Tse’K’Wa (Charlie Lake Cave)

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Tse’K’wa, formerly known as Charlie Lake Cave, has been visited by people for more than 12,000 years, and this site now preserves a record of human activity that starts with some of the first people to live in the Peace River region, when the last ice age was coming to an end, and concludes with the construction of the Alaska Highway in the 1940’s.

The archaeological research at the site has been published in many places that are not easily accessible to members of the general public. For the modern First Nations people whose ancestors lived at Tse’K’Wa this is particularly problematic. Working in collaboration with the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (B.C.), who recently purchased the land on which Tse’K’Wa is located, we intend to make the results accessible and understandable to the general reader. Thanks to the good will of many publishers, we are able to reproduce articles in digital and print form, and to preface each publication with a short summary.

Archaeological excavations at Tse’K’Wa were undertaken by Simon Fraser University in 1983 (director: Knut Fladmark) and 1990 and 1991 (co-directors: Knut Fladmark and Jon Driver). Research on materials recovered during these excavations has continued to the present day.

Users of these publications should be aware that information and interpretations have changed over time. For example, we have acquired more radiocarbon dates through the years, we changed our interpretation of the stratigraphy after the 1991 season, and we have analyzed more and more material as the years have gone by.

Jon Driver, Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University

Archaeological Work at Tse'K'Wa

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2015
Abstract: 

Tse’K’wa is an archaeological site in British Columbia, preserving a record of human activity that starts with some of the first people to live in the Peace River region. Working in collaboration with the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (B.C.), this publication intends to make the results accessible and understandable to the general reader. Available in PDF and EPUB format, this publication consisting of republished journal articles, short summaries, and a photo collection, will be widely distributed to First Nations communities within B.C. and Alberta.

Document type: 
Book

The Paleoindian Component at Charlie Lake Cave (HbRf39), British Columbia

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1988
Abstract: 

Charlie Lake Cave (HbRf 39) is a stratified site in northeastern British Columbia, Canada, containing a flutedpoint component at the base of the excavated deposits. The small artifact assemblage includes a fluted point, stone bead, core tool, and retouched flake. A diverse associated fauna includes fish, birds, and mammals, indicating a more open environment than exists today. Radiocarbon dates suggest that the artifact assemblage was deposited about 10,500 years ago.

 

Article Summary by Jonathan C. Driver, May 2015

            This was the first major publication about Tse’K’wa and it focuses on what for many people was the most exciting find at the site – a very early occupation of so-called “Paleoindian” people.

            There continues to be considerable debate about when the first people came to the Americas. In the 1980’s (and continuing today), the weight of evidence supports a long-held belief that the ancestors of the indigenous peoples of the Americas made their initial migration from somewhere in northeast Asia.  However, the timing of this movement, the context in which it occurred, and the date are still contentious. (It is, of course, a simplification to describe this as a single event. There is plenty of evidence for a number of major migrations across the Bering Strait, and it is likely that there was a flow of people and ideas in both directions over thousands of years).

            In the 1980’s, as today, virtually all archaeologists agree that “Paleoindian” cultures dating to the end of the last glacial period (about 12,000 BC) indicate a well-established population throughout the Americas by that time, although there is still considerable debate about when the first ancestors of Paleoindians arrived in the Americas.

            While the way of life of these peoples must have varied across different environments found in North and South America, the most distinctive Paleoindian artifacts in North America are a kind of stone spear point, known as “fluted points”.  Fluted points were chipped from fine-grained rocks, such as chert, jasper and obsidian, and generally had a long, lanceolate outline. In order to fit the base of the point into the shaft of the spear, it was thinned by striking off some flakes that ran from the base towards the sharp tip, creating a shallow channel or “flute” on one or both surfaces of the stone spearpoint.

