Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Department of

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Visualizing the Reaction Coordinate of an O-GlcNAc Hydrolase

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2010-01-12
Abstract: 

N-Acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to serine and threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins (O-GlcNAc) has been linked to neurodegeneration, cellular stress response, and transcriptional regulation. Removal of O-GlcNAc is catalyzed by O-GlcNAcase (OGA) using a substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism. Here we define the reaction coordinate using chemical approaches and directly observe both a Michaelis complex and the oxazoline intermediate.

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Article
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Probing Synergy between Two Catalytic Strategies in the Glycoside Hydrolase O-GlcNAcase Using Multiple Linear Free Energy Relationships

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2009-08-28
Abstract: 

Human O-GlcNAcase plays an important role in regulating the post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues with β-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine monosaccharide unit (O-GlcNAc). The mechanism of O-GlcNAcase involves nucleophilic participation of the 2-acetamido group of the substrate to displace a glycosidically linked leaving group. The tolerance of this enzyme for variation in substrate structure has enabled us to characterize O-GlcNAcase transition states using several series of substrates to generate multiple simultaneous free-energy relationships. Patterns revealing changes in mechanism, transition state, and rate-determining step upon concomitant variation of both nucleophilic strength and leaving group abilities are observed. The observed changes in mechanism reflect the roles played by the enzymic general acid and the catalytic nucleophile. Significantly, these results illustrate how the enzyme synergistically harnesses both modes of catalysis; a feature that eludes many small molecule models of catalysis. These studies also suggest the kinetic significance of an oxocarbenium ion intermediate in the O-GlcNAcase-catalyzed hydrolysis of glucosaminides, probing the limits of what may be learned using nonatomistic investigations of enzymic transition-state structure and offering general insights into how the superfamily of retaining glycoside hydrolases act as efficient catalysts.

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Article
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Mislocalization of TDP-43 in the G93A Mutant SOD1 Transgenic Mouse Model of ALS

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2009-04-18
Abstract: 

Previous evidence demonstrates that TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) mislocalization is a key pathological feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 normally shows nuclear localization, but in CNS tissue from patients who died with ALS this protein mislocalizes to the cytoplasm. Disease specific TDP-43 species have also been reported to include hyperphosphorylated TDP-43, as well as a C-terminal fragment. Whether these abnormal TDP-43 features are present in patients with SOD1-related familial ALS (fALS), or in mutant SOD1 over-expressing transgenic mouse models of ALS remains controversial. Here we investigate TDP-43 pathology in transgenic mice expressing the G93A mutant form of SOD1. In contrast to previous reports we observe redistribution of TDP-43 to the cytoplasm of motor neurons in mutant SOD1 transgenic mice, but this is seen only in mice having advanced disease. Furthermore, we also observe rounded TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions associated with intense ubiquitin immunoreactivity in lumbar spinal cord at end stage disease in mSOD mice. These data indicate that TDP-43 mislocalization and ubiquitination are present in end stage mSOD mice. However, we do not observe C-terminal TDP-43 fragments nor TDP-43 hyperphosphorylated species in these end stage mSOD mice. Our findings indicate that G93A mutant SOD1 transgenic mice recapitulate some key pathological, but not all biochemical hallmarks, of TDP-43 pathology previously observed in human ALS. These studies suggest motor neuron degeneration in the mutant SOD1 transgenic mice is associated with TDP-43 histopathology.

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Article
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Enzymatic Characterization and Inhibition of the Nuclear Variant of Human O-GlcNAcase

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2009-06-12
Abstract: 

Increasing cellular O-GlcNAc levels through pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase, the enzyme responsible for removal of the O-GlcNAc post-translational modification, is being increasingly used to aid in discerning the roles played by this form of intracellular glycosylation. Interestingly, two forms of O-GlcNAcase have been studied; a full-length isoform that is better characterized, and a shorter nuclear-localized variant, arising from failure to splice out one intron, which has not been as well characterized. Given the increasing use of O-GlcNAcase inhibitors as research tools, we felt that a clear understanding of how these inhibitors affect both isoforms of O-GlcNAcase is important for proper interpretation of studies making use of these inhibitors in cell culture and in vivo. Here we describe an enzymatic characterization of the nuclear variant of human O-GlcNAcase. We find that this short nuclear variant of O-GlcNAcase, which has the identical catalytic domain as the full-length enzyme, has similar trends in a pH-rate profile and Taft linear free energy analysis as the full-length enzyme. These findings strongly suggest that both enzymes use broadly similar transition states. Consistent with this interpretation, the short isoform is potently inhibited by several previously described inhibitors of full-length O-GlcNAcase including PUGNAc, NAG-thiazoline, and the selective O-GlcNAcase inhibitor NButGT. These findings contrast with earlier studies and suggest that studies using O-GlcNAcase inhibitors in cultured cells or in vivo can be interpreted with the knowledge that both these forms of O-GlcNAcase are inhibited when present.

