Political Science - Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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Challenges to the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) and the government of Sudan: implications for human security and human rights in Sudan

Date created: 
2008
Abstract: 

The primary objective of this project is to identify the factors that may facilitate or impede the successful implementation of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between Khartoum and the Sudan People Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M). The focus is on the problems in the implementation of the Abeyei provisions of the CPA. The project also examines the linkages between the Darfur conflict and the Southern Sudan conflict to illustrate the connections between what is transpiring in these regions. Generally, this research project aims to identify the main challenges to human security and human rights in the country following the 2005 peace agreement. The project argues that a faithful power-sharing is important for eliminating the political inequality between the Southern and Northern Sudan and other parts of the country like Darfur. Power-sharing can help promote unity between the national government in Khartoum and the regional government in the South.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
J
Department: 
Dept. of Political Science - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Research Project (M.A.)

Transitional justice failing? A gendered evaluation of the transitional justice program in post-genocide Rwanda

Date created: 
2008
Abstract: 

This thesis explores the experiences of women in the transitional justice process that has followed the war in Rwanda. Transitional justice is implemented to satisfy the state’s need to regain legitimacy in the eyes of its citizens by entrenching the rule of law and building capacity in justice institutions. In Rwanda, women have experienced lasting effects from the trauma of the genocide, and in order to heal, they have sought to participate in the country’s transitional justice program. Through a gender analysis of the conflict and subsequent transitional justice program, it is evident that the government of Rwanda is not adequately addressing gender-based violence crimes and gender specific sensitivities with regard to the retributive justice process. Drawing upon the lessons learned from a gender analysis of the Rwandan conflict and a gender evaluation of Rwanda’s transitional justice program, recommendations are made regarding a more gender sensitive framework for justice.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
S
Department: 
Dept. of Political Science - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.A.)

Losses and gains: women's empowerment in armed conflict and the aftermath

Author: 
Date created: 
2008
Abstract: 

Despite international recognition of the roles that women assume during conflict and the specific needs and contributions women make both in perpetuating conflict and ending it, women frequently remain invisible to local, national and international actors working to rebuild the state in the post-conflict period. The contributions of women to conflict as combatants and in other support roles and their contributions “at home” during conflict in sustaining communities, economies and individuals is often unrecognized in demobilisation, demilitarisation and reintegration (DDR) and other reconstruction processes. According to some scholars and development practitioners, women’s involvement in formal peace processes helps to overcome this; however, simply adding women to such processes is not enough to ensure their empowerment. This thesis examines the utility of women’s organizations and networks as a tool to combat women’s marginalisation in the aftermath of conflict and to consolidate the limited gains some women make in times of conflict.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
S
Department: 
Dept. of Political Science - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.A.)

Conflicting aims: sustainable development and intellectual property rights in Canadian foreign policy

Date created: 
2008
Abstract: 

Controversy over intellectual property (IP) is not a new issue; however, IP protection is receiving greater attention as this protection covers a more diverse subject matter and affords stronger protection toIP than ever before. IP protection is an important variable in the development prospects for many countries as the extent of IP has implications on environmental, economic and social well-being. Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT) maintains a commitment to protecting IP internationally through multiple and bilateral trade and investment agreements. At the same time, DFAIT puts forward a sustainable development agenda that pledges the department to incorporating concerns over the economic, environmental and social well-being of developing countries through multilateral agreements. In this paper, I argue that DFAIT’s commitment to IP protection undermines its sustainable development policy. This project will investigate the issue in more detail and examine the reasons for this disconnect in Canadian foreign policy.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
S
Department: 
Dept. of Political Science - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Research Project (M.A.)

Canadian federalism and international trade agreements: Evaluating three policy options for mitigating federal-provincial conflict

Date created: 
2008
Abstract: 

The division of powers that has evolved under Canadian federalism regarding the negotiation and implementation of international treaties divides these responsibilities between the federal and provincial governments respectively. This division of powers, however, does not accurately reflect the changing nature of international trade agreements, which are increasingly addressing areas of provincial responsibility. The result will likely be increased resistance from the provinces to implementation should they not play a more substantial role in the negotiation of future agreements. This thesis examines the Canadian trade policy formulation process and evaluates three mechanisms by which provinces have been or could be involved in it: consultation, ratification, and provincial participation in Canadian negotiating delegations. The appropriateness of each of these options is evaluated based upon criteria of constitutionality, representativeness, efficiency and acceptability to international actors. The conclusion discusses situations in which each option might be desirably pursued and challenges to greater provincial involvement.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
S
Department: 
Dept. of Political Science - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.A.)