            Fluted points have been found in association with extinct animals, most commonly woolly mammoth and extinct forms of bison, but also with horse and camel, primarily  in the central and western half of the USA. Due to different geological and soil conditions in eastern USA, most fluted point sites there do not preserve animal bone. In 1983 when a fluted point was found at Tse’K’wa, there was only one site in all of Canada where fluted points had been found in association with organic material that could be radiocarbon dated – at Debert, in Nova Scotia where charcoal in the soil provided some dates. Tse’K’wa was the first site in Canada that produced a fluted point in association with animal bones that had clearly been butchered by people – in this case an extinct form of bison – and the first site in Canada in which a fluted point was found at the bottom of a long sequence of later cultural periods. The unique soil conditions at the Tse'K'wa site have enabled archaeologists to use radio carbon dating on fluted points and animal remains to gain further insight into the lifestyles and timeline of early human occupation of Canada.

            Also of significance was the location of Tse’K’wa just to the east of the Rockies. Archaeologists had proposed that one route into the Americas during the late ice age was between the Rocky Mountain glaciers to the west and the massive ice sheets that covered Canada to the east – this so-called “ice-free corridor” might have allowed early hunters to move from unglaciated areas of Siberia and Alaska into the vast uninhabited continents to the south of the ice. Although fluted points had been picked up from ploughed fields in BC and Alberta, before the excavations at Tse’K’wa none of them had been radiocarbon dated, and so it was difficult to relate them to known dates of glaciers and post-glacial landscapes.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Late Pleistocene and Holocene Vertebrates and Palaeoenvironments from Charlie Lake Cave, Northeast British Columbia

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1988
Abstract: 

Excavations outside Charlie Lake Cave, Peace River District, British Columbia, revealed deposits dating from 10 700 BP to the present. The earliest fauna (10700 - 10000 BP) was deposited when the newly deglaciated landscape was largely unforested and included bison (Bison sp.), ground squirrel (Spermophilus sp.), a large hare (Lepus sp.), snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), and a variety of birds, including the Cliff Swallow (Hirundo pyrrhonota). By 10000 BP snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) was the most numerous mammal, indi cating the development of forested conditions. By 9000 BP the fauna resembled the modern Peace River fauna prior to European settlem ment, typical of a largely forested landscape, with wetland areas indicated by aquatic avian species. Subsequent Holocene climatic fluctuations are not evident in the faunal record.

 

Article Summary by Jonathan C. Driver, May 2015

 

            This article provides a historical interpretation of the animals and natural environment of Tse’K’wa and surrounding regions. The animal bones from Tse’K’wa are special for a number of reasons. This is one of the few sites in northern BC or Alberta that preserves a complete record of animal bones from the end of the last ice age to modern times. As a result, we have a glimpse into the local and regional environment around the site. Furthermore, the bones and teeth are preserved very well, especially in the earliest (oldest) layers.

            Because the animal bones tell us a lot about past environments, I decided to publish a description and interpretation in an earth sciences journal.  The paper complements the 1988 paper in American Antiquity that focused on the early archaeological materials. These are the two main journal articles that resulted from the 1983 excavations.

            There are two major environmental periods represented. During the late glacial and early post-glacial period the landscape was less forested than today, and there do not seem to have been wetlands near the site. Animals present include an extinct form of bison, quite a large number of ground squirrels, and a few bones of a large hare that is not the common snowshoe hare found in the region today. These all indicate a largely treeless environment. However, this period was relatively short-lived, and the second period at the site reflects many thousands of years in which the landscape was mainly forested, and included nearby wetlands. The mammals and birds of the second period are typical of the region and, with the exception of passenger pigeon that became extinct in the 19th century, could all be found within a few kilometres of the site today.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

A 10,500 Sequence of Bird Remains from the Southern Boreal Forest Region of Western Canada

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1992
Abstract: 

The prehistoric avian fauna from the Charlie Lake Cave site, Peace River District, British Columbia, spans the last 10 500 years and includes birds from eleven orders. Prior to about 10 000 B.P. the fauna is sparse and the most common species is Cliff Swallow (Hirundopyrrhonota), which probably nested at the site. The avian fauna from 10 000 B.P. to the present is dominated by wetland associated birds (mainly grebes and ducks) of the same species found in the area today and is consistent with the esta lishment of boreal forest by 10 000 B.P. From about 8000 B.P. Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migrat rius) occurs and appears to have been a regular component of the local fauna. The assemblages demo strate rapid colonization of boreal environments by bird populations by  10 000 B.P. and probably ind cate that the modern patterns of migration were established early in the Holocene.

