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Fleeting, But Not Forgotten: Ephemerality as a Means to Increase Recall of Advertising

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-08-27
Abstract: 

Ephemeral social media is growing in popularity and brands are increasingly using this method to engage with and advertise to consumers. Yet, little research attention has been paid to how consumers perceive and retain social media content, particularly marketing communications, when they are aware it will disappear. Across five studies we find that when viewers know content is ephemeral, their recall of the content is heightened compared to when they believe the content will be accessible later. We find that this increase in recall due to ephemerality is mediated by processing effort, such that when consumers believe content will disappear, they expend more effort processing the content than if the content is believed to be accessible again. Relevant to advertisers, we find this effect spills over to advertising embedded within ephemeral social media content. Our findings represent a novel means of increasing advertising recall, qualify past findings and theory, and suggest an important new stream of research. 

Document type: 
Article

Above the Scam: Moral Elevation Reduces Gullibility

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-06-09
Abstract: 

Consumers are increasingly exposed to scams and questionable marketing practices. The current work examines how consumers’ emotional states influence their gullibility (a belief or compliance with a request that most people would consider naïve). Across four studies, we show that the emotional experience of moral elevation reduces susceptibility to believe dubious claims or comply with suspicious requests. While past research showed that moral elevation enhances nurturance behavior (and support of a requester), the current work suggests that elevation may also play a protective function (that is, reduce gullibility). We show that decreased trust in a persuasion agent mediates the influence of elevation on gullibility, and demonstrate this effect in the context of health and financial domains.

Document type: 
Article

Ethical Branding in a Divided World: How Political Orientation Motivates Reactions to Marketplace Transgressions

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-09-12
Abstract: 

In today's marketplace, users (e.g., purchasers, influencers) are increasingly the "face" of brands to potential consumers, increasing the risk for brands should these users act poorly. Across seven studies, we document that political orientation moderates the desire for punishment toward users of ethical (vs. conventional) brands who commit moral transgressions. In response to identical marketplace transgressions, we observe that liberals punish ethical brand users less than conventional brand users. In contrast, conservatives punish the same users of ethical brands more than conventional brand users. We document that this bias stems from how people interpret the inconsistency between the ethical branding and the act of transgression, rather than from a group-identity effect, showing how it does not arise in the absence of inconsistent information or when consumers are not able to integrate the inconsistent information to their judgments. We also investigate an avenue by which firms can reframe their ethical  branding to reduce this politically motivated bias. We discuss this work's implications for moral judgments, marketplace attribute formation, and the branding of ethical goods in a politically divided world.

Document type: 
Article

Internet Interest in Colon Cancer Following the Death of Chadwick Boseman: Infoveillance Study

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-06-15
Abstract: 

Background: Compared with White Americans, Black Americans have higher colon cancer mortality rates but lower up-to-date screening rates. Chadwick Boseman was a prominent Black American actor who died of colon cancer on August 28, 2020. As announcements of celebrity diagnoses often result in increased awareness, Boseman’s death may have resulted in greater interest in colon cancer on the internet, particularly among Black Americans.

 

Objective: This study aims to quantify the impact of Chadwick Boseman’s death on web-based search interest in colon cancer and determine whether there was an increase in interest in regions of the United States with a greater proportion of Black Americans.

 

Methods: We conducted an infoveillance study using Google Trends (GT) and Wikipedia pageview analysis. Using an autoregressive integrated moving average algorithm, we forecasted the weekly relative search volume (RSV) for GT search topics and terms related to colon cancer that would have been expected had his death not occurred and compared it with observed RSV data. This analysis was also conducted for the number of page views on the Wikipedia page for colorectal cancer. We then delineated GT RSV data for the term colon cancer for states and metropolitan areas in the United States and determined how the RSV values for these regions correlated with the percentage of Black Americans in that region. Differences in these correlations before and after Boseman’s death were compared to determine whether there was a shift in the racial demographics of the individuals conducting the searches.

