The notion of the négresse, even though derogatory, is often used in post-slavery narratives in reference to the black female body. However, the representations of this notion and the persona is rooted in white patriarchal hegemony and its enabling institutions. I explore in this research, the representations of the négresse in literary narratives that recount her lived experiences through the historical events of slavery and in the contemporary structure of post-slavery. I theorize the concepts of trauma, and marronnage in the lived experiences of the black female body in the structure of post-slavery through the reading of Maryse Condé’s Moi, Tituba sorcière…Noire de Salem, Toni Morrison’s Beloved and Marie-Célie Agnant’s Le livre d’Emma. I use these three texts because they portray an identical characterization of the négresse that fits into the spatiotemporal continuums of slavery and post-slavery. This research aims to examine the concept of post-slavery as a contemporary ideology yet historically dependent, based on transferred racial-gendered prejudices that the négresse experiences. I reveal the historical construction and representation of the négresse as a model by which the contemporary black female body is defined and by which the négresse’s contemporary lived experiences are formed. I identify Eurocentric and male hegemonic narratives as limitations that repress the stories of the négresse. Therefore, this thesis supports the need for more intersectional criticism specific to the black female body.
Ce mémoire de maîtrise a pour objectif de faire ressortir les spécificités textuelles d’un corpus d’œuvres post-coloniales, "L’Homme rapaillé" de Gaston Miron (1970), "Femmes d’Alger dans leur appartement" d’Assia Djebar (1980) et "Incendies" de Wajdi Mouawad (2003), et, partant, de montrer comment ces dernières peuvent être exploitées dans le cadre d’une stratégie pédagogique adaptée du français langue seconde à l’université.La théorie du différend de Lyotard est utilisée pour penser un enseignement des langues comportant une dimension éthique, mais aussi sociale, culturelle et identitaire, autant de questions au cœur des débats politiques, éducatifs et didactiques actuels.Une telle démarche suppose une approche constructiviste pour repenser les conditions de transmission et les dynamiques à l’œuvre entre les composantes du triangle didactique, le différend étant, à notre avis, ce qui les lie.Les littératures francophones nous semblent particulièrement adaptées dans cette visée du fait de la polysémie/phonie qui les caractérisent, mais celles-ci sont encore trop peu souvent et/ou mal étudiées, quand elles ne sont pas marginalisées au profit d’une littérature franco et/ou québéco-centrée.
In 1977, Roland Barthes presented a theory during a lecture at Collège de France: language is fascist. Language obliges us to speak rather than enables us to speak. Language houses power, and it is the duty of the intellectual to challenge the powers that be. Barthes posited that literature, for various reasons, including its constant shifting and transformation, allows for a writer to challenge the system of language within the written word. In 1987, Yasmina Reza’s first play premiered in Paris. In this analysis, I examine Reza’s theatre canon, which includes eight plays to date, looking particularly at her use of monologue, within the context of Barthes’ theory. Monologue is often a significant moment in theatre, however Reza employs monologue in seemingly nonsensical ways. In this analysis, I examine how Reza’s use of monologue challenges the system of language, both within her texts and within the sphere of performance.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether French immersion experience leads to a distinct, recognizable accent. Five native speakers of French, teaching in the Department of French at Simon Fraser University rated and evaluated the word, sentence and narrative utterances of 17 L2 French speakers living in a non-francophone environment, who completed either high school French immersion or Core French (FSL). Using first a 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent) rating task for words, and a 1 (very native accent) to 9 (very strong foreign accent) for sentences and an extemporaneous narration, listeners rated the accents of speakers. Then, using a program ID choice task, listeners indicated which program the anonymous speakers had completed. Results suggested that French immersion speakers were rated differently and could be distinguished from Core French speakers at above chance levels, though success rates among listeners varied somewhat. Formal analysis demonstrated that longer utterances produced more accurate choices. Self-reports of immersion speakers suggested that they spent a greater amount of time with their immersion peers both inside and outside the school environment than with English program peers, possibly accounting for differences in L2 French accent. Acoustic analysis indicated that French immersion speakers produced some token sounds (ex. /u/) in a measurably different way from Core French speakers.