 

Article Summary by Jonathan C. Driver, May 2015

 

            This article discusses the bird remains found at Tse’K’wa and their significant contributions to British Columbian ornithology. I had previously collaborated with Keith Hobson on a study of the archaeological evidence for birds in the Gulf of Georgia. Keith was at one time a technician and enthusiastic bird watcher in the Department of Archaeology at SFU, and produced the first radiocarbon dates on the early Tse’K’wa materials. After completing his PhD in biology at Saskatchewan in 1991 he embarked on a prestigious career as an ornithologist, working for universities and the federal government.

            We wrote this paper to highlight some contributions of the Tse’K’wa animal bone collection to ornithology.  Fossil birds are very rare in the interior of western Canada, so this paper established first fossil records in BC for quite a few species.

            Passenger pigeons were present for much of the last 10,000 years in the Peace River region, suggesting that they were regular visitors prior to their mass extinction in the late nineteenth century.

            Quite a few species of migratory birds were present at the site from an early period, suggesting that migration routes were established soon after the glacial conditions came to an end.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

The Prehistory of Charlie Lake Cave

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1996
Abstract: 

Article Summary by Jonathan C. Driver, May 2015

 

            This paper and The Significance of the Fauna from the Charlie Lake Cave Site by Jonathan C. Driver, are excerpts from Early Human Occupation in British Columbia, an archaeological book published in 1996. In 1988 the annual meeting of the Canadian Archaeological Association was held in Whistler, B.C. As part of the meeting, Roy Carlson, a professor at SFU, organized a symposium on the early human presence in British Columbia. Knut Fladmark and I each gave a paper on our work at Tse’K’wa, based on the 1983 excavation season.

            Although it was intended to publish the book quickly, there were various delays, and Fladmark and I went back to Tse’K’wa in 1990 and 1991 before the proceedings of the Whistler symposium were finally published in 1996. We updated our papers slightly based on the later excavations, but both of these papers really reflect our thinking prior to the full analysis of the material from 1990 and 1991.

            Fladmark’s paper is a good introduction to the location and geology of the site, and it provides an account of the cultural materials recovered in 1983.

            Driver’s paper summarizes the animal bones from the 1983 excavations, and devotes more time to considering how the wide variety of animals were brought to the site. I noted that the bison bone was found in locations with lower amounts of small mammals and birds and suggested that most of the smaller animals were brought to the site by non-human predators, such as owls.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

The Significance of the Fauna from the Charlie Lake Cave Site

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1996
Abstract: 

Article Summary by Jonathan C. Driver, May 2015

 

            This paper and The Prehistory of Charlie Lake Cave by Knut R. Fladmark, are excerpts from Early Human Occupation in British Columbia, an archaeological book published in 1996. In 1988 the annual meeting of the Canadian Archaeological Association was held in Whistler, B.C. As part of the meeting, Roy Carlson, a professor at SFU, organized a symposium on the early human presence in British Columbia. Knut Fladmark and I each gave a paper on our work at Tse’K’wa, based on the 1983 excavation season.

            Although it was intended to publish the book quickly, there were various delays, and Fladmark and I went back to Tse’K’wa in 1990 and 1991 before the proceedings of the Whistler symposium were finally published in 1996. We updated our papers slightly based on the later excavations, but both of these papers really reflect our thinking prior to the full analysis of the material from 1990 and 1991.

            Fladmark’s paper is a good introduction to the location and geology of the site, and it provides an account of the cultural materials recovered in 1983.

            Driver’s paper summarizes the animal bones from the 1983 excavations, and devotes more time to considering how the wide variety of animals were brought to the site. I noted that the bison bone was found in locations with lower amounts of small mammals and birds and suggested that most of the smaller animals were brought to the site by non-human predators, such as owls.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Stratigraphy, Radiocarbon Dating and Culture History of Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1996
Abstract: 

Three seasons of fieldwork at Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia, have revealed a sequence of stratified deposits that spans the Late Pleistocene and entire Holocene. Analyses of sediments, radiocarbon dates, faunal remains, and artifacts show that the site was first occupied by people at about 10 500 B.P., when local environments were more open than today. By 9500 B.P., boreal forest had moved into the area, and human use of the site was minimal until about 7000 B.P., when a brief occupation of the site probably included a human burial. Use of the site intensified after about 4500 B.P., possibly because the cave became more accessible. The site was used both as a residential base camp and as a more temporary hunting station or lookout.

