Engineering Science - Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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HEVC-SIM: A Simulation and analysis tool for H.265 packet transmission

Date created: 
2015-10-09
Abstract: 

Video compression and decompression are essential parts of multimedia communications. Lowering the bit rate while maintaining good video quality remains a considerable challenge with increasing video resolutions and frame rates. In particular, the introduction of 4K and 8K video resolution has created a significant demand for efficient video compression appropriate for these high resolutions. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) have introduced High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC, also known as H.265) that has better compression efficiency at the same or higher video quality, compared to earlier video coding standards. In this project, a video coding and simulation tool was developed based on open-source implementations of HEVC encoders and decoders. The tool, named HEVC-SIM, can be used to encode raw video, analyze the packet structure and simulate packet loss. In addition, two error concealment methods were implemented to help the video decoder recover from packet loss. Simulations were carried out to assess the effectiveness of the various algorithms implemented in HEVC-SIM.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. Ivan V. Bajić
Thomas Pang
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.Eng.

Power Flow Study of a Compressor Gas Station

Date created: 
2015-10-06
Abstract: 

A study of the electrical power system in a compressor gas station. The study examines the load flow throughout the station during the steady state operating condition. A short circuit study is also conducted to determine the fault availability on the system buses. In addition, a detailed protective device coordination study and device configuration is performed to ensure that protective devices are providing overcurrent protection of all electrical equipment. Finally, an arch flash study is conducted to determine the available incident energy levels at plant equipment and to provide the specific hazard category for the equipment.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Andrew Rawicz
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.Eng.

Design verification and performance analysis of Serial AXI Links in Broadcom System-on-Chip

Author: 
Date created: 
2014-01-10
Abstract: 

Design verification is an essential step in the development of any product. Also referred to as qualification testing, design verification ensures that the product as designed is the same as the product as intended. In this project, design verification and performance analysis of Thin Advanced Extensible Interface Links (T-AXI) is conducted on a Broadcom’s SoC (System on Chip). T-AXI is a Broadcom’s proprietary bus that interfaces all the subsystems on the System-onchip (SoC) to the system memory. Test cases are developed to verify the functionality of the T-AXI and performance verification is implemented using scenarios derived from real world examples. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to emulate the SoC design and C programming is used to write the test cases. The test results verify the T-AXI functionality and the performance analysis supports the theoretical calculations.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Ivan Bajic
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.Eng.

A Random Channel Sounding Decision Feedback Receiver for Two-way Relay Communication with Pilot-less Orthogonal Signaling and Physical Layer Network Coding

Author: 
Date created: 
2015-05-25
Abstract: 

Cooperative communication system is an active field of research as it promises extended coverage in weak reception areas. Furthermore, with physical-layer network coding (PNC) in a two-way relaying (TWR) setting, the transmission rate of the system can be restored to unity,like in point-to-point transmission. This dissertation addresses the issue of signal detection in a two-phase TWR system that employs pilot-less orthogonal modulation and PNC operating in a time-selective Rayleigh fading environment. We first introduce a partial-coherent receiver for detecting (at the relay) the sum symbol of the uplink pilot-less orthogonal modulations. Through exploitation of the orthogonal property of the modulation, this receiver is 3 dB more power efficient over the standard non-coherent detector in the absence of pilot symbols. To further increase the receiver performance, we propose a decision feedback (DFB) receiver built upon the partial-coherent detector. The proposed DFB receiver provides another 6 dB improvement in power efficiency over the already impressive partial-coherent detector and attains a performance close to that of the coherent detector. It exploits the fact that when the uplink symbols from the users are different, the fading gains affecting these symbols can be separated and individually tracked at the relay. In essence, the proposed DFB receiver performs random channel sounding even though no actual pilots are transmitted. The channel estimates obtained this way can be used subsequently in a coherent detector to improve the reliability of the relay’s detected data. To further demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed DFB receiver, we compare it against a similar 2P-TWR system that employs differential PSK in the uplink and decision-feedback multiple-symbol differential detection at the relay. We found that the proposed orthogonal modulation system can attain a significantly lower bit-error-rate (BER) than its DPSK counterpart. For static fading and a BER of 0.001 , the signal-to-noise ratio gap between the two approaches is 1 dB in the binary case, and 8 dB in the quaternary case. These gaps increase further with time-selective fading. Based on the result obtained from the proposed DFB receiver, the decision feedback methodology has strong potential for applications in other similar systems, and it worth being studied further.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Paul Ho
Department: 
Applied Sciences:
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.Sc.

