People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Trends in HCV incidence and associated risk factors among PWID recruited between 1996 and 2012 in Vancouver, Canada were evaluated.
Data were derived from a long-term cohort of PWID in Vancouver. Trends in HCV incidence were evaluated. Factors associated with time to HCV infection were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Among 2,589, 82% (n = 2,121) were HCV antibody-positive at enrollment. Among 364 HCV antibody-negative participants with recent (last 30 days) injecting at enrollment, 126 HCV seroconversions were observed [Overall HCV incidence density: 8.6 cases/100 person-years (py); 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 7.2, 10.1; HCV incidence density among those with injecting during follow-up: 11.5 cases/100 py; 95% CI 9.7, 13.6]. The overall HCV incidence density declined significantly from 25.0/100 py (95% CI: 20.2, 30.3) in 1996–99, as compared to 6.0/100 py (95% CI: 4.1, 8.5) in 2000–2005, and 3.1/100 py (95% CI: 2.0, 4.8) in 2006–2012. Among those with injecting during follow-up, the overall HCV incidence density declined significantly from 27.9/100 py (95% CI: 22.6, 33.6) in 1996–99, as compared to 7.5/100 py (95% CI: 5.1, 10.6) in 2000–2005, and 4.9/100 py (95% CI: 3.1, 7.4) in 2006–2012. Unstable housing, HIV infection, and injecting of cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine were independently associated with HCV seroconversion.
HCV incidence has dramatically declined among PWID in this setting. However, improved public health strategies to prevent and treat HCV are urgently required to reduce HCV-associated morbidity and mortality.
In the field of health, numerous frameworks have emerged that advance understandings of the differential impacts of health policies to produce inclusive and socially just health outcomes. In this paper, we present the development of an important contribution to these efforts – an Intersectionality-Based Policy Analysis (IBPA) Framework.
Developed over the course of two years in consultation with key stakeholders and drawing on best and promising practices of other equity-informed approaches, this participatory and iterative IBPA Framework provides guidance and direction for researchers, civil society, public health professionals and policy actors seeking to address the challenges of health inequities across diverse populations. Importantly, we present the application of the IBPA Framework in seven priority health-related policy case studies.
The analysis of each case study is focused on explaining how IBPA: 1) provides an innovative structure for critical policy analysis; 2) captures the different dimensions of policy contexts including history, politics, everyday lived experiences, diverse knowledges and intersecting social locations; and 3) generates transformative insights, knowledge, policy solutions and actions that cannot be gleaned from other equity-focused policy frameworks.
The aim of this paper is to inspire a range of policy actors to recognize the potential of IBPA to foreground the complex contexts of health and social problems, and ultimately to transform how policy analysis is undertaken.
Street-involved youth are more likely to experience trauma and adverse events in childhood; however, little is known about exposure to the child welfare system among this vulnerable population. This study sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of being in government care among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada.
From September 2005 to November 2012, data were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved youth aged 14–26 who use illicit drugs. Logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with a history of being in government care.
Among our sample of 937 street-involved youth, 455 (49%) reported being in government care at some point in their childhood. In a multivariate analysis, Aboriginal ancestry (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50 – 2.85), younger age at first “hard” substance use (AOR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05 – 1.16), high school incompletion (AOR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.00 – 1.95), having a parent that drank heavily or used illicit drugs (AOR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.09 – 2.01), and experiencing physical abuse (AOR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.22 – 2.96) were independently associated with exposure to the child welfare system.
Youth with a history of being in government care appear to be at high-risk of adverse illicit substance-related behaviours. Evidence-based interventions are required to better support vulnerable children and youth with histories of being in the child welfare system, and prevent problematic substance use and street-involvement among this population.
Family (i.e., unpaid) caregiving has long been thought of as a ‘woman’s issue’, which ultimately results not only in gendered, but also financial and health inequities. Because of this, gender-based analyses have been prioritized in caregiving research. However, trends in current feminist scholarship demonstrate that gender intersects with other axes of difference, such as culture, socio-economic status, and geography to create diverse experiences. In this analysis we examine how formal front-line palliative care providers understand the role of such diversities in shaping Canadian family caregivers’ experiences of end-of-life care. In doing so we consider the implications of these findings for a social benefit program aimed at supporting family caregivers, namely the Compassionate Care Benefit (CCB).
This analysis contributes to a utilization-focused evaluation of Canada’s CCB, a social program that provides job security and limited income assistance to Canadian family caregivers who take a temporary leave from employment to provide care for a dying family member at end-of-life. Fifty semi-structured phone interviews with front-line palliative care providers from across Canada were conducted and thematic diversity analysis of the transcripts ensued.
Findings reveal that experiences of caregiving are not homogenous and access to services and supports are not universal across Canada. Five axes of difference were commonly raised by front-line palliative care providers when discussing important differences in family caregivers’ experiences: culture, gender, geography, lifecourse stage, and material resources. Our findings reveal inequities with regard to accessing needed caregiver services and resources, including the CCB, based on these axes of difference.
We contend that without considering diversity, patterns in vulnerability and inequity are overlooked, and thus continually reinforced in health policy. Based on our findings, we demonstrate that re-framing categorizations of caregivers can expose specific vulnerabilities and inequities while identifying implications for the CCB program as it is currently administered. From a policy perspective, this analysis demonstrates why diversity needs to be acknowledged in policy circles, including in relation to the CCB, and seeks to counteract single dimensional approaches for understanding caregiver needs at end-of-life. Such findings illustrate how diversity analysis can dramatically enhance evaluative health policy research.
Women’s health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the varietyof factors that affect women’s lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides havebeen made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has beenused to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to theinequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, isconfronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that cantransform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordinationoverlap and “articulate” with one another. An emerging paradigm for women’s health research is intersectionality.Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate variousinteracting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. Thispaper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women’s health context in orderto explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm.We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within thecontext of women’s health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform andtransform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with thechallenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largelyuninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developingsuch projects and, in particular, the meaning and significance of social locations for researchers and participantswho utilize an intersectionality approach. The examples highlighted in the paper represent important shiftsin the health field, demonstrating the potential of intersectionality for examining the social context of women’slives, as well as developing methods which elucidate power, create new knowledge, and have the potential toinform appropriate action to bring about positive social change.