 

Article Summary by Jonathan C. Driver, May 2015

 

After we had completed our excavations in 1991 we decided that we should focus on writing up what we had excavated, and not undertake further excavations at the site. This paper was written to summarize our state of knowledge about the archaeological remains at the site, and focused on describing the stone tools, the overall stratigraphy, and the dating. The stratigraphic summary replaced earlier work based on the 1983 excavations, and we were able to refine our dating of the site as a result of more radiocarbon dates. The different cultural periods were based mainly on the work done by Martin Handly for his M.A. thesis at Trent University.

The long list of authors reflects the need for a team approach to archaeological work, and include the project directors (Knut Fladmark and Jon Driver), stone tool analysis and development of the cultural sequence (Martin Handly), animal bone analysis (Randall Preston and Jon Driver), sediment analysis (Greg Sullivan and Knut Fladmark), and radiocarbon dating (Erle Nelson).

The most important aspect of the site is that it preserves a very rare record of humanly made artifacts dating from the end of the last ice age (at least 10,500 BC) to very recent times. The many layers at the site allow us to separate the different cultural periods. Good preservation of bone allowed us to submit radiocarbon dates that provide approximate ages for the various cultures that used the site.

The artifacts that exhibit the most change through time are projectile points – the sharp stone tips for spears, darts and arrows. In much of western Canada it is difficult to date archaeological sites, because many of them are found in shallow soils where radiocarbon dating is difficult for two reasons. First, animal bone is often not preserved due to the acidic nature of the soils. Second, although charcoal is often found, it cannot be reliably associated with human activity, because natural forest fires also produce charcoal. As a result, archaeologists look at the style of the projectile points to assign approximate ages. Tse’K’wa provides an opportunity to link artifacts of different styles to radiocarbon dates in a site with many distinct layers. So Tse’K’wa is a foundation for understanding the sequence of different cultures in the region.

The article also discusses the possible early presence of microblade technology. Microblades are the most efficient way of producing a cutting edge when the base technology is chipped stone. A small piece of high-quality raw material (known as the core) is shaped in such a way that numerous parallel-sided slivers of stone can be removed. These “microblades” can then be hafted in wood or antler to form knives or arrow barbs. The concept is rather like our utility knives that have replaceable blades. This technology allows people to carry small quantities of high quality stone with them, ensuring that they always have a sharp blade available. Not all archaeologists agree that the early microblade core from Tse’K’wa is part of this technology, because it doesn’t conform to the classic methods of core manufacture. However, we argue that evidence for the removal of microblades is very obvious, and the lack of classic core preparation is because of the tabular nature of the raw material.

The paper also introduces some information about animal bones, including the raven burials, evidence for environmental change, and the presence of collared lemming. These topics were subsequently explored in more detail in other papers.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Late Pleistocene Collared Lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) from Northeastern British Columbia

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1998
Abstract: 

Charlie Lake Cave is a terminal Pleistocene/Holocene archaeological and paleontological site in northeastern British Columbia (Driver, 1988; Fladmark et al., 1988; Driver et al., 1996). Located in the Peace River District to the east of the Rocky Mountains (56°16'35"N, 120°56' 15"W), the major feature of the site is a deep gully in front of a cave formed in a low sandstone escarpment. The gully runs parallel to the hillside, and has been filled with sediments moving down the hill since 10,500 B.P., resulting in up to 4.5 m thick deposits. The site is well stratified, and there is a strong correlation of radiocarbon age and depth, suggesting stratigraphic integrity. The site contains vertebrate assemblages deposited by natural agencies and human hunters, and there is also a long sequence of archaeological components at the site . The importance of the site was demonstrated by Fladmark's excavations in 1983 (Fladmark et al., 1988). Further excavations at the site were undertaken in 1990-1991, and remains of collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) were recovered during the second series of excavations. The specimens are described and their significance evaluated.