Analysis of Cooperative Communication and Link Layer Performance under Imperfectly Known Fading Channel Gains

Date created: 
2015-09-04
Abstract: 

One of the main issues of wireless communication systems is to cope with random variationof their channel conditions. In many wireless communication systems, the receiver estimatesthe channel for symbol detection. It is usually assumed that channel estimation is perfect,but in practice, channel estimation error (CEE) can become signi cant and can degrade theperformance of wireless communication systems. This thesis addresses the e ects of channelestimation error in two contexts: CEE in cooperative communication systems and CEE inlink layer performance.Cooperative diversity, which has been recently presented as an e ective way of mitigatingthe e ect of deep fades in wireless channels and improving spectral and power eciencyof the wireless networks, is considered in the rst part of this dissertation. Taking intoconsideration the presence of CEE, part I of this thesis analyzes a few cooperative communicationsystem models, which display di erent levels of practicality and represent largeclasses of cooperative systems in the literature. This thesis spells out delineating aspectsof these models and rigorously compares their error probabilities. Furthermore, a novelsignal detection scheme in the presence of CEE is presented for large classes of cooperativecommunication systems.Part II of this dissertation focuses on cross layer issues between the physical and linklayers of wireless communication systems. In particular, the frame error probability (FEP)is derived for a wireless communication system over fading channels in the presence ofCEE. Part II also explores the issue of optimizing bit transmission power for minimizing theexpected energy required to reliably deliver a frame to the destination node through an ARQmechanism over a fading channel. Also, an optimization algorithm is designed to minimizethe expected energy for reliable delivery of a frame for the systems under consideration.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Daniel Lee
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Performance Analysis of MPLS over IP networks using CISCO IP SLAs

Date created: 
2015-05-07
Abstract: 

Traffic Engineering (TE) is the method of optimizing performance of a communication network by vividly monitoring, envisaging, and regulating the behavior of data transmitted over the network. It involves methods and application of knowledge to gain performance objectives, which include movement of data through network, reliability, planning of network capacity, and efficient use of network resources. Deploying network services with Quality of Service enabled in an established IT infrastructure requires testing with current networking devices. This project addresses the problems of traffic engineering and evaluates the performance of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) and Internet Protocol (IP) networks. In this project, I use CISCO IP Service Level Agreements (SLAs) for active traffic monitoring to analyze IP service levels for IP applications and services. The results compare performance of MPLS and IP networks.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. Ljiljana Trajkovic
Department: 
Applied Sciences:
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.Eng.

Performance Analysis of Wireless Fading Channels: A Unified Approach

Date created: 
2015-08-26
Abstract: 

This thesis presents two major contributions. First, we consider a unified approach to model and simplify wireless fading channels or potentially fading scenarios by mixture distributions, namely using the mixture of Gaussian (MoG) and the mixture Gamma (MG) distributions. The approximation methodologies rely on maximum a posteriori and likelihood estimation techniques, such as the expectation-maximization and variational Bayes. Through the use of the mean-square error and the Kullback-Leibler divergence measures, we show that our models provide similar accuracy yet simpler representation than other existing models. In addition, we provide closed-form expressions or approximations for several performance metrics used in wireless communication systems, including the moment generating function, the raw moments, the amount of fading, the outage probability, and the average channel capacity. Second, through the use of the MoG and MG distributions, we provide a unifying and verstaile performance analysis over intricate generalized and composite fading channels in several contemporary wireless research topics, such as cognitive radio networks, cooperative- and diversity-based communications, and impulsive noise environments. The new approach and proposed distributions resolves intractable problems in many other fields, such as cognitive radio networks, cooperative networks, cascaded wireless applications and others.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Jie Liang
Sami Muhaidat
Department: 
Applied Sciences: School of Engineering Science
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.Sc.

