Education - Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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The dance of utter darkness: Pedagogy for the outsider

Date created: 
2019-09-20
Abstract: 

The rationale of this study is to explore the connections between body-being, morality and transformative learning by examining particular contexts of butoh dance. By approaching the phenomenon of butoh through the lens of art, aesthetics and ethics, as well as incorporating a socio-political-historical perspective, I aim to understand this form for the transgressive and thus, regenerative powers it contributes to art and life. Transgressive art does not attempt to deny the structure of civilized social life but rather re-orders it by highlighting excluded, often taboo behaviors and provoking us to accept life whole-heartedly as a paradox, without firm ideas of right and wrong. I am intrigued by the idea of butoh/ dance as a non-coercive, non-verbal tool for communication; not simply as an aesthetic or artistic expression but potentially as a highly dismantling framework through which to question social norms. Butoh dance seeks to rupture the safe, intact and socially defined boundaries which normally encompass cultures specifically through language, and it asks what relation language has to the experiential knowledge of the flesh, a very post-modern concern. Butoh, when framed within the context of modern dance- itself a harbinger for the radical post-modern wave, represents a still subversive form of art in 2019.This is partly because it challenges epistemologies based on the superiority of linguistic representation. Butoh is integrally associated with ritual and is most often defined by the aesthetic qualities of darkness and depth. It is considered a philosophy, a spiritual practice, and even a way of life. This form provides an unmatched profundity, often by way of the dark subconscious and shadow sides of life because butoh draws deeply from the collective unconscious, questing for self-knowing through depth, breadth, emptiness and crisis. The pedagogical implications of this subversive art form are massive, for butoh offers entrance to those at the outer edges of the social structure; butoh offers a dwelling place to the marginalized.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Allan MacKinnon
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Perceptions of autism, culture, and personhood from parents of children with autism and from colleagues delivering services to children with autism

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-09-12
Abstract: 

Through exploration of the critical frameworks of practitioner inquiry along with the tools of self-study, reflective inquiry, and dialogic journaling, this paper investigates new possibilities and models for practitioners who work with Korean-Canadian immigrants who have a child with autism as they deal with acculturation and attempting to gain support while juggling two cultures. This study gathers and analyzes qualitative data on the perceptions of autism, culture, and personhood from parents of children with autism and from colleagues delivering services to children with autism. Specifically it looks at the pressing need for continuing to expand autism research and how this research specifically intersects Korean-Canadian families. Increasingly over time, researchers have argued that it is preconceived notions of “personhood” which lead to the declaration that autistic behaviour is “abnormal”. This research asks what presuppositions exist about “typical” versus “atypical” identities, then asks how educational practices can better support children with autism in realizing and expressing their personhood? And, how do cultural and other discourses- affecting educational practices and affecting children and their families- impact these efforts? This research seeks to answer these questions by exploring notions of how personhood and identity for students with autism is conceptualized within the education system, as intersecting with specific cultural discourses of families and practitioners. The study concludes that it is critical to enhance practitioners’ ability to take multiple perspectives, recognize the significance of student, family and colleague epistemology, and acknowledge the importance of culturally relevant methodology to meet the needs of diverse students.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Robert Williamson
Michael Ling
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ed.D.

Changes in positioning: An alternative perspective on learning in Massive Open Online Courses

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-08-07
Abstract: 

Discussion forums are widely provided in Massive Open Online Courses for learners to interact and exchange learning support. Developing one’s forum participation pattern to interact substantively about the course content can be an important form of MOOC learning. This mixed-method study examines learners’ forum participation patterns as positions that can be characterized by characteristics related to their contributions and social relations. The series of positions that a learner takes over time form their position trajectory. This study analyzed learners’ positions in the beginning, middle, and end periods in a statistics MOOC and a writing MOOC. Through performing content analysis and social network analysis on the discussions, five kinds of participation characteristics were extracted for each learner: quantity of content-related contributions, input seeking and providing activities, deep consideration of the discussion content, connectedness in the social network, and strength of social connections. Positions in each time period were identified through clustering groups of learners who had similar participation characteristics. The identified positions fell into six primary types: enthusiastic central providers, enthusiastic central reciprocators, moderate providers, moderate reciprocators, moderate deep thinkers, and minimal peripheral contributors. The forum at any time point usually contained a small group of enthusiastic contributors, a big proportion of moderate contributors, and a majority of minimal contributors. This study further examined the position trajectories for learners who participated in multiple periods, and performed case studies on learners who showed the frequent trajectories. In both MOOCs only 17% of the multi-period learners showed constructive development in participation pattern and changes in language and participation focus that suggested identity development. This study is the first effort among MOOC research to examine changes in participation pattern using multiple contribution and social characteristics. The identified positions provided a critical ground for studying content-related interaction and learning community in MOOC forums. The moderate contributor groups are under-researched in the MOOC literature and promising for expanding the understanding of MOOC learners. The findings in this study also demonstrate the usefulness of the position perspective for understanding MOOC learning and both the need and potential avenues to help MOOC learners become more competent forum participants.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Alyssa Friend Wise
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Topic driven writing analytics: Using natural language processing techniques to derive topic-based feedback supporting writing revision

