicotine delivery systems: A cross-sectional study of participants in the BC Healthy Connections Project

Date created: 
2016-12-15
Abstract: 

Self-efficacy (SE) has been regarded the strongest cognitive determinant of cigarette use during pregnancy, but has yet to be assessed in pregnant women who use alternative modes of nicotine, including electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Knowing that nicotine is harmful to the fetus, more research on SE in pregnant ENDS users is warranted. Using data from the BC Healthy Connections Project, the purpose of this research was to identify differences in SE between pregnant: cigarette users; ENDS users; combination users (ENDS and cigarettes); and abstainers (no tobacco or nicotine). The relationship between SE and mode of nicotine was examined using multiple linear regression. Due to small sample sizes, ENDS and combination users were collapsed (ENDS/combination users). SE was significantly higher in ENDS/combination users compared to abstainers. No other significant group differences emerged. Results from this research can be used to tailor interventions aimed at reducing fetal exposure to nicotine.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Charlotte Waddell
Department: 
Health Sciences: Faculty of Health Sciences
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.

Towards a spatial imperative in public urban development geovisual analysis and communication

Date created: 
2016-11-28
Abstract: 

Despite advances in GIScience and geovisualization, public consultation for urban development often lack analytical depth or visualization methods that deliver transparent communication and democratic access. Typical methods for engaging the public include the use of architectural designs, artists’ renderings, engineering drawings, and physical models (Gill, Lange, Morgan, & Romano, 2013). These methods of urban development communication do little to accommodate portions of the population that are not design-oriented (Al-Kodmany, 1999). This thesis seeks to bridge the gap between GIScience, geovisualization, and urban development through the development of an evaluation framework for existing urban development visualizations. Next, it evaluates visualizations produced for a new development in the District of North Vancouver named “The Residences at Lynn Valley.” Following this evaluation, it proposes a set of visibility analyses that aim to reveal the intangible visual impact of future developments. This research provides the basis for future evaluative and analytical work in GIS and geovisualization for urban development.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Nick Hedley
Department: 
Environment: Department of Geography
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.

The Pawn that would be King: Macedonian Slavs in the Greek Civil War, 1946-49

Date created: 
2016-12-07
Abstract: 

The Macedonian Question has confounded academics, politicians and the people of the Balkans since the nineteenth century. While countries have resolved the territorial component of the Macedonian Question, the critical and confusing problem surrounding the ethnic and linguistic identity of the people of the region continues to be the source of international debate. Part of the reason for this confusion is because the history of the Macedonian Question is shrouded in nationalist polemics. The role of the Macedonian Slavs involvement in the Greek Civil War is particularly contentious and embedded in nationalist polemics, which has impacted academic inquiry. This dissertation argues that the preponderance of Macedonian Slavs within the communist forces during the Greek Civil War influenced the actions of all the major actors involved, and has been a significant factor in shaping the modern Macedonian national identity. Equally important was that the Macedonian people’s cognizance of their contribution to the conflict initially allowed them to pursue political and social objectives that would have been impossible under conventional circumstances. Ultimately, regional and international politics prevented the most idealist sections of the Macedonian Slavs from achieving their goal of an independent Macedonian state. Those elements that followed the Yugoslav vision, which developments in the Greek Civil War helped facilitate, however, did achieve the goal of an independent Macedonian political entity. This dissertation demonstrates that one cannot gain a comprehensive understanding of the Greek Civil War without examining the role of the Macedonian Slavs and Macedonian Question in the conflict.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Andre Gerolymatos
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of History
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Structural brain markers are differentially associated with neurocognitive profiles in socially marginalized people with multimorbid illness

Date created: 
2016-11-21
Abstract: 

