Engineering Science - Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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Visible light wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography

Author: 
Date created: 
2018-01-11
Abstract: 

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging has predominantly been performed using wavelengths in the near-infrared, however visible light (Vis) has been recently demonstrated, showing encouraging results for high quality retinal imaging. Using a broadband supercontinuum visible light source, a sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) multi-modal imaging system is presented driven by Vis-OCT for volumetric structural imaging, followed by acquisition of fluorescence emission from the sample. The coherence-gated, depth resolved Vis-OCT images can be used for image-guided SAO aberration correction when the fluorescent signal is too weak, providing structural and functional images with high resolution.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Marinko Sarunic
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.Sc.

Development of a smart multi-device SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system for household appliances

Date created: 
2018-04-13
Abstract: 

Power consumption and electrical appliances are growing rapidly as technology advances, so does the need to identify which appliances are consuming how much energy for the benefit of both environment and economic point of view. Based on the current smart home systems present in the market that can monitor power and have a proper infrastructure but have poor data analytics at the user end. In this project, we developed a device that measures, logs and represents the measurement to the power consumption data of the Electrical appliances to the user in a proper user-friendly manner by connecting to the same Wi-Fi of the smart plugs. The developed device, acts as a server to communicate with the energy measuring devices to extract the data, records and logs it in a database, and provides it to the user on-demand in a simple Graphic User Interface.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Ash Parameswaran
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.Eng.

A preliminary investigation on the use of shape memory alloys for lower limb compression

Author: 
Date created: 
2018-02-22
Abstract: 

Compression therapy is commonly prescribed for chronic venous insufficiency indication to mitigate various complications in lower extremities including pain, swelling, edema, skin changes, and ulcerations. Compression therapy also manages orthostatic intolerance, one of the principal causes of syncope, based on the assumption of increasing venous return. Compression achieved with stockings is effective only during the supine and walking conditions, while intermittent pneumatic pressure pumps are usually limited to non-ambulatory use. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation on the use of shape memory alloys (SMA) to produce intermittent compression on the human calf. Thus, the research contributes towards a better understanding of utilizing SMAs in the potential development of an active compression device for the lower extremity. An active compression brace proof-of-concept prototype (ACBPP), actuated by SMA wires, was developed along with an analytical model. The use of SMA wires as actuators was investigated by conducting tests applying varying compression on a calf model. After modifying the analytical model, the effect of calf deformation on the performance of the ACBPP due to external pressure was experimentally and analytically investigated when wrapped around a compressible and incompressible calf. Through the development of a 2D finite element model of the leg, the effects of applied external pressure on the internal tissue was examined. The performance, wearability, comfort, potential haemodynamic benefits, and ambulatory use of SMAs in the ACBPP were explored through tests conducted on healthy individuals. First, results of a study on twelve healthy individuals in a seated position showed that the SMA-based ACBPP could apply a constant initial pressure to the leg, similar to commercial compression stockings, and produce intermittent pressures exceeding 30 mmHg. Second, with fourteen healthy volunteers in a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over, double-blind study, the haemodynamic effects of using the ACBPP on human calves were preliminarily investigated during ambulatory use. This proof-of-concept investigation showed that SMAs could potentially be used to increase stroke volume during tilting in healthy controls. Participants feedback showed good ratings for the ACBPP’s wearability and comfort in both studies.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Carlo Menon
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Cascaded particle filter for tracking using a single RGB-D sensor

Author: 
Date created: 
2018-02-13
Abstract: 

This thesis presents a real-time coarse-to-fine human gait tracking system based on a cascaded particle filter using a single RGB-D sensor. The tracking system is a combination of two different layers which explores how the information between the two sensing modalities can be chained to distribute and share the implicit knowledge associated with the tracking environment. In the first layer, the RGB information is exploited for tracking the coarse body shape, when the prior estimate of the state of the object is distributed based on the hierarchical sampling. For the second layer, the segmented output is used for tracking marked feature points of interest in the depth image. Two approaches, spin image, and geodesic distance, for associating a measure of the estimates are used in this phase. The thesis exhibits the overall implementation of the proposed method combined with a series of experimental analysis.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Shahram Payandeh
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.Sc.

Image Cropping Based on Saliency and Semantics

Author: 
Date created: 
2017-11-29
Abstract: 

This thesis proposes a new automatic image cropping technique and a platform for subjective image quality evaluation on mobile devices. Image cropping is a widely used technique in the printing industry, photography and cinematography. The proposed cropping method considers both the low-level pixel properties and high-level semantics. It is a combination of saliency-based and semantics-based image analysis. In the end, we compare the proposed method with a conventional saliency-based strategy. Furthermore, in order to simplify the final subjective test, we developed an iOS based mobile application for subjective image quality evaluation. The developed application implements two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) test methodology and further reduces the cognitive load of subjects performing the test by providing an easy-to-use, natural interface using the mobile device’s touch screen. The test results show the proposed cropping technique performs significantly better overall compared to saliency-based cropping.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Ivan V. Bajić
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.Sc.