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-07-04
Abstract: 

Writing provides a medium for learners to construct, critique and share understandings of concepts, reasoning and judgments. Connecting and representing ideas in an essay is an important but challenging skill for novices to develop. Occasions often are limited to receive personalized feedback and time is short to practice implementing recommendations, particularly in post-secondary education. Writing analytics can help address these challenges, providing opportunities to receive on-demand feedback that guides iterative revision to writing. This project creates a new form of writing analytic, analyzing patterns in topics expressed in an individual student’s essay to generate personalized feedback. The analytic is content driven, identifying and describing essay features designed to guide effective revisions, focusing on sequencing topics, expanding underdeveloped ideas, and making holistic revisions to improve the clarity of the ideas expressed. Two experiments tested different reflective prompts based on this analytic, which were derived from unsupervised Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling. The analytic visualizes how topics are distributed across an essay. Experiment 1 tested 3 types of feedback encouraging revisions to expand underdeveloped ideas. Model feedback was evaluated by two human reviewers examining 113 undergraduate student essays. The reviewers found feedback prompting sentence-level revisions on underdeveloped topics was most helpful, while analytic feedback on minor topics in the overall essay were not. This indicates a preference for specific prompts in context. Experiment 2 further explored patterns of topic inclusion that could generate personalized feedback at the paragraph level. Prompts were designed for an essay’s introduction and conclusion paragraphs to highlight main topics in the essay potentially overlooked in those paragraphs. Paragraph prompts pointed to revisions to improve topic clarity and cohesion. Model feedback was evaluated using 71 undergraduate student essays scored by two human evaluators. Model accuracy was strong for all types of feedback. This project extends the scope of writing analytics by opening new branches of research on using the content covered in an individual student’s essay to generate novel forms of feedback on concepts covered, connections made, and integration of source materials.

Document type: 
Thesis
Supervisor(s): 
Philip Winne
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Education is War : The Constitution of Postindustrial Learning

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2003
Abstract: 

The central thesis of this dissertation is that war and militarism have been formative in the development of Western education from its inception in Classical Greece until the present. The secondary thesis is that the formative influence of warfare on education and on society more generally was neglected by the AngloAmerican academy during the twentieth century.

 

This is not to suggest that twentieth century AngloAmerican scholarship and research was not war related. Rather, it is to suggest that the theoretical and critical study of the formative role of warfare was neglected in inverse proportion to the academic effort devoted to war during that century. The author posits that this critical and theoretical avoidance was a function of the confluence of material conditions, the Cold War for instance, with the academic perception of society as generally peaceful, a perception largely based in the influence of Marx and Spencer.

 

This neglect is compared to the formative role assigned to warfare in the early twentieth century German academy, to war as a theme central to twentieth century American literature, and to the focus on war in French poststructural theory. Chapter 1 is comprised of a brief history of the academic construction of warfare in the twentieth century. The author proffers some reasons for the war aporias that he locates in the AngloAmerican academy. The second chapter outlines method.

 

Chapters 3 and 4 are devoted to a theoretical analysis of the development of mass media, the state, mass schooling, mass warfare and education. The author posits that war was totally blended into quotidian existence between~ 1870 and the end of the twentieth century. The influence of military considerations on the development of the research university is explicated by tracing the development of organic chemistry, propaganda, computers, and instructional technology and educational psychology. In Chapter 5, the author argues that these industrial processes were superseded after World War II, the change evident in the production of "postindustrial learning." He concludes by asking if education as warfare is a permanent condition.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Roland Case
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Language planning and policy in the Punjab education system: A critical analysis

Date created: 
2019-08-15
Abstract: 

Since it became an independent country in 1947, India has wrestled with the question of how to manage its vast range of languages. According to the Three-Language Formula, a political compromise originating in the post-independence debates of the 1950s, each federal state should ensure its citizens have access at least to Hindi, English, and a third language that may be a regional language or, in the northern Hindi-speaking states, a language from southern India. Through a study of the historical development and ramifications of this policy, and especially its implementation in the northwestern border state of Punjab, it is shown to align with the long-established tendency for national language planning and policies to entrench historical and sociopolitical inequities. Analysis of Punjab’s public-education policy texts by means of critical discourse analysis highlights the (re)production of political ideologies and social hierarchies in the implementation of State-level language policy within the government-run school system. The sociolinguistic realities of the region are not always reflected in the policy directives that influence public education in Punjab. This case study adds to the literature showing that powerful sociopolitical forces continue to impact the position of vernaculars in India and that its linguistically diverse states and policy frameworks are unable to accommodate numerous languages on the margins.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Mark Fettes
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Apprenticeship: Lessons from the German dual studies model of vocational education and training