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Article
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Molecular Basis for Inhibition of GH84 Glycoside Hydrolases by Substituted Azepanes: Conformational Flexibility Enables Probing of Substrate Distortion

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2009-03-30
Abstract: 

Here we report the synthesis of a series of polyhydroxylated 3- and 5-acetamido azepanes and detail the molecular basis of their inhibition of family 84 glycoside hydrolases. These family 84 enzymes include human O-GlcNAcase, an enzyme involved in post-translational processing of intracellular proteins modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine residues. Detailed structural analysis of the binding of these azepanes to BtGH84, a bacterial homologue of O-GlcNAcase, highlights their conformational flexibility. Molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics calculations reveal that binding to the enzyme involves significant conformational distortion of these inhibitors from their preferred solution conformations. The binding of these azepanes provides structural insight into substrate distortion that likely occurs along the reaction coordinate followed by O-GlcNAcase during glycoside hydrolysis. This class of inhibitors may prove to be useful probes for evaluating the conformational itineraries of glycosidases and aid the development of more potent and specific glycosidase inhibitors.

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Article
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Synthesis and Use of Mechanism-Based Protein-Profiling Probes for Retaining β-d-Glucosaminidases Facilitate Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NagZ

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2007-12-08
Abstract: 

The NagZ class of retaining exo-glucosaminidases play a critical role in peptidoglycan recycling in Gram-negative bacteria and the induction of resistance to beta-lactams. Here we describe the concise synthesis of 2-azidoacetyl-2-deoxy-5-fluoro-beta-d-glucopyranosyl fluoride as an activity-based proteomics probe for profiling these exo-glycosidases. This active-site directed reagent covalently inactivates this class of retaining N-acetylglucosaminidases with exquisite selectivity by stabilizing the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. Inactivated Vibrio cholerae NagZ can be elaborated with biotin or a FLAG-peptide epitope using the Staudinger ligation or the Sharpless-Meldal click reaction and detected at nanogram levels. This ABPP enabled the profiling of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteome and identification at endogenous levels of a tagged protein with properties consistent with those of PA3005. Cloning of the gene encoding this hypothetical protein and biochemical characterization enabled unambiguous assignment of this hypothetical protein as a NagZ. The identification and cloning of this NagZ may facilitate the development of strategies to circumvent resistance to beta-lactams in this human pathogen. As well, this general strategy, involving such 5-fluoro inactivators, may prove to be of general use for profiling proteomes and identifying glycoside hydrolases of medical importance or having desirable properties for biotechnology. 

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Article
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Identification of Asp174 and Asp175 as the Key Catalytic Residues of Human O-GlcNAcase by Functional Analysis of Site-Directed Mutants

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2006-02-24
Abstract: 

O-GlcNAcase is a family 84 â-N-acetylglucosaminidase catalyzing the hydrolytic cleavage of â-O-linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glycopyranose (O-GlcNAc) from serine and threonine residues of posttranslationally modified proteins. O-GlcNAcases use a double-displacement mechanism involving formation and breakdown of a transient bicyclic oxazoline intermediate. The key catalytic residues of any family 84 enzyme facilitating this reaction, however, are unknown. Two mutants of human O-GlcNAcase, D174A and D175A, were generated since these residues are highly conserved among family 84 glycoside hydrolases. Structure-reactivity studies of the D174A mutant enzyme reveals severely impaired catalytic activity across a broad range of substrates alongside a pH-activity profile consistent with deletion of a key catalytic residue. The D175A mutant enzyme shows a significant decrease in catalytic efficiency with substrates bearing poor leaving groups (up to 3000-fold), while for substates bearing good leading groups the difference is much smaller (7-fold). This mutant enzyme also cleaves thioglycosides with essentially the same catalytic efficiency as the wild-type enzyme. As well, addition of azide as an exogenous nucleophile increases the activity of this enzyme toward a substrate bearing an excellent leaving group. Together, these results allow unambiguous assignment of Asp174 as the residue that polarizes the 2-acetamido group for attack on the anomeric center and Asp175 as the residue that functions as the general acid/base catalyst. Therefore, the family 84 glycoside hydrolases use a DD catalytic pair to effect catalysis.

