Geography Discussion Paper Series

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J.M.W. Turner and the Landscape Revolution: A Personal View

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1981
Abstract: 

It has been recognised at least since Plato that the 'objective' environment is not directly accessible to us. Instead, its signals are screened both by the peculiarities of the human visual apparatus, and by attitudes and perceptions, some of which are learned from cultural training and from individual experiences. Of the many influences embedded within culture, that of landscape art has been at times very powerful. The interpretations of nature by landscape artists were of unequalled importance in Western (i.e. European-cum-North American) societies from the late 18th to the late 19th Century. Before this relatively short period, the canons of landscape appreciation came from literature rather than from art, and from the late 19th Century onwards photographic expertise has progressively ousted art in our perceptions. The 19th Century view of the Grand Canyon was doubtless tempered by the photographic records of the expeditions of J.W. Powell and the Kolb brothers, but the vision itself, as appreciated by millions who never saw the Canyon, derived from the romantic paintings of Thomas Moran. It is clear that our present day conception of landscape has a different origin, a flavour mostly drawn from multitudes of colour photographs in magazines and travel brochures, a flavour which might be summarised as 'National Geographic'.

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Report
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Mapping Total Risk in Urban Areas

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1979
Abstract: 

At the present level of scientific and engineering capability little can be done to prevent extreme natural events, but their effects can be alleviated through adequate planning. The first step in hazard mitigation planning is vulnerability analysis, usually presented in the form of hazard maps. Past efforts have been largely devoted to small-scale, single-hazard maps, whereas comprehensive urban

planning requires large-scale, multi-hazard risk maps which show expected local variations in severity over small areas.

In 1972, the Office of Emergency Preparedness submitted to the US Congress a comprehensive study of the types of major natural disasters experienced in the United States. This report analyzed the causes and effects of natural disasters and offered findings and potential solutions to prevent or minimize loss of life and damage to property. In their report, the Office of Emergency Preparedness discussed the need for risk maps, and commented on problems with the present standard of mapping and various authorities have pointed out weaknesses and deficiencies apparent in past examples of risk mapping designed for use in local planning. The methodology for risk mapping discussed here attempts to overcome some of these deficiencies.

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Report
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Alternative Approaches to Pacific Coastal Zone Management

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1978
Abstract: 

During the past few years an increased awareness of the importance of coastal areas has been developing in the United States and Canada. In the United States this interest resulted in the passage of the Coastal Zone Management Act in 1972. This Act made provision for the development of individual management policies in each of the coastal states. On the west coast, Washington, Oregon and California have designated management authorities charged with overseeing the development of their respective coastal zones.

 

In Canada, and more specifically in British Columbia, there has not been a concerted effort to control development within the coastal zone although there is some indication that a movement in this direction is underway. The main goal of this paper will be to provide a clear understanding of the management systems which have been created in Washington, Oregon, and California. Once this is achieved the present status of coastal zone management in British Columbia will be reviewed to determine the direction of current policy. Suggestions, based upon the experience in the three states, will then be presented concerning possible directions for coastal zone management in British Columbia.

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Report
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A Comparative Analysis of Change in Residential Acreage for Greater Vancouver, 1961 - 1976

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1978
Abstract: 

Urban growth, measured in economic and demographic terms, is a well documented feature of Canadian society. The increasing concentration of population and the continued prosperity of large scale urban centres· are perhaps the most familiar and documented forms of this growth. There are of course many other expressions and measurements of urban growth but it was not until more widespread concern developed over the cost of urban expansion, including the loss of agricultural land, that academic attention focussed on one of these, the spatial dimension (and consequences) of urban growth. The expansion in the productive capacity of cities and the concomitant increase and/or redistribution in population all have their spatial expressions. Despite the recent interest devoted to this problem, particularly by Bourne (1973, 1974, 1976), many questions, both general to metropolitan centres and specific to Vancouver, remain unanswered. How much land is being constructed by various activities within Vancouver? In what way do the quantity and intensity of land consumed for new development vary between areas or districts of Greater Vancouver? What role do economic, demographic and institutional forces play in affecting rates of land conversion? To what degree does the spatial pattern of growth in Vancouver conform to that occurring in other metropolitan centres?

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The Distribution of Dree Sponsored Manufacturing Investments in Atlantic Canada 1972-75

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1978
Abstract: 

The formation in 1969 of the Department of Regional Economic Expansion (DREE) was widely welcomed in Atlantic Canada; this federal initiative represented the intent to provide a more coordinated and comprehensive institutional framework within which to administer an enlarged system of financial support for programmes of regional economic development with funding priorities assigned to Eastern Canada. However, even though DREE has been extremely active and visible in the region in providing assistance for infrastructure provision, manufacturing expansions and a variety of other activities, it has, since its inception, faced a mounting tide of criticism.

 

This paper constitutes a further analysis of the RDIA programme for the 1972-75 period during which time the scheme became firmly entrenched, widely known to entrepreneurs both inside and outside the region, and the policy of (decision-making) decentralization completed. The scope of the study is an examination of the allocation of RDIA grants awarded to manufacturing firms in the four Atlantic Provinces. In particular an attempt is made to assess the extent to which the distribution of RDIA awards has been consistent with the long run strategy for development advocated by DREE for Atlantic Canada. The next two sections outline more fully the objectives of the paper and the nature of this strategy.