 

Article Summary by Jonathan C. Driver, May 2015

 

            This short paper provides information on an unexpected and unusual find from the lower layers at the site. After the 1991 excavations were finished we began to work on identifying the animal bones that were recovered. Somewhat to our surprise we found a few specimens of the collared lemming, an animal that today only inhabits the high tundra of the arctic. This wasn’t out of line with other species that indicated a cold and/or open unforested landscape during the earliest period of occupation – bison, ground squirrels and hares – but as collared lemming had not been found before in British Columbia it warranted a paper to itself.

            The paper describes the specimens, noting that they were somewhat larger than modern lemmings, and then looks at the known distribution of lemmings at the end of the ice age. There are a number of specimens from fossil sites (mainly caves) well outside their modern distribution. This presumably suggests  lemming populations were able to colonize cold, open landscapes around the expanding ice sheets, and had enough time to move south as the ice sheets expanded and in turn created new habitat that was suitable for lemmings.

            As the climate changed and as forests moved in, lemmings were unable to survive and their populations dwindled and soon became extinct in the Peace River region.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Raven Skeletons from Paleoindian Contexts, Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1999
Abstract: 

Two raven skeletons were excavated from Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia, in association with Paleoindian occupations dated at about 10,500 and 9500 B.P. The distribution and condition of  the bones, the association with  artifacts, the configuration and location of the site, and data from ethnographic and historic sources contribute to the argument that the two ravens were deposited deliberately by people.

 

Article Summary by Jonathan C. Driver, May 2015

 

            This paper emerged from a series of personal experiences I had while working at Tse’K’wa. Fairly late in the 1991 season I was excavating a layer dating to about 9000 BC that didn’t appear to contain any humanly-made artifacts but, like many layers at the site, had a few animal bones scattered through it.  As I was digging I uncovered two bird bones lying in an “articulated” position – in other words, they were in the same relationship to each other as they would be when the bird was alive.  

Leaving them in place, I began to dig carefully around them, and soon realized I was uncovering a complete bird skeleton. As I uncovered each bone I drew it onto a plan, numbered it and removed it, so by the end of the work I mapped an almost complete bird skeleton, with each bone numbered and bagged separately. The final part of the excavation was very delicate, as I uncovered and mapped the individual toe bones. In among the toe bones was a small rock, and as I removed it I realized that it was a rather unusual stone artifact known as a “microblade core”.  Made of very fine-grained stone, ancient people had carried it around so they could remove small, parallel sided flakes of stone, which could then be hafted in a variety of handles – rather like blades of utility knives that we use today. This technology is so distinctive that archaeologists make special note when it appears. The bird skeleton was lying in a small hollow, either natural or humanly made, so it appeared that someone had placed the dead bird in the hollow, with an artifact at its feet, and then covered it up so that it would not be disturbed.

            As we excavated even deeper levels we uncovered a second bird skeleton, scattered across about a square metre. Although it was older by at least 1000 years, it was even better preserved. We also mapped the bones of this skeleton as they emerged, and confirmed that we had a second bird that seemed to have been buried as a complete individual.

            During excavation seasons one is always concerned about getting as much done in the days available, so I didn’t spend much time trying to identify these birds. I assumed that once I was able to study the bones they would turn out to be some kind of waterfowl because remains of ducks and grebes are quite common at Tse’K’wa. Once I got back to the university at the end of the summer one of the first things I did was to check on the identification, and I quickly realized we had uncovered two raven skeletons.

            For anyone living in British Columbia the connection between ravens and First Nations people is well known. Bill Reid’s massive cedar sculpture at the UBC Museum of Anthropology of Raven opening a clam shell is visited by tens of thousands of people every year, and his Jade Canoe, steered by Raven, is seen by millions at the Vancouver airport. Elementary school children all read stories about Raven the trickster.