Design and Validation of a Fall Event Detection System using Wearable Sensors: A Machine Learning Approach

Author: 
Date created: 
2015-03-31
Abstract: 

Falls are the number one cause of injury and injury-related deaths in older adults. Nearly one-half of those over age 65 are unable to rise independently after falling, and a significant source of morbidity is the ‘long-lie’ that often occurs after falling. A wearable sensor system that automatically detects falls can facilitate quicker delivery of care. Such systems can also log information on the nature of the fall to inform prevention efforts. This thesis describes my efforts to develop improved methods for detecting fall-related events in older adults through wearable sensors (i.e. accelerometer and gyroscopes). In particular, I developed and evaluated novel approaches to extend the utility of fall monitoring systems beyond post-impact fall detection, to pre-impact fall detection, near-fall detection and causes of fall detection. In my first study, I conducted laboratory experiments to compare the accuracy of machine learning versus threshold-based approaches for distinguishing falls from daily activities based on wearable sensor data. In my second study, I examined the accuracy of machine learning algorithms in distinguishing falls from real-world fall and non-fall datasets from young and older adults. My third study focused on pre-impact fall detection (detecting falls during the descent phase before impact) which is relevant to the design of active protective gear (e.g., airbags). In particular, I determined how the data window size and lead-time affects classification accuracy based on a single waist sensor. In my fourth study, I developed a near-fall identification algorithm based on machine learning, which could provide biofeedback to the individual of their state of balance. I examined how the number and location of sensors on the body influenced the accuracy of the algorithm in identifying near-fall from activities of daily living. My final study examined the ability of wearable sensors to provide objective evidence on the cause and circumstances of falls, to aid in diagnosing and treating the underlying causes of falls in older adults. My overall efforts advance the potential of wearable sensors (i.e. accelerometers and gyroscopes) for providing objective and clinically relevant information for the prevention and treatment of falls and their related injuries in older adults.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Stephen Robinovitch
Department: 
Applied Sciences:
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Characterization of Cu2O-ZnO Interface for Photosensitive Devices

Author: 
Date created: 
2015-07-17
Abstract: 

This project investigates the photo sensitive characteristics of Cu2O-ZnO interface from painted cuprous oxide on copper. Existing methods of producing Cu2O-ZnO photosensitive layers are complex, costly and require high temperature conditions. The paintable medium developed in our approach was a simple mixture of cuprous chloride, adhered hydrate cuprous oxide, de-ionised water and acetone. The prepared medium was painted on a clean copper sheet. The device was then heated at 75ᵒC for 30 minutes. The ZnO layer was electroplated in zinc nitrate solution at 72ᵒC. The surfaces of Cu2O and ZnO were analyzed by SEM and the results showed homogenous surface morphology. The photosensitivity of the manufactured Cu2O-ZnO was also characterized using a semiconductor parameter analyser (SPA) and a light source. The manufactured devices exhibited ohmic (I-V) characteristics in the dark. Upon illumination, the current density increased by 40 %. Samples that were annealed for two-hours at 75°C before ZnO electrodeposition, exhibited a solar-cell type (I-V) response.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
File(s): 
Senior supervisor: 
Dr. Ash M. Parameswaran
Department: 
Applied Sciences:
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.Eng.

Application of Depth Sensor in the Design of Hybrid Robotic Gaming Environment

Author: 
Date created: 
2015-05-21
Abstract: 

This project combines depth sensor, virtual game platform, and mobile robots to create an environment where user can engage in a game (i.e. a game of air-hockey) by using simple hand gestures to control physical mobile robots against another user using the virtual counterparts of mobile robots in a virtual environment. The mobile robots move on an open field using DC motors, and each of them is equipped with a unique reflective marker. The overhead camera feeds the image of the field into the game program which utilizes image-processing algorithm to read the positions of the reflective markers and displays the results in the virtual environment. The depth sensor provides the skeleton models of the players which in turn give the hand positions and gestures to the program. Through the combination these information, players can then interface with the virtual environment. In the virtual environment, the real mobile robots which play against virtual robot models of similar design are controlled by the players to move the puck into their respective goal to score. Through this system, users can experience robot sports game in a hybrid gaming environment using real mobile robots and virtual robots.

Document type: 
Graduating extended essay / Research project
Senior supervisor: 
Shahram Payandeh
Department: 
Applied Sciences:
Thesis type: 
(Project) M.Eng.