Homeless and marginally housed individuals constitute a socially impoverished population characterized by high rates of multimorbid illness that includes polysubstance use, viral infection, and psychiatric illness. Their extensive exposure to risk factors is associated with numerous poor outcomes, yet little is known about structural brain integrity and its association with neurocognition in this population. In Study 1, we conducted a cluster analysis to re-construct three previously derived subgroups with distinct neurocognitive profiles in a large sample of socially marginalized persons (N = 299). Cluster 1 (n = 87) was characterized as highest functioning overall, whereas Cluster 3 (n = 103) was the lowest functioning neurocognitively, with a relative strength in decision-making. Cluster 2 (n = 109) fell intermediate to the other subgroups, with a relative weakness in decision-making. Next, we examined the association between complementary fronto-temporal cortical brain measures (gyrification, cortical thickness) and neurocognitive profiles using multinomial logistic regression. Chi-square tests and ANOVAs differentiated subgroups on proxy measures of neurodevelopment and acquired brain insult/risk exposure. We found that greater frontal and temporal gyrification and more proxies of aberrant neurodevelopment were associated with Cluster 3 (lowest functioning subgroup). Further, age moderated the association between orbitofrontal cortical thickness and neurocognition, with positive associations in older adults, and negative associations in younger adults. Finally, greater acquired brain insult/risk exposure was associated with the cluster characterized by selective decision-making impairment (Cluster 2), and the higher functioning cluster (Cluster 1). In Study 2, we examined the association between white matter integrity and neurocognitive profiles using multinomial logistic regression and Tract-based Spatial Statistics. We found significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA), with corresponding increased axial and radial diffusivity (AD, RD) in widespread and bilateral brain regions of Cluster 3. Differences in RD were more prominent compared to AD. Altogether, our findings highlight the unique pathways to neurocognitive impairment in a heterogeneous population and help to clarify the vulnerabilities confronted by different subgroups.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Allen Thornton
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of Psychology
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

Marginal Loglinear Models for Three Multiple-Response Categorical Variables

Author: 
Date created: 
2016-12-09
Abstract: 

A lot of survey questions include a phrase like, “Choose all that apply”, which lets the respondents choose any number of options from predefined lists of items. Responses to thesequestions result in multiple-response categorical variables (MRCVs). This thesis focuses on analyzing and modeling three MRCVs. There are 232 possible models representing different combinations of associations. Parameters are estimated using generalized estimating equations generated by a pseudo-likelihood and variances of the estimators are corrected using sandwich methods. Due to the large number of possible models, model comparisons based on nested models would be inappropriate. As an alternative, model averaging is proposed as a model comparison tool as well as to account for model selection uncertainty. Further the calculations required for computing the variance of the estimators can exceed 32-bit machine capacity even for a moderately large number of items. This issue is addressed by reducing dimensions of the matrices.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Thomas Loughin
Department: 
Science: Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.Sc.

Model-based Outlier Detection for Object-Relational Data

Author: 
Date created: 
2016-12-06
Abstract: 

Outliers are anomalous and interesting objects that are notably different from the rest of the data. The outlier detection task has sometimes been considered as removing noise from the data. However, it is usually the significantly interesting deviations that are of most interest.Different outlier detection techniques work with various data formats. The outlier detection process needs to be sensitive to the nature of the underlying data. Most of the previous work on outlier detection was designed for propositional data. This dissertation focuses on developing outlier detection methods for structured data, more specifically object-relational data. Object-relational data can be viewed as a heterogeneous network with different classes of objects and links.We develop two new approaches to unsupervised outlier detection; both approaches leverage the statistical information obtained from a statistical-relational model. The first method develops a propositionalization approach to summarize information from object-relational data in a single data table.We use Markov Logic Network (MLN) structure learning to construct the features for the single data table and to mitigate the loss of information that usually happens when features are generated by manual aggregation. By using propositionalization as a pipeline, we can apply many previous outlier detection methods that were designed for single-table data.Our second outlier detection method ranks the objects as potential outliers in an object-oriented data model. Our key idea is to compare the feature distribution of a potential outlier object with the feature distribution of the object’s class. We introduce a novel distribution divergence concept that is suitable for outlier detection. Our methods are validated on synthetic datasets and on real-world datasets about soccer matches and movies.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Oliver Schulte
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Computing Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Representation of the négresse, Trauma and Marronnage in Post-Slavery Narratives

Date created: 
2016-12-09
Abstract: 