            This connection to BC’s First Nations would be reason enough to get excited, but I had a personal connection to ravens and Tse’K’wa that caused shivers to run up my spine as I made the identification of the bird skeletons in the bone lab. When we had finished our excavations in 1991 I spent a morning at the site by myself, mainly down in the bottom of the deep excavation finalizing some of the drawings, checking measurements and just thinking about the site before we started backfilling on the following day. It had been very quiet in the excavation hole, too deep to hear traffic noise from the Alaska Highway, no comments from an excavation crew, no scraping of trowels on rock, and no rattling as sediments were shaken through the screens. My companions throughout that morning were a pair of ravens who hung around the site, talking to each other and, as I liked to think, talking to me as well.  My experience with the ravens that morning filled my thoughts as soon as I had confirmed the identification of the bones.

            I knew that there was a story to tell about the buried ravens, but it took me a while to sort it out, and quite a long time to get it accepted for publication. Like most scholars, archaeologists are most comfortable with the familiar. No one had found any evidence in North America for ritual behaviour this early, other than very rare human burials, and reviewers were reluctant to accept the interpretation that these two ravens were placed deliberately by people. I found this somewhat frustrating because the other region in which I work – the American Southwest – has thousands of examples dating from more recent times of “special” birds (mainly eagles, hawks, owls and parrots) found as complete skeletons. Often times these remains are in association with  buildings identified as places of ceremonial or ritual activity for ancestral Native Americans. Tse’K’wa clearly would have a been a special place on the landscape, and both caves and ravens have all kinds of spiritual importance around the world. Why was it so difficult for other scholars to accept that the combination of complete skeletons, a special place, and culturally significant birds  suggest that Tse’K’wa was a sacred location to the First Nations people who visited the site many years ago? 

            Eventually I was able to convince the editor of American Antiquity – arguably the best archaeology journal in North America – that there would never be agreement amongst reviewers. Some thought my manuscript was too speculative, and others thought it was worth publishing.

            The published paper describes the location, configuration and age of the skeletons. It briefly describes the importance of ravens in cultures around the world. They are often seen as messengers, and are frequently connected to hunting. In some parts of North America Raven is both creator and trickster who has many human qualities.

            I also noted that Tse’K’wa was likely a prominent feature of the landscape, not only because of the cave, but also because there was a very large vertical stone monolith in front of the cave that would have been much more visible than today. Caves are often entrances to the underworld, and the placing of spiritually important birds right in front of the cave mouth may suggest that they were seen as capable of communicating between the world of the living and the world of the spirits.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Stratified Faunas from Charlie Lake Cave and the Peopling of the Western Interior of Canada

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1999
Abstract: 

Article Summary by Jonathan C. Driver, May 2015

 

            This article discusses the correlations between environmental change and human activity and the significance of Tse’K’wa to such research. In 1995 I attended an international conference in Berlin that looked at the archaeology of the transition period from the last ice age (the Pleistocene) to the modern period (the Holocene).  I gave a paper summarizing  archaeological data from western Canada for the period 11,000 BC to 9000 BC. At that conference it was suggested that we needed to have a second meeting that looked at changes in environment and hunting during this period of global environmental change. I therefore volunteered to organize a set of presentations within a conference on animal bone archaeology (zooarchaeology) that was held in Victoria, British Columbia, in 1998.

            The paper that I presented included a discussion about when habitats would have been suitable for human habitation after deglaciation, but in view of the small number of sites and the differing intensities of archaeological fieldwork I did not feel confident in suggesting  (as I now believe) that colonization of the interior of western Canada took place from south to north.

            The rest of the paper focused on Tse’K’wa because it was (and is still) the only archaeological site in the interior of western Canada where evidence for environmental change can be correlated with evidence for human activities. The animal bone data from Tse’K’wa clearly show a rapidly changing environment as the ice was ending and new habitats were being established. Building on the results of the 1983 excavations, adding data from the 1990 and 1991 excavations allowed a more detailed picture of the changing environments. For example, one diagram in the paper shows how quickly the local small mammals change from ground squirrels to snowshoe hare. It was also apparent that animals that live in or near water became more prevalent  once the forested environments were established.

Document type: 
Article
File(s):