 

Results: The observed RSVs for the topics colorectal cancer and colon cancer screening increased by 598% and 707%, respectively, and were on average 121% (95% CI 72%-193%) and 256% (95% CI 35%-814%) greater than expected during the first 3 months following Boseman’s death. Daily Wikipedia page view volume during the 2 months following Boseman’s death was on average 1979% (95% CI 1375%-2894%) greater than expected, and it was estimated that this represented 547,354 (95% CI 497,708-585,167) excess Wikipedia page views. Before Boseman’s death, there were negative correlations between the percentage of Black Americans living in a state or metropolitan area and the RSV for colon cancer in that area (r=−0.18 and r=−0.05, respectively). However, in the 2 weeks following his death, there were positive correlations between the RSV for colon cancer and the percentage of Black Americans per state and per metropolitan area (r=0.73 and r=0.33, respectively). These changes persisted for 4 months and were all statistically significant (P<.001).

 

Conclusions: There was a significant increase in web-based activity related to colon cancer following Chadwick Boseman’s death, particularly in areas with a higher proportion of Black Americans. This reflects a heightened public awareness that can be leveraged to further educate the public.

Document type: 
Article
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The Convenience of Shopping via Voice AI: Introducing AIDM

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-02-08
Abstract: 

The purpose of this paper is to propose an updated view of consumer choice based on AI and inherent convenience addiction to smart speakers. Following the MacInnis framework for developing conceptual contributions of summarization, integration, and delineation, we review the current consumer decision-making literature and theory to demonstrate consumers' increasing tendency to outsource decisions to AI. Today's customers value convenience: the less time and effort they spend on a purchase, the better they perceive the transaction. AI is taking convenience to higher levels for consumers as they outsource their decisions to bots and inherent algorithms. This is particularly accurate for low-involvement everyday purchases. Our study's contribution is fourfold. First, we introduce a new model of AI-influenced decision-making (AIDM) processes. Second, our conceptual model suggests that managers need to change their interpretation of their customers' decision-making-processes in the new, AI-influenced marketplace. The shift in consumers' behavior toward reliance on home voice bots for purchase has significant implications for the retail sector. Third, our model differentiates between high and low involvement AI-influenced decision-making processes. Fourth, our study highlights how branding as we know it is challenged in an AI-dominated environment.

Document type: 
Article

Factors for Sustainable Online Learning in Higher Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-04-30
Abstract: 

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected educational institutions and instructors in an unprecedented way. The majority of educational establishments were forced to take their courses online within a very short period of time, and both instructors and students had to learn to navigate the digital array of courses without much training. Our study examined factors that affect students’ attitude toward online teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is different from other online learning studies where online courses are mostly a method of choice, with suitable support from institutions and expectation from instructors and students, rather than a contingency. Under this specific environment, we utilized an online survey to collect students’ feedback from eleven universities across Hong Kong. Using partial least squares for analysis on the 400 valid samples we received, we found that peer interactions and course design have the most salient impact on students’ attitude, whereas interactions with instructors has no effect at all on students’ attitude. Furthermore, we also provide suggestions on using the existing technologies purchased during COVID-19 for a more sustainable learning environment going forward.

Document type: 
Article
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Meta-Analysis Data of 104 Renewable Mini-Grid Projects for Rural Electrification

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2021-01-09
Abstract: 

The data presented here contains project-level details on 104 renewable energy mini-grid projects installed for rural electrification across the globe; a subset of which is used to derive evidence-based empirical insights on the drivers of project success and cost in the article “An Analysis of Renewable Mini-Grid Projects for Rural Electrification” [1]. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first meta-collection of micro-level data on rural mini-grid installations. In addition, the literature search and the inclusion criteria of the studies used in the meta-analysis is reported, along with a complete list of sources, which can be utilized directly by other researchers and practitioners to reproduce or expand the database according to their own criteria and use it in further studies. Finally, the supplemental material in [2] includes the Stata code and output that can be used to reproduce the meta-analysis results in [1].