Grasp Detection with Force Myography for Upper-extremity Stroke Rehabilitation Applications

Date created: 
2016-11-25
Abstract: 

Grasp training is a key aspect of stroke rehabilitation. This thesis explores the suitability of Force Myography (FMG) classification for the two-class problem of grasping, regardless of grasp-type, versus a lack of grasping, for rehabilitation applications. FMG-based grasp detection in individuals with stroke was assessed with a protocol comprising of three grasp-and-move tasks, requiring a single grasp-type. Accuracy was lower, and required more training data for individuals with stroke when compared to healthy volunteers. Despite this, accuracy was above 90% in individuals with stroke. FMG-based grasp detection was further evaluated using a second protocol comprising of multiple grasp-types and upper-extremity movements, with healthy volunteers. The utility of classifying temporal features of the FMG signal was also assessed using Area under the Receiver Operator Curve (AUC). Accuracy with the raw FMG signal was 88.8%. At certain window configurations, model-based temporal features yielded up to a 6.1% relative increase in AUC over the raw FMG signal.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Carlo Menon
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.Sc.

Polymeric Pressure Cushions for Potential Applications on Forearm Robotic Orthoses

Date created: 
2016-11-18
Abstract: 

Robot devices for stroke rehabilitation measure the interaction forces between users and the structure of the orthosis through load cells. Although these load cells are well-suited for stationary robotic devices in hospitals, they do not easily allow for the development of affordable wearable orthoses that can assist in daily living. When load cells are attached onto a robotic orthosis, they neither conform to the shape of the user’s body nor directly measure the applied forces at the contact point between the user and the orthosis. A polymeric cushion containing atmospheric air was developed as an alternative technology for measuring forces. A finite element model (FEM) of the polymeric cushion was made to simulate air pressure changes inside the polymeric cushion from applied forces. The polymeric cushions were fabricated entirely of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), making them biocompatible, flexible, and free of electrically conductive materials. An air pressure sensor attached to the tube of the polymeric cushion measured the air pressure and converted it into an electrical signal to be processed by a data acquisition board (DAQ). A test bench setup was made to characterize the relationship between the air pressure and applied force from each polymeric cushion, where a linear stage applied a setpoint force onto the cushion with an aluminum flat plate and a spherical glass tube. The characterization results of the experimental test bench setup were compared to the FEM results. Six polymeric cushions were mounted onto a wrist brace exoskeleton, where a LabVIEW program was written to record specific combinations of pressure sensors and measure the pronation/supination torque of the forearm (rotation), flexion/extension force of the elbow (up/down), and the internal/external rotation of the shoulder (left/right) at the forearm. These measured force values from the polymeric cushions were compared to the measured values of a torque sensor and load cell. The potential suitability of polymeric cushions for the measurement of isometric forces on an orthoses, is compared to the abilities of exoskeleton devices which involve the motions tested in this study using the wrist brace exoskeleton.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Carlo Menon
Ash Parameswaran
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.Sc.

Development of a robust pipeline for mapping of subcortical structures

Date created: 
2017-01-04
Abstract: 

This project focuses on developing a tool which can perform registration between subcortical surfaces. Current MATLAB-based ‘Spherical Demons’ algorithm, although very useful for most cases, fails to successfully complete surface registration in some cases. Therefore, FreeSurfer has been incorporated with ‘spherical demons’ algorithm to improve the existing surface registration algorithm by utilizing FreeSurfer’s superior spherical parameterization algorithm to parameterize the surface. This significantly improved the quality (smoothness and uniformity) of the parameterization over the existing spherical mapping which led to successful surface registration between subcortical surfaces.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Mirza Faisal Beg
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.Eng.

Plasmonics-Based Alignment Ruler for 3D Circuit Technology

Author: 
Date created: 
2017-12-05
Abstract: 

Metallic nanostructures can be engineered to manipulate light into a certain and unique fashion. One such example of these structures is the so-called plasmonic structures, which allows the coupling of an incident radiation with the surface electrons on the metal surface of the plasmonic nanostructure. This coupling has been utilized in a wide area of applications including structural coloring, which can be used in display, imaging, sensing and security applications. One such important area that can utilize these structures is the three-dimensional integrated circuit technology (3D ICs). 3D ICs technology is about the vertical stacking and integration of various technologies that can include electronics, biological systems, chemistry analysis, energy, etc. to form one complete autonomous system. Integrating these technologies altogether involve several steps, one of which is alignment to accuracies at the micro and nanoscale. Wafer-to-Wafer and Wafer-to-chip alignment is an inherited concept from the CMOS and MEMs technologies. However, using the plasmonic structures and their spectral responses to achieve the alignment in 3D IC technology is a very new concept. In this research, an optical technique for this alignment by incorporating nano-optical technology, known as ‘alignment ruler’, is proposed, implemented, and tested.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Bozena Kaminska
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.Sc.

Design and implementation of an image based portable ELISA analyzer using EIPA and 4PLR

Author: 
Date created: 
2017-10-12
Abstract: 

This thesis presents an implementation of predictive analytics on ELISA Imaging Systems in the absence of the standard laboratory equipment for field diagnostics. To that aim I developed a custom built optical setup with image processing and machine learning techniques. Using the light absorbance and transmittance properties of chemical compounds involved in hormone assays, I was able to estimate the hormone levels across reproductive stages. This work would allow for the eventual development of compact and economical closed systems which can be used for diagnostic advisory purposes in remote areas. This line of applied research, is expected to yield data that can be used to monitor health related outcomes. To test this use I focus the development of this tool on the monitoring of women’s ovarian function. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed model predicts hormone levels comparable to currently used commercial and laboratory methods.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Dr. Ash M Parameswaran
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.Sc.