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Report
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Energy Issues in Canada

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1978
Abstract: 

During the Fall Semester, 1977 the Department of Geography and ContinuingStudies, Simon Fraser University presented a public lecture series, 'EnergyIssues in Canada.' The series was intended as a forum for public debate, with six lectures presented by experts playing significant roles in today's energydecisions. The lectures addressed a range of topics, including energy supplyand demand forecasts, the problems and potential of fossil fuels, the opportunitiesoffered by renewable energy sources, and energy conservation. Thefinal lecture in the series focussed upon current federal energy policy.In response to the interest shown in the series, we decided to issue avolume of proceedings in order that the infonnation and viewpoints presentedin the lectures could reach a wider audience. The following papers arearranged in order of presentation. Unfortunately it has not been possible toinclude the discussion of renewable energy sources and technologies given inthe fifth lecture of the series. Most authors address the Canadian and provincial energy scene in thecontext of world trends: the price increases introduced by OPEC (Organisationof Petroleum Exporting Countries) in 1973, and the looming gap between worlddemand and supply of petroleum which will result in a deficit sometime duringthe 1980s. These trends have undermined our sense of energy security, forceda reexamination of present energy use patterns, and given support to theidea of energy conservation.

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Report
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Small is Possible by George McRobie and Small is Beautiful and Possible... But Access to Land is Critical by Robert A. Williams

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1982
Abstract: 

On April 29 1982 George McRobie visited Simon Fraser University to deliver a lecture on his favourite topic - "appropriate" technology. To give special point to that occasion and underline the relevance of the topic for British Columbia Robert Williams was invited to give a counterpoint talk. This Siamese-twin paper is the result of that juxtaposition.  George McRobie spent some fifteen years with the National Coal Board in Britain, during which he was closely associated with E.F. Schumacher, author of Small is Beautiful. In 1965 they founded the Intermediate Technology Development Group in London, U .K., of which Mr. McRobie is now chairman. A graduate in economics of the London School of Economics Mr. McRohie is the author of Small is Possible. Robert A. Williams is best known in British Columbia for his political activities, especially as Minister of Lands, Forests and Water Resources in the NDP government from 1972 to 1975. Having degrees in economics and urban planning from the University of British Columbia he has a special interest in land issues.

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Some Aspects of the Hydrology of the Fraser River Basin, British Columbia

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1980
Abstract: 

A simple computational procedure for calculating the water balance in the Fraser River basin in British Columbia is presented. The computational model uses readily available meteorological records and is based on the definitional equality that, for a given year, runoff is equal to the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration adjusted for basin storage fluctuation. The annual hydrologic record generated by this model indicates that, for the period 1951 to 1976, precipitation basin runoff, and evapotranspiration, respectively averaged 737 mm, 433 mm and 301 mm per year, while the mean annual temperature for the same period was 2.1°C. The relationships among the hydrologic components and basin temperature are discussed. It is concluded that, given the known errors in the computational model, the measured water balance is not inconsistent with that derived from the estimating procedure of Thornthwaite and Mather.

 

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River Channel Dynamics: Retrospect and Prospect

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1980-09
Abstract: 

This paper attempts to define the state of the art in the field of channel dynamics, to identify critical problem areas, and to suggest the directions of future research. Although the manner in which rivers change the form and pattern of their channels in response to environmental change has been a recurring theme in river studies, it recently has enjoyed considerably increased attention from earth scientists. Perhaps the most significant recent evidence of this interest is the appearance of several collected works and reviews of studies of channel changes (for example, see Gregory, 1977; Gregory and Walling, 1979; Kuprianov and Kopaliani, Park, 1981), and the fact that a Session has been devoted to the topic here Second International Conference on Fluvial Sediments at Keele, England, in September 1981. The study of river channel changes, in the broadest sense of the term, is no less than the study of equilibrium channel behaviour and the nature of excursions from those equilibrium conditions. As such it includes almost all that we know about the fluid mechanics and morphology of alluvial channels. But in a more narrow sense of the term it is the collection of empirical and theoretical studies concerned with adjustment of channel cross-sectiondl size, form, and pattern, to shifts in environmental conditions, particularly those that promote changes in discharge and in sediment loads. In a still narrower sense, channel changes may be regarded as have been induced by the activities of human beings.

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Drainage Basin Hydrology: A Review and Synthesis

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1980-09
Abstract: 

This paper is the second of a four-part review and discussion of the basic principles and theories of river behaviour. This discussion paper is a relatively comprehensive review of drainage basin hydrology, although it is intentionally biased towards hydrologic conditions in Canada. For example, the treatment of snowmelt runoff is more detailed than those found in standard texts. Emphasis has also been given to certain topics which are directly relevant to the discussion in other parts of this River Studies series. Throughout this work I have attempted to "translate" the often highly technical discussion into a form that a generalist in the earth sciences would find useful.

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Report
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