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-08-22
Abstract: 

The German model of dual studies vocational education and training (VET) is often described as a major contributor to the successes of the German Economy. This thesis compares the main features of the German dual VET with the current VET system in British Columbia (BC) using the criteria proposed by Dieter Euler in a 2013 report commissioned by the Bertelsmann-Stiftung Foundation. Euler identified 11 essential elements as being keys to the success of the German VET and suggested that the elements could be useful in guiding implementation of the German VET model in other contexts. Euler also claims that a VET system should not be viewed as a single entity, but rather understood in terms of its component parts. This thesis applies Euler’s key elements as a frame for a critical review of the main elements of the current BC system of vocational elements and training and identifies areas of strength, weakness and sites for potential improvement. In order to ground the dual studies concept in current BC examples the thesis includes a field study of two different approaches to apprenticeship: the Block Release model of training as commonly used in the vocational programs of BC colleges and a working example of the application of the Day Release approach by an operating business. The field study found that while both models were grounded in the dual studies approach to apprenticeship, the two different applications resulted in varying experiences for students. The thesis concludes that the BC VET system could be improved in five of the 11 key areas identified by Euler and proposes that the BC system should be expanded over time to include occupations beyond the traditional trade categories through cooperative partnerships with leaders of government, the BCITA, business and labour. In addition, in order to improve the current social acceptance of VET, the provincial government should actively promote apprenticeship as an effective learning model and valid post-secondary option.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Milton McClaren
Tom Roemer
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ed.D.

A self-study of my professional development in the early years of my teaching career

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-08-20
Abstract: 

Teachers have spent thousands of hours watching other people teach, and those observations and experiences have inevitably influenced how one’s pedagogy is developed. In this self-study, I sought to identify and understand the ways in which my relationships, experiences, and different identities from kindergarten to graduate studies have influenced my teaching pedagogy today as an early career teacher. Engaging in self-study as an early career teacher has proven to be an eye-opening professional development opportunity, as I have experienced new realizations about where the values in my educational credo stem from. It has also offered an opportunity to review the literature supporting those values. Through this experience I have looked carefully at my practice and have identified instances where the way that I was teaching did not align with my beliefs. Additionally, I have become aware of tensions that exist between my different identities.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Shawn Bullock
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Weaving narrative therapy into a decolonizing approach to counselling: A collaborative narrative exploration of Indigenous healing in Canada

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-07-26
Abstract: 

This research explores how narrative therapy lends itself to a decolonizing approach to counselling work with Indigenous people in Canada. Preliminary areas of alignment between Indigenous wholism and narrative therapy literature are identified. Given the limited scholarship on narrative therapy in Canadian contexts, professional experiences of narrative practice with Indigenous people were sought using an adapted method of collaborative narrative inquiry. Arvay’s (2003) method was adapted to include Indigenous research principles. Three narratives are presented: two qualitative interviews were conducted with mental health professionals who practice narrative therapy with Indigenous clients. I include my narrative from the perspective of an Indigenous counsellor who was trained in narrative therapy. Stories reveal ways narrative therapy has supported decolonizing these professionals’ practice, as well as areas of Indigenous healing that are not sufficiently attended to within a narrative approach (e.g., spirituality and embodied experiences). Implications for a decolonizing approach to counselling are discussed.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Sharalyn Jordan
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Exploring the culture and complexity of three British Columbia post-secondary institutions in their support of instructors using educational technologies

Author: 
Date created: 
2019-07-31
Abstract: 

The purpose of this study was to explore how faculty at three post-secondary institutions are supported in their use of educational technologies, given the changing landscape of institutions and the demands placed on them by the government, community, industry, and students. This study used organizational complexity and a competing values framework to examine the culture of these institutions with respect to the opportunities and challenges provided for instructors by the latest educational technologies for teaching. As a qualitative exploratory study, it employed a qualitative methodology based on literature, strategic plans, and 15 interviews with participants from three post-secondary institutions in the Vancouver lower mainland in British Columbia, Canada. The research design used was carried out in three phases. First, it examined the current strategic plans and the directions and goals of the three institutions. Second, to understand the complexity and dynamics within these institutions, it reviewed the literature available on educational and disruptive technologies, organizational culture, trends in higher education, strategic plans, and theoretical frameworks. Third, it considered the direct experiences of eight instructors and seven administrators who work at the three institutions. The study made four key recommendations: 1) adopt an “in the moment concept” with respect to support for educational technologies as needed, 2) set up an “educational technology playground” for instructors to give them an opportunity to play with the latest educational technologies, 3) rethink the culture and complexity of post-secondary institutions prior to the preparation of “strategic plans,” and 4) require “administrators” to have a better understanding of what their instructors are dealing with in regard to how they are supported in their use of educational technologies.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Michelle Pidgeon
Larry Sackney
Department: 
Education: Faculty of Education
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ed.D.