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Analysis of PUGNAc and NAG-thiazoline as Transition State Analogues for Human O-GlcNAcase:  Mechanistic and Structural Insights into Inhibitor Selectivity and Transition State Poise

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2006-12-23
Abstract: 

O-GlcNAcase catalyzes the cleavage of β-O-linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranoside (O-GlcNAc) from serine and threonine residues of post-translationally modified proteins. Two potent inhibitors of this enzyme are O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc) and 1,2-dideoxy-2‘-methyl-α-d-glucopyranoso[2,1-d]-Δ2‘-thiazoline (NAG-thiazoline). Derivatives of these inhibitors differ in their selectivity for human O-GlcNAcase over the functionally related human lysosomal β-hexosamindases, with PUGNAc derivatives showing modest selectivities and NAG-thiazoline derivatives showing high selectivities. The molecular basis for this difference in selectivities is addressed as is how well these inhibitors mimic the O-GlcNAcase-stabilized transition state (TS). Using a series of substrates, ground state (GS) inhibitors, and transition state mimics having analogous structural variations, we describe linear free energy relationships of log(KM/kcat) versus log(KI) for PUGNAc and NAG-thiazoline. These relationships suggest that PUGNAc is a poor transition state analogue, while NAG-thiazoline is revealed as a transition state mimic. Comparative X-ray crystallographic analyses of enzyme−inhibitor complexes reveal subtle molecular differences accounting for the differences in selectivities between these two inhibitors and illustrate key molecular interactions. Computational modeling of species along the reaction coordinate, as well as PUGNAc and NAG-thiazoline, provide insight into the features of NAG-thiazoline that resemble the transition state and reveal where PUGNAc fails to capture significant binding energy. These studies also point to late transition state poise for the O-GlcNAcase catalyzed reaction with significant nucleophilic participation and little involvement of the leaving group. The potency of NAG-thiazoline, its transition state mimicry, and its lack of traditional transition state-like design features suggest that potent rationally designed glycosidase inhibitors can be developed that exploit variation in transition state poise.

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Article
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A highly concise preparation of O-deacetylated arylthioglycosides of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine from 2-acetamido-3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl2-deoxy-a-D-glucopyranosyl chloride and aryl thiols or disulfides

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2006-07-01
Abstract: 

An expedient and mild route to a range of aryl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranosides has been devised from 2-acetamido-3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl chloride and arylthiols or aryl disulfides using phase transfer catalysis conditions. This simple procedure compresses up to three synthetic steps into a one-pot reaction, obviating the need for tedious workups and chromatography and directly furnishes crystalline materials in good yields. The procedure is compatible with a range of thiols and disulfides and may be amenable for preparing a wide range of thioglycosides with various glycons and aglycons.

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Article
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O-GlcNAcase Catalyzes Cleavage of Thioglycosides without General Acid Catalysis

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2005-11-16
Abstract: 

O-GlcNAcase catalyzes the removal of N-acetylglucosamine residues from serine and threonine residues of post-translationally modified proteins using a catalytic mechanism involving substrate-assisted catalysis and general acid/base catalysis. Since thioglycosides are widely perceived as resistant to hydrolysis by glycosidases, it was surprising to find that O-GlcNAcase also catalyzes the efficient hydrolysis of S-glycosides. Brønsted analyses and pH-activity studies of the O-GlcNAcase-catalyzed hydrolysis of a series of aryl S- and O-glycosides reveal that O-GlcNAcase effects hydrolysis of thioglycosides without the assistance of general acid catalysis. α-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects for O- and S-glycosides, as well as Taft-like analyses using N-fluoroacetyl-β-glycosides, suggest that O-GlcNAcase accomplishes hydrolysis of thioglycosides by stabilizing late transition states. For S-glycosides this transition state shows greater nucleophilic participation from the 2-acetamido group than for O-glycosides. The rate constants governing the O-GlcNAcase-catalyzed hydrolysis of O- and S-glycosides as compared to those previously determined for the spontaneous hydrolysis of structurally similar O,O- and O,S-acetals show a similar ratio. O-GlcNAcase therefore demonstrates similar catalytic proficiency toward both O- and S-glycosides. We conclude that O-GlcNAcase is a bifunctional catalyst capable of efficiently cleaving thioglycosides without general acid catalysis, an observation that may have biological implications.

Document type: 
Article