Canada’s participation in the Columbia River Treaty is potentially an inefficient use of Canadian water resources because the parties do not account for the value of ecosystem services in the payments made under the Treaty. The purpose of this study is to recommend a mechanism through which the parties could price ecosystem services in a modern Treaty. To inform my analysis of the options, I use economic valuation methods to estimate the major costs to Canada and the major benefits to the US of the Treaty in terms of changes in ecosystem services between two scenarios: Treaty Terminates and Treaty Continues. I also use a jurisdictional scan to identify mechanisms from other payment for ecosystem services schemes around the world. Results of the economic valuation suggest that the US benefits from ecosystem services are worth at least US$225 – 667 million per year. The valuation results also suggest that Canada incurs costs from foregoing benefits from Canadian ecosystem services worth US$24 to $41 million annually. The jurisdictional scan provides additional insights into pricing mechanisms. I assess three options based on their effectiveness in achieving the objective of maximizing the net internal benefit. I also evaluate the options’ sustainability, stakeholder acceptance, and administrative ease. I recommend that Canada and the US maintain the status quo practice of calculating annual payments on the basis of potential incremental hydropower, and consider the difference between potential and actual hydropower as a proxy for the value of ecosystem services.
Concussions in youth sports have gained increasing attention over the past decade, as connections between head impacts and long-term damage have become more apparent, and as high profile cases of concussions have garnered more consideration in the public discourse. Despite this growing awareness, there is little in the way of basic legislation or policy to protect at-risk youth athletes in British Columbia. The highest incidence of concussion in the general population is among eleven to fourteen year olds in the province. This study investigates policies that other jurisdictions have implemented in efforts to increase awareness among athletes, parents and coaches, and reduce the number of youth concussions.
The policy problem is that Aboriginal seniors living on-reserves have a higher rate of injury hospitalizations due to unintentional falls than the general population. Hospitalization data show that 50% of falls occur inside the home and 14% occur in areas outside the home. Seeing that most Aboriginal seniors would prefer to age in place and in their communities, the research aimed to determine the adequacy of available funding for home adaptations and to learn of any issues and challenges with the eligibility requirements that would prevent access. The programs available to on-reserve communities for home adaptations are the Residential Rehabilitation Assistance for Persons with Disabilities and the Home Adaptations for Seniors Independence program (HASI), which are both delivered by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). Based on the literature review and the results of expert interviews with Housing Managers, Administrators and Coordinators working on-reserves, the recommendation is made to CMHC to increase the funding in the HASI program and to make available a revenue stream for on-reserve communities to build single-level communal living spaces for seniors.
Despite a decline in provincial smoking rates, data specific to British Columbia indicates that a large portion of residents of multi-unit dwellings are exposed to the second-hand smoke of their neighbours. Further, renters and lower income persons are exposed at higher rates. A large body of scientific evidence confirms the negative health impacts associated with second-hand smoke and in particular, that there is no safe level of exposure. Interviews with relevant experts, international case studies and survey data analyses identify key considerations as well as barriers and facilitators to inform potential policy options. This study assesses four policy options: smoke-free housing for all multi-unit rentals, including balconies and patios; amending the right to quiet enjoyment in the Residential Tenancy Act (2002) to include intrusive second-hand smoke; implementing a disclosure law requiring landlords to state the smoking status of the building, unit and premises in the tenancy agreement; and, initiating a public health education campaign on the health hazards associated with neighbour smoke. To promote widespread awareness and to provide tools for addressing exposure, a public health education campaign is recommended in the short term. As smoke-free housing represents the most effective option for protection of health, it is recommended to ban smoking in multi-unit rentals in the medium term under the condition that the liberty and equity risks which arise under this option are addressed. A disclosure law is recommended in conjunction with smoke-free housing to promote awareness and compliance as well as to inform tenants of potential exposure resulting from grandfathered leases or exceptional circumstances.
