Mechatronics Systems Engineering - Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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Identification of intoxicated driving using steering wheel signals and improving lateral control in semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles

Author: 
Date created: 
2018-08-22
Abstract: 

The studies reported in this thesis focus on specific problems in detection of intoxicated driving, improving the performance of the vehicle when an intoxicated driver is controlling the vehicle, and designing autonomous lateral controllers. In the first phase of this study, we apply system identification techniques on the steering wheel control behavior of the driver to present two models to describe the behaviors of sober and drunk drivers. Then we use these models and online identification methods to detect intoxicated driving from steering wheel data and vehicle lateral position. In the second part of this thesis, we present the idea of improving the steering action of intoxicated drivers by adding serial and parallel controllers to the system while the driver is in the loop. In the first proposed algorithm, the steering signal coming from the steering wheel is fed to a serial controller. The output of the controller becomes the actual steering of the car. In the second suggested algorithm, the output of an independent lateral controller is added to the control signal generated by the human driver. In the third phase, several look-ahead lateral controllers are designed to maintain the vehicle in the center of the lane when the driver is removed from the system. Among the designed controllers are a novel, simple fused neural-network controller, introduced by our group, and a recently introduced robust adaptive controller which applies L_1 adaptive control theory on vehicles for the first time. The designed controllers are tested in challenging scenarios including wind gusts, road banking, icy roads, vehicle parameter uncertainties, and measurement noise, all present at the same time. Finally, longitudinal controllers are studied, designed, and combined with the previously designed lateral controllers to complete the control subsystem of autonomous vehicles.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Ahmad Rad
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Large-scale design optimization methods for problems with expensive objectives and constraints

Date created: 
2018-04-23
Abstract: 

With the increasing adoption of complex simulations in engineering design involving finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), design optimization problems are increasingly high-dimensional, computationally expensive, and black-box (HEB). In addition, computationally expensive constraints are commonly seen in real-world engineering optimization problems, which pose challenges for existing optimizers. Surrogates, or metamodels, are mathematical functions that are used to approximate computationally expensive models. Use of surrogates in metamodel-based design optimization (MBDO) methods has shown promise in the literature for optimization of expensive and black-box problems. However, current MBDO approaches are often not suitable for high-dimensional problems and often do not support expensive constraints. The goal of this work is to develop surrogate-based methods suitable for efficient single and multi-objective optimization of HEB problems with expensive inequality constraints. This work integrated the concept of trust regions with the Mode Pursuing Sampling (MPS) MBDO method to create the Trust Region-based MPS (TRMPS) optimizer, which dramatically improved performance and efficiency for single-objective high-dimensional problems with inexpensive constraints. To address expensive constraints, an adaptive aggregation-based constraint handling strategy is proposed by hybridizing a function aggregation method with surrogate modeling. The strategy, called the Situational Adaptive Kreisselmeier and Steinhauser (SAKS) method, formed the basis for two new optimizers for solving single and multi-objective HEB problems with expensive constraints. The new methods, called SAKS-Trust Region Optimizer (SAKS-TRO) and SAKS-Multiobjective Trust Region Optimizer (SAKS-MTRO), demonstrated significant performance improvement when benchmarked against other optimizers. SAKS-TRO and SAKS-MTRO were successfully applied to two real engineering design applications: multi-objective optimization of a semiconductor substrate, and single and multi-objective optimization of a recessed impeller for slurry pumps.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Gary Wang
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

7-degree-of-freedom hybrid-manipulator exoskeleton for lower-limb motion capture

Date created: 
2018-04-06
Abstract: 

Lower-limb exoskeletons are wearable robotic systems with a kinematic structure closely matching that of the human leg. In part, this technology can be used to provide clinical assessment and improved independent-walking competency for people living with the effects of stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and sarcopenia. Individually, these demographics represent approximately: 405 thousand, 100 thousand, 67.5 thousand, 100 thousand, and 5.9 million Canadians, respectively. Key shortcomings in the current state-of-the-art are: restriction on several of the human leg’s primary joint movements, coaxial joint alignments at the exoskeleton-human interface, and exclusion of well-suited parallel manipulator components. A novel exoskeleton design is thus formulated to address these issues while maintaining large ranges of joint motion. Ultimately, a single-leg unactuated prototype is constructed for seven degree-of-freedom joint angle measurements; it achieves an extent of motion-capture accuracy comparable to a commercial inertial-based system during three levels of human mobility testing.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Siamak Arzanpour
Edward Park
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.Sc.