Ma thèse porte sur l’échange communicationnel dans les autofictions de l’auteure québécoise à succès Nelly Arcan. S’appuyant sur la théorie de l’autofiction, elle se concentre sur la manière dont la narratrice échange avec elle-même comme une autre, avec ses lecteurs et avec ses proches. Cet échange communicationnel est-il à sens unique, un enfermement sur soi, ou est-il réciproque, créant ainsi un dialogue? Il semble que lorsque la narratrice se parle ou communique avec ses proches, différentes stratégies se mettent en place afin d’esquiver ou de diminuer soit l’engagement de l’échange, soit son retour. Pour ce qui est de la société, cette dernière engage l’échange avec ses composants, mais ne semble pas vouloir écouter leurs critiques. Suite à l’étude détaillée de ces trois types d’échange communicationnel dans l’œuvre autofictionnelle d’Arcan, il est possible de tenter d’expliquer pourquoi ses autofictions semblent truffées de pensées contradictoires et en désordre.
While the notion of cultural hybridity is often glorified in postcolonial theory, both the current situation of Beurs in France and the troubling themes expressed in French Beur literature since the 1980’s highlight an urgent need to redefine this notion. The goal of the present thesis is to redefine the utopian definition of hybridity by exploring its negative social and political repercussions in three of Azouz Begag’s canonical novels: Le gone du Chaâba (1986), Béni ou le paradis privé (1989) et Les chiens aussi (1995). The analysis suggests that hybridity should be seen as a socially constructed phenomenon and as such can contribute to moving beyond essentialist and absolute conceptions of marginal identities.
This thesis explores the metaphorical/stereotypical construction of “the Turk” depicted in the discourse of the political cartoons relating to the accession of Turkey to the European Union. Through a multimodal semiotic analysis of selected cartoons disseminated on the web between 2001-2013, this thesis aims to unfold how “re-contextualizing” a vast repertoire of historical metaphors and stereotypes represents the Turks and Turkey. From a theoretical perspective, this thesis also aims to reflect on the role of caricature in the construction of the Turkish image and the part it plays in the formation of an anti-Turkish discourse.
This thesis investigates the source of transfer in the acquisition of nominal and verbal domain of French as a third language by Korean and Chinese adult students who have learned English as a second language. Theories of syntactic transfer including the L1 Factor, the Cumulative-Enhancement Model, the L2 Status Factor and the Typology Primacy Model will be reviewed and examined with the written production results of four syntactic structures of French; mainly, the distinction of (in)definite articles, the placement of adjectives, the placement of verbs and the negation. Our results show positive and negative transfers from both the L1 and the L2 separately or collaboratively. The latter seems to support the argument of multi-competence, according to which the interlanguage is treated as a whole instead of a distinct L1 and L2. Moreover, in the cases where a syntactic structure is not typologically similar to the L1 or the L2, our participants seem to have direct access to Universal Grammar.
This study examined the code switching patterns in the speech of French-English bilingual children from British Columbia. Seven and 12-year-old children were divided in groups according to their age, and their speech was collected while they collaborated on a number of tasks in a non-academic, informal setting. This study presents the pragmatic functions of the children’s French and English code switches according to conversational context. In both age groups, the study found that children’s switches were used for a variety of purposes, including signalling a change in context, clarification, and representation of speech. The older children preferred English to express emotions or emotion words. The results suggest the children have developed bilingual speech patterns influenced by their families’ linguistic values, the French school system, and the community. They also show that children can use code switching as a means of establishing and changing power relations among the participants.
This study presents the results of an acoustic analysis of the seven vowels considered most characteristic of the French from Newfoundland. The study is centred on a corpus of semi-spontaneous interviews with male speakers representing the francophone community on the Port-au-Port peninsula in Newfoundland. The results garnered empirically document and characterise the variety. Specifically, they indicate that NF high vowels /i/ and /y/, but not /u/, have open variants [I] and [Y], that mid unrounded vowels follow the orthoepic norm, and that the low vowels maintain their phonological opposition. The presence of diphthongs has also been noted. The data also show shared traits with varieties of French from France, Quebec, and Acadia. The characterisation is then rounded-out with a discussion of its living potential within Fishman’s RLS framework.