A matter of time: reassessing the occurrence of conflict and the role of institutions in transboundary freshwater resources using event history analysis

Date created: 
2008
Abstract: 

The study of international conflict and cooperation over shared freshwater has been advanced by the application of large N data sets and statistical methods to study these relationships. This thesis builds on this body of knowledge in two ways. First, because of the time-series nature of the data, it adopts event history analysis methodologies to refine previous research. Second, it explores the role of international institutions in mitigating conflict between countries that share freshwater resources. The results of the statistical models generally support the need to adopt new methodologies and provide a more detailed understanding of duration dependence. Furthermore, the results of the models are generally in line with the proposed hypotheses. In terms of the impact of international institutions, the models point to the pacifying effects of international institutions. Nevertheless, further research is necessary to clarify the relationship between shared freshwater resources, conflict and the role of international institutions.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
P
Department: 
Dept. of Political Science - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.A.)

Reconciling dispossession?: The legal and political accommodation of Native title in Canada and Australia

Date created: 
2005
Abstract: 

Because increasing numbers of Indigenous people are choosing to work within the legal and political institutions of their colonisers to achieve native title recognition and respect, a critical question is: can (post-)colonial legal and political institutions meaningfully redress the historic and ongoing dispossession of Indigenous Peoples or does the colonial nature of these institutions inherently predispose them to (intentionally or unintentionally) perpetuate dispossession? This study seeks to answer this critical question by analyzing the legal and political accommodation of native title in Canada and Australia using the neo-institutional lens of path dependence as an explanatory analytic framework. In sum, characterizing native title's legal and political accommodation as a selfreinforcing path dependent sequence, this study argues that the different degrees of recognition and accommodation afforded native title by the legal and political institutions of (post-)colonial Canada and Australia can be meaningfully explained with reference to these countries' different (and historically contingent) recognition and accommodation of indigenous rights to land during their earliest years of colonial settlement. This interpretation of events not only provides a meaningful explanation for colonial history's continuing role in the legal and political accommodation of native title in Canada and Australia, it also provides a meaningful explanation for this study's four central findings: (i) the legal and political recognition of native title is relatively more extensive and secure in the Canadian case than it is in the Australian case; (ii) the judicial construction of native title at common law has produced a relatively stronger real property right in the Canadian case than it has in the Australian case; (iii) Canada's comprehensive claims policy has given Indigenous Peoples a relatively stronger ability to assert and defend claims of continuing native title than has Australia's Native Title Act; and, (iv) the ability of Indigenous Peoples to procure formal legal and/or political con3rmation of their unique territorial rights (i.e. continuing native title) is little different today than it was prior to the recognition of native title at common law and the subsequent recognition of native title in central government policy.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Department: 
Department of Political Science - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (Ph.D.)

Searching for the civic state : nationalism in post-Soviet Ukraine

Date created: 
2004
Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Department: 
Theses (Dept. of Political Science) / Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.A.)

Obstacles and opportunities: The experiences of female councillor candidates in Metropolitan Vancouver and Ottawa, 1999-2006

Author: 
Date created: 
2007
Abstract: 

This thesis explores the electoral representation of female councillors in municipal politics in two major Canadian regions: Metropolitan Vancouver and Ottawa from 1999 to 2006. Certain obstacles and opportunities affect the number of female candidates that campaign for local office and are elected to municipal councils. I argue that the size of the electoral jurisdiction, the presence of political parties, and the presence of campaign finance regulations are three key variables that shape the opportunities of female candidates when contesting municipal office. The thesis demonstrates that the experiences of women candidates are profoundly impacted by the contexts within which they contest local office and that these contexts must be accounted for when assessing the representation of women at the municipal.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
P
Department: 
Dept. of Political Science - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.A.)