Supportive housing facilities are a high-risk environment for opioid overdose fatalities and have been identified as an area where overdose prevention and response efforts are crucial. To help understand the context and dynamics of opioid overdoses in supportive housing, and identify and evaluate potential policies, qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted. Research participants included frontline supportive housing staff and managers, health professionals, a coroner, and several clients from one supportive housing agency in Vancouver. A range of policies aimed at reducing the risk of fatal opioid overdoses in supportive housing facilities were identified and evaluated using a multiple-criteria analysis. The evaluation criterion included: effectiveness, stakeholder involvement, budget, and implementation time. Based on this analysis, it is recommended that all frontline supportive housing staff receive annual opioid overdose prevention and response training, and that supportive housing agencies develop and implement opioid overdose intervention protocols for their unique settings.
This paper examines the effects of school choice legislation introduced by the Provincial Government in 2002 on the Vancouver School Board (District 39) elementary and secondary schools. It employs qualitative and quantitative research methods to determine the changes in school enrollment and school performance post-choice policy. It found a correlation between average student test performance in a school and changes in the school enrollment, with the top performing schools increasing their enrollment and the worst performing schools undergoing a decline. Since average socio-economic status of a school’s students contributes to average student performance in a school, improving student performance in a choice system becomes a matter of compensating for the socio-economic inequalities within a school system. The paper analyzes and proposes policies that the Vancouver School Board can implement in order to deliver equitable student outcomes in a choice model.
This paper explores ways that Canadian municipal governments can increase the number of women who run for Mayor and City Councilor positions. I first provide an overview of barriers for women’s political representation in Canada and an analysis of the current gender gap at the municipal level. I then outline my research, which consists of interviews both with women elected as Mayors and City Councilors in Canada as well as with subject matter experts. Based on these interviews the major barrier identified for women is a negative political environment, namely through gendered comments and assumptions. My research leads to five policy options which are analyzed using standardized criteria and measures. I conclude that gender-equity mandates for municipal boards and advisory committees is the best option for increasing the number of women who run for municipal office; this would happen via skill-building and making the political culture more welcoming to women.
The following capstone addresses the policy problem of income inequality and poverty. This is achieved by measuring the implementation effectiveness of one identified policy tool used at the local level to combat this societal problem: living wage policy. The methodological design of this study includes: a literature review of living wage research in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom; a case study analysis of Vancity and the City of New Westminster; and policy options based on data analysis and literature review findings. Three policy options, or strategies, were proposed, outlining the level of implementation effectiveness available to organizations considering implementing living wage policy. This study recommends a tiered-implementation approach, consisting of an initial moderate implementation framework followed by a comprehensive implementation strategy. The study findings are of value to local organizations seeking an implementation assessment template for instituting living wage policy.
Canadians are fast adopting mobile devices and health apps, and surveys suggest that Canadians want to engage with their health provider using these technologies, yet they are seldom able to. This study seeks to understand why health apps are seldom jointly used between physicians and patients and explore policies that would allow us to leverage these tools within British Columbia’s health care system. Critical discourse analysis and case examples are used to identify key issues and inform the policy analysis. Policy options are evaluated according to effectiveness, implementation ease and equity. In the near term, I recommend the development of a directory of health apps reviewed by patients and medical experts according to an agreed-upon framework and criteria. Longer term, more rigorous processes of certifying or licensing health apps may encourage adoption of more sophisticated, high quality health apps. However, government funding may be needed to stimulate the development of apps that can satisfy more rigorous validation approaches.
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is rising, and supporting individuals with ASD and their families is of increasing importance. Caregiving responsibilities associated with ASD are known to negatively affect employment and income. Yet in BC, government funding only partially covers the costs of autism treatments, leaving parents with significant out-of-pocket costs. An online survey of parents of children with ASD was used to gauge the actual impact of caring for a child with ASD on parental employment and income, and to identify policies that would better support their families. The results demonstrate that households impacted by ASD face high levels of financial stress, experience significant negative effects on parental employment, and need a range of more supportive government programs. Along with the status quo, this project assesses four policy options - increasing funding under the existing Ministry of Children and Family Development (MCFD) program, adding coverage for autism treatment within the healthcare system, integrating ABA into the public school system, and offering leave for parents to care for their child. The report recommends increasing funding under the MCFD model, along with other supportive policies.