Development of a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of circulating tumour cells

Date created: 
2017-08-16
Abstract: 

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Efforts to improve the longevity and quality of life of cancer patients are hindered by delays in diagnosis of tumours and treatment deficiency, as well as inaccurate prognosis that leads to unnecessary or inefficient treatments. More accurate biomarkers may address these issues and could facilitate the selection of effective treatment courses and development of new therapeutic regimens. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs), which are cancer cells that are shed from tumours and enter the vasculature, hold such a promise. Therefore, there is much interest in the isolation of CTCs from the blood. However, this is not a trivial task given the extreme scarcity of CTCs in the circulation. In this thesis, the development of a microfluidic immunomagnetic approach for isolation of CTCs is presented. First, the design, microfabrication, and experimental evaluation of a novel integrated microfluidic magnetic chip for sensitive and selective isolation of immunomagnetically labelled cancer cells from blood samples is reported. In general, to ensure the efficient immunomagnetic labelling of target cancer cells in a blood sample, an excessive number of magnetic beads should be added to the sample. When an immunomagnetically labelled sample is processed through the chip, not only cancer cells but also free magnetic beads that are not bonded to any target cells would be captured. The accumulation of these beads could disrupt the capture and visual detection of target cells. This is an inherent drawback associated with immunomagnetic cell separation systems and has rarely been addressed in the past. Therefore, the design, microfabrication, and characterization of a microfluidic filter for continuous size-based removal of free magnetic beads from immunomagnetically labelled blood samples is presented next. Connected in tandem, the two chips developed in this work form a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of CTCs. Preclinical studies showed that the proposed approach can capture up to 75% of blood-borne prostate cancer cells at clinically-relevant low concentrations (as low as 5 cells/mL) at an acceptable throughput (200 μL/min). The retrieval and successful propagation of captured prostate cancer cells is also investigated and discussed in this thesis.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. Edward J. Park
Dr. Timothy V. Beischlag
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Development of a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of circulating tumour cells

Date created: 
2017-08-16
Abstract: 

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Efforts to improve the longevity and quality of life of cancer patients are hindered by delays in diagnosis of tumours and treatment deficiency, as well as inaccurate prognosis that leads to unnecessary or inefficient treatments. More accurate biomarkers may address these issues and could facilitate the selection of effective treatment courses and development of new therapeutic regimens. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs), which are cancer cells that are shed from tumours and enter the vasculature, hold such a promise. Therefore, there is much interest in the isolation of CTCs from the blood. However, this is not a trivial task given the extreme scarcity of CTCs in the circulation. In this thesis, the development of a microfluidic immunomagnetic approach for isolation of CTCs is presented. First, the design, microfabrication, and experimental evaluation of a novel integrated microfluidic magnetic chip for sensitive and selective isolation of immunomagnetically labelled cancer cells from blood samples is reported. In general, to ensure the efficient immunomagnetic labelling of target cancer cells in a blood sample, an excessive number of magnetic beads should be added to the sample. When an immunomagnetically labelled sample is processed through the chip, not only cancer cells but also free magnetic beads that are not bonded to any target cells would be captured. The accumulation of these beads could disrupt the capture and visual detection of target cells. This is an inherent drawback associated with immunomagnetic cell separation systems and has rarely been addressed in the past. Therefore, the design, microfabrication, and characterization of a microfluidic filter for continuous size-based removal of free magnetic beads from immunomagnetically labelled blood samples is presented next. Connected in tandem, the two chips developed in this work form a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of CTCs. Preclinical studies showed that the proposed approach can capture up to 75% of blood-borne prostate cancer cells at clinically-relevant low concentrations (as low as 5 cells/mL) at an acceptable throughput (200 μL/min). The retrieval and successful propagation of captured prostate cancer cells is also investigated and discussed in this thesis.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. Edward J. Park
Dr. Timothy V. Beischlag
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Development of a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of circulating tumour cells

Date created: 
2017-08-16
Abstract: 