Document type: 
Article
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How Income Shapes Moral Judgments of Prosocial Behavior

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-08-01
Abstract: 

The current research extends past work on how consumers (as “observers”) view ethical choices made by others (“actors”). Using a person-centered approach to moral judgments, we show that consumers are judged differentially, based on their income, for engaging in certain prosocial behaviors. Nine studies demonstrate that engaging in the same prosocial behavior, such as volunteering, leads to different responses depending on whether the actor earns income versus receives government assistance. Consistent with our theorizing, we find that aid recipients are given less latitude in how they spend their time than those earning an income and are scrutinized to a greater degree for their choices because people believe their time would be better spent seeking employment. Consequently, the lower moral judgments of aid recipients who choose to volunteer (vs. income earners) are driven, at least in part, by the anger observers feel about the perceived misuse of time. Additional information or cues about employment efforts or work inability attenuate these judgments. Importantly, we document implications for support for federal spending on welfare programs.

Document type: 
Article

Sensation Seekers Who Learn Abroad: Exploring the Role of Risk Perception in Co-op Students’ International Plans

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-04-01
Abstract: 

Universities around the world seek to increase their students’ learning abroad in forms like international co-op and exchange. The authors build on findings in a 2016 publication by Behrisch in this journal to focus on the correlation of perceived risk with students’ completion of a learning abroad experience. Using binary logistic regression analysis, findings suggest that students’ perceived risk is negatively correlated with their likelihood of completing a learning abroad experience. Drawing on approach/inhibition theory and sensation seeking literature, the authors form a picture of how risk perception interacts with other factors to influence students’ completion of learning abroad. Risk is typically regarded at the institutional and student levels as something negative to avoid. Reframing risk within the university as a conversation about learning, opportunity, and cognitive processing is recommended, since learning and teaching are essential elements of universities. The goal is to increase student engagement in learning abroad.

Document type: 
Article
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Highly Selective SGLT2 Inhibitor Dapagliflozin Reduces Seizure Activity in Pentylenetetrazol-induced Murine Model of Epilepsy

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2018-06-07
Abstract: 

Background: Worldwide, over 10 million individuals suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy. New therapeutic strategies are needed to address this debilitating disease. Inhibition of sodium-glucose linked transporters (SGLTs), which are variably expressed in the brain, has been demonstrated to reduce seizure activity in murine models of epilepsy. Here we investigated the effects of dapagliflozin, a highly competitive SGLT2 inhibitor currently used as a drug for diabetes mellitus, on seizure activity in rats with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced seizures.

Methods: Laboratory rats (n = 48) were evenly randomized into two experiments, each with four study arms: (1) a vehicle-treated (placebo) arm infused with saline; (2) a control arm infused with PTZ; (3) a treatment arm with PTZ and dapagliflozin at 75 mg/kg, and (4) another treatment arm with PTZ and dapagliflozin at 150 mg/kg. Study subjects were assessed for seizures either via EEG as measured by spike wave percentage (SWP), or clinically via Racine’s scales scores (RSS) and time to first myoclonic jerk (TFMJ).

Results: Rats treated with dapagliflozin had lower mean SWP on EEG (20.4% versus 75.3% for untreated rats). Behaviorally, treatment with dapagliflozin improved means RSS (2.33 versus 5.5) and mean TFMJ (68.3 versus 196.7 s). All of these findings were statistically significant with p-values of < 0.0001. There was a trend towards even better seizure control with the higher dose of dapagliflozin at 150 mg/kg, however this was not consistently statistically significant.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin decreased seizure activity in rats with PTZ–induced seizures. This may be explained by the anti-seizure effects of decreased glucose availability and a reduction in sodium transport across neuronal membranes which can confer a stabilizing effect against excitability and unwanted depolarization. The potential clinical role of dapagliflozin and other SGLT2 inhibitors as anti-seizure medications should be further explored.

Document type: 
Article
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