The notion of the négresse, even though derogatory, is often used in post-slavery narratives in reference to the black female body. However, the representations of this notion and the persona is rooted in white patriarchal hegemony and its enabling institutions. I explore in this research, the representations of the négresse in literary narratives that recount her lived experiences through the historical events of slavery and in the contemporary structure of post-slavery. I theorize the concepts of trauma, and marronnage in the lived experiences of the black female body in the structure of post-slavery through the reading of Maryse Condé’s Moi, Tituba sorcière…Noire de Salem, Toni Morrison’s Beloved and Marie-Célie Agnant’s Le livre d’Emma. I use these three texts because they portray an identical characterization of the négresse that fits into the spatiotemporal continuums of slavery and post-slavery. This research aims to examine the concept of post-slavery as a contemporary ideology yet historically dependent, based on transferred racial-gendered prejudices that the négresse experiences. I reveal the historical construction and representation of the négresse as a model by which the contemporary black female body is defined and by which the négresse’s contemporary lived experiences are formed. I identify Eurocentric and male hegemonic narratives as limitations that repress the stories of the négresse. Therefore, this thesis supports the need for more intersectional criticism specific to the black female body.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Jorge Calderon
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: Department of French
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

The investigation of the beta decay of 46K: Detailed spectroscopy of the low-lying structure of 46Ca with the GRIFFIN Spectrometer

Date created: 
2016-11-25
Abstract: 

The calcium region is currently a new frontier for modern shell model calculations, and detailed experimental data from these nuclei is critical for a comprehensive understanding of the region.Due to its very low natural abundance of 0.004%, the structure of the magic nucleus 46Ca has not been studied in great detail. Some excited states were previously identified by various reaction mechanisms, and few gamma rays were placed in the level scheme from results of beta-decay experiments equipped with limited detection capabilities. A high-statistics data set of the beta decay of the 46K 2- ground state into the excited states of 46Ca was measured with the GRIFFIN spectrometer located at TRIUMF-ISAC in December of 2014. A radioactive beam consisting almost entirely of 46K was implanted at the center of the GRIFFIN array, and the emitted gamma rays were detected by 15 high-purity germanium clover detectors. From forty hours of data collection, 430 million gamma-gamma coincidences were observed and analysed to construct the 46Ca level scheme. In total, 194 gamma rays were identified and placed into the level scheme; 150 of these transitions were observed for the first time. Angular correlations between pairs of gamma rays were analysed to investigate the spin assignments of the observed excited states. Correlations were investigated for 18 of the 42 observed excited states, and it was possible to confirm 7 previously reported spin assignments, and assign 3 new spins of 3-, 2-, and 3- for the 4435, 5052, and 5535 keV states, respectively. The measured half-life of the 96.41(10) s is in agreement with previous results. From the observed beta feeding intensities of this work, it is suggested that the 46K 2- ground state may contain more proton s1/2 character than has been previously believed. This is due to the strong population of the 5052 keV 2$^-$ state and the absence of observed feeding to the 46Ca ground state.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Corina Andreoiu
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Dissertation) Ph.D.

Breathing New Life into Comic Collections: Drawn & Quarterly's Choice to Reformat & Republish for a Young Readership

Author: 
Abstract: 

Graphic novels and comic reprints have recently surged in popularity due to Hollywood adaptations and bestselling titles such as Art Spiegelman’s Maus and Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis. Despite these successes, publishers still struggle to find the right audience for many comic collections. This report focuses on Drawn & Quarterly’s decision to reprint two comic collections in smaller, kid-friendly editions. It analyzes why D+Q decided to reformat the Janssons’ Moomin comics and Mizuki’s Kitaro manga for specific readerships, with a focus on the emerging genre of crossover literature. The importance of accessibility for serialized comics/manga and crossover literature is underlined as a reason why these titles are ideal for a redesign, and the production work done by the D+Q staff to turn each title into a “kid-friendly” work is explained. Lastly, the report offers insight on how publishers can use D+Q’s tactic for their own success.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Hannah McGregor
Department: 
Communication, Art & Technology: Publishing Program
Thesis type: 
(Project Report) M.Pub.