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Efforts to improve the longevity and quality of life of cancer patients are hindered by delays in diagnosis of tumours and treatment deficiency, as well as inaccurate prognosis that leads to unnecessary or inefficient treatments. More accurate biomarkers may address these issues and could facilitate the selection of effective treatment courses and development of new therapeutic regimens. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs), which are cancer cells that are shed from tumours and enter the vasculature, hold such a promise. Therefore, there is much interest in the isolation of CTCs from the blood. However, this is not a trivial task given the extreme scarcity of CTCs in the circulation. In this thesis, the development of a microfluidic immunomagnetic approach for isolation of CTCs is presented. First, the design, microfabrication, and experimental evaluation of a novel integrated microfluidic magnetic chip for sensitive and selective isolation of immunomagnetically labelled cancer cells from blood samples is reported. In general, to ensure the efficient immunomagnetic labelling of target cancer cells in a blood sample, an excessive number of magnetic beads should be added to the sample. When an immunomagnetically labelled sample is processed through the chip, not only cancer cells but also free magnetic beads that are not bonded to any target cells would be captured. The accumulation of these beads could disrupt the capture and visual detection of target cells. This is an inherent drawback associated with immunomagnetic cell separation systems and has rarely been addressed in the past. Therefore, the design, microfabrication, and characterization of a microfluidic filter for continuous size-based removal of free magnetic beads from immunomagnetically labelled blood samples is presented next. Connected in tandem, the two chips developed in this work form a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of CTCs. Preclinical studies showed that the proposed approach can capture up to 75% of blood-borne prostate cancer cells at clinically-relevant low concentrations (as low as 5 cells/mL) at an acceptable throughput (200 μL/min). The retrieval and successful propagation of captured prostate cancer cells is also investigated and discussed in this thesis.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. Edward J. Park
Dr. Timothy V. Beischlag
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Development of a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of circulating tumour cells

Date created: 
2017-08-16
Abstract: 

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Efforts to improve the longevity and quality of life of cancer patients are hindered by delays in diagnosis of tumours and treatment deficiency, as well as inaccurate prognosis that leads to unnecessary or inefficient treatments. More accurate biomarkers may address these issues and could facilitate the selection of effective treatment courses and development of new therapeutic regimens. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs), which are cancer cells that are shed from tumours and enter the vasculature, hold such a promise. Therefore, there is much interest in the isolation of CTCs from the blood. However, this is not a trivial task given the extreme scarcity of CTCs in the circulation. In this thesis, the development of a microfluidic immunomagnetic approach for isolation of CTCs is presented. First, the design, microfabrication, and experimental evaluation of a novel integrated microfluidic magnetic chip for sensitive and selective isolation of immunomagnetically labelled cancer cells from blood samples is reported. In general, to ensure the efficient immunomagnetic labelling of target cancer cells in a blood sample, an excessive number of magnetic beads should be added to the sample. When an immunomagnetically labelled sample is processed through the chip, not only cancer cells but also free magnetic beads that are not bonded to any target cells would be captured. The accumulation of these beads could disrupt the capture and visual detection of target cells. This is an inherent drawback associated with immunomagnetic cell separation systems and has rarely been addressed in the past. Therefore, the design, microfabrication, and characterization of a microfluidic filter for continuous size-based removal of free magnetic beads from immunomagnetically labelled blood samples is presented next. Connected in tandem, the two chips developed in this work form a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of CTCs. Preclinical studies showed that the proposed approach can capture up to 75% of blood-borne prostate cancer cells at clinically-relevant low concentrations (as low as 5 cells/mL) at an acceptable throughput (200 μL/min). The retrieval and successful propagation of captured prostate cancer cells is also investigated and discussed in this thesis.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. Edward J. Park
Dr. Timothy V. Beischlag
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Development of a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of circulating tumour cells

Date created: 
2017-08-16
Abstract: 

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Efforts to improve the longevity and quality of life of cancer patients are hindered by delays in diagnosis of tumours and treatment deficiency, as well as inaccurate prognosis that leads to unnecessary or inefficient treatments. More accurate biomarkers may address these issues and could facilitate the selection of effective treatment courses and development of new therapeutic regimens. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs), which are cancer cells that are shed from tumours and enter the vasculature, hold such a promise. Therefore, there is much interest in the isolation of CTCs from the blood. However, this is not a trivial task given the extreme scarcity of CTCs in the circulation. In this thesis, the development of a microfluidic immunomagnetic approach for isolation of CTCs is presented. First, the design, microfabrication, and experimental evaluation of a novel integrated microfluidic magnetic chip for sensitive and selective isolation of immunomagnetically labelled cancer cells from blood samples is reported. In general, to ensure the efficient immunomagnetic labelling of target cancer cells in a blood sample, an excessive number of magnetic beads should be added to the sample. When an immunomagnetically labelled sample is processed through the chip, not only cancer cells but also free magnetic beads that are not bonded to any target cells would be captured. The accumulation of these beads could disrupt the capture and visual detection of target cells. This is an inherent drawback associated with immunomagnetic cell separation systems and has rarely been addressed in the past. Therefore, the design, microfabrication, and characterization of a microfluidic filter for continuous size-based removal of free magnetic beads from immunomagnetically labelled blood samples is presented next. Connected in tandem, the two chips developed in this work form a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of CTCs. Preclinical studies showed that the proposed approach can capture up to 75% of blood-borne prostate cancer cells at clinically-relevant low concentrations (as low as 5 cells/mL) at an acceptable throughput (200 μL/min). The retrieval and successful propagation of captured prostate cancer cells is also investigated and discussed in this thesis.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. Edward J. Park
Dr. Timothy V. Beischlag
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Development of a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of circulating tumour cells

Date created: 
2017-08-16
Abstract: 

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Efforts to improve the longevity and quality of life of cancer patients are hindered by delays in diagnosis of tumours and treatment deficiency, as well as inaccurate prognosis that leads to unnecessary or inefficient treatments. More accurate biomarkers may address these issues and could facilitate the selection of effective treatment courses and development of new therapeutic regimens. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs), which are cancer cells that are shed from tumours and enter the vasculature, hold such a promise. Therefore, there is much interest in the isolation of CTCs from the blood. However, this is not a trivial task given the extreme scarcity of CTCs in the circulation. In this thesis, the development of a microfluidic immunomagnetic approach for isolation of CTCs is presented. First, the design, microfabrication, and experimental evaluation of a novel integrated microfluidic magnetic chip for sensitive and selective isolation of immunomagnetically labelled cancer cells from blood samples is reported. In general, to ensure the efficient immunomagnetic labelling of target cancer cells in a blood sample, an excessive number of magnetic beads should be added to the sample. When an immunomagnetically labelled sample is processed through the chip, not only cancer cells but also free magnetic beads that are not bonded to any target cells would be captured. The accumulation of these beads could disrupt the capture and visual detection of target cells. This is an inherent drawback associated with immunomagnetic cell separation systems and has rarely been addressed in the past. Therefore, the design, microfabrication, and characterization of a microfluidic filter for continuous size-based removal of free magnetic beads from immunomagnetically labelled blood samples is presented next. Connected in tandem, the two chips developed in this work form a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of CTCs. Preclinical studies showed that the proposed approach can capture up to 75% of blood-borne prostate cancer cells at clinically-relevant low concentrations (as low as 5 cells/mL) at an acceptable throughput (200 μL/min). The retrieval and successful propagation of captured prostate cancer cells is also investigated and discussed in this thesis.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. Edward J. Park
Dr. Timothy V. Beischlag
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Development of a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of circulating tumour cells

Date created: 
2017-08-16
Abstract: 

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Efforts to improve the longevity and quality of life of cancer patients are hindered by delays in diagnosis of tumours and treatment deficiency, as well as inaccurate prognosis that leads to unnecessary or inefficient treatments. More accurate biomarkers may address these issues and could facilitate the selection of effective treatment courses and development of new therapeutic regimens. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs), which are cancer cells that are shed from tumours and enter the vasculature, hold such a promise. Therefore, there is much interest in the isolation of CTCs from the blood. However, this is not a trivial task given the extreme scarcity of CTCs in the circulation. In this thesis, the development of a microfluidic immunomagnetic approach for isolation of CTCs is presented. First, the design, microfabrication, and experimental evaluation of a novel integrated microfluidic magnetic chip for sensitive and selective isolation of immunomagnetically labelled cancer cells from blood samples is reported. In general, to ensure the efficient immunomagnetic labelling of target cancer cells in a blood sample, an excessive number of magnetic beads should be added to the sample. When an immunomagnetically labelled sample is processed through the chip, not only cancer cells but also free magnetic beads that are not bonded to any target cells would be captured. The accumulation of these beads could disrupt the capture and visual detection of target cells. This is an inherent drawback associated with immunomagnetic cell separation systems and has rarely been addressed in the past. Therefore, the design, microfabrication, and characterization of a microfluidic filter for continuous size-based removal of free magnetic beads from immunomagnetically labelled blood samples is presented next. Connected in tandem, the two chips developed in this work form a microfluidic platform for size-based enrichment and immunomagnetic isolation of CTCs. Preclinical studies showed that the proposed approach can capture up to 75% of blood-borne prostate cancer cells at clinically-relevant low concentrations (as low as 5 cells/mL) at an acceptable throughput (200 μL/min). The retrieval and successful propagation of captured prostate cancer cells is also investigated and discussed in this thesis.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. Edward J. Park
Dr. Timothy V. Beischlag
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.