Earth Sciences - Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

Receive updates for this collection

Late Holocene fluctuations of Lillooet Glacier, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia

Date created: 
2003
Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Department: 
Theses (Dept. of Earth Sciences) / Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.Sc. (Earth Sciences))

Tectonometamorphic evolution of the lower Nar Valley, central Nepal Himalaya

Author: 
Date created: 
2003
Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Department: 
Theses (Dept. of Earth Sciences) / Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.Sc. (Earth Sciences))

Facies characterization and depositional architecture of a mixed-influence asymmetric delta lobe: Upper Cretaceous basal Belly River Formation, central Alberta

Date created: 
2007
Abstract: 

The Campanian basal Belly River Formation (Cycle G) of central Alberta is differentiated into two mappable facies associations (FA1 and FA2). FA1 comprises uniformly coarsening-upward successions with abundant wave- and storm-generated physical structures. FA2 forms variable and markedly heterolithic coarsening-upwards successions, dominated by current-generated structures, normal grading, convolute bedding, structureless siltstones, claystone drapes, and syneresis cracks. Both facies associations yield sporadically distributed trace fossil suites, attributable to stressed expressions of the Cruziana Ichnofacies. FA1 contains moderate-abundance and moderate-diversity ichnological suites, whereas FA2 displays low-abundance, and typically very low-diversity suites comprising predominantly facies-crossing deposit-feeding structures.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
J
Department: 
Dept. of Earth Sciences - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.Sc.)

Modelling climate change impacts on groundwater recharge in a semi-arid region, southern Okanagan, British Columbia

Author: 
Date created: 
2007
Abstract: 

The impacts of future predicted climate change on groundwater recharge resources are modelled for the arid to semi-arid south Okanagan region, British Columbia. The hydrostratigraphy of the region consists of Pleistocene-aged glaciolacustrine silt overlain by glaciofluvial sand and gravel. Spatial recharge is modelled using available soil and climate data with the HELP 3.80D hydrology model. Climate change effects on recharge are investigated using stochastically-generated climate from three GCMs. Recharge is estimated to be ~45 mm/year, with minor increases expected with climate change. However, growing season and crop water demands will increase, posing additional stresses on water use in the region. A transient MODFLOW groundwater model simulates increases of water table in future time periods, which is largely driven by irrigation application increases. Spatial recharge is also used in a groundwater model to define capture zones around eight municipal water wells. These capture zones will be used for community planning.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
D
Department: 
Dept. of Earth Sciences - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.Sc.)

Late pleistocene glacial and environmental history of the Skagit valley, Washington and British Columbia

Author: 
Date created: 
2007
Abstract: 

Drainage patterns established in the Tertiary in the North Cascades were reorganized to accommodate southern drainage of Cordilleran Ice Sheet meltwater. Repeated continental glaciation rendered the Skagit an interconnected valley, with meltwater routes opening it to the Fraser and Okanogan watersheds, and linking it to a drainage system around the east margin of the Puget lobe of the ice sheet. Alpine glaciers from two major tributaries blocked Skagit valley during the late Wisconsin Evans Creek stade, creating glacial lakes Concrete and Skymo. Organic material from lake sediments provides the first radiometric constraint on the beginning of the Evans Creek stade in the Cascades about 25,040 14C yr BP. Sediments and macrofossils at the Cedar Grove section define two advances of Baker alpine glaciers during this stade, separated by a period of warmer and wetter climate at 20,310 14C yr BP. During colder parts of the Evans Creek stade macrofossils indicate treeline was as much as 1200  150 m lower than present, which corresponds to a mean July temperature depression of approximately 7  1˚C. Glacier equilibrium line altitudes (ELA) during the cold periods were depressed 730-970 m below the modern glaciation threshold. Skagit valley alpine glaciers advanced several times to positions 5-10 km below valley heads between 12, 200 and 9,975 14C yr BP. ELA depression during these advances vary from 340 ± 100 m to 590 ±75 m, with greater depression in maritime western tributaries. Skagit ELA depression values are about 200 m less than reported for the southern North Cascades during the Sumas stade. The effect of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet on precipitation likely caused ELAs to be higher in the Skagit valley than in the southern North Cascades.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
J
Department: 
Dept. of Earth Sciences - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (Ph.D.)

Geology of the upper cretaceous Nanaimo Group, southernmost Gulf Islands and adjacent Saanich Peninsula, SW British Columbia

Date created: 
2006
Abstract: 

The Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group is a succession of siliciclastic marginal-marine and marine sediments in southwestern British Columbia. On the north tip of the Saanich Peninsula and several small, adjacent islands, the lowest three formations of the Nanaimo group are exposed. The basal unconformity is overlain by Comox Formation conglomerates and sandstones representing deposition along a high-relief, storm-swept shoreline open to the proto-Pacific Ocean. Fan-delta, strandplain-shoreface, and barrier-island complex deposits are preserved within this formation. The Haslam and Extension formations, representing mudstone-sandstone turbidites and conglomerate-sandstone submarine channel fills respectively, overlay the Comox Formation. The depositional history suggests slow, persistent transgression within a peripheral foreland basin, with sediment supplied by contemporaneous thrusts to the east. Nanaimo Group strata has been affected by at least two major deformation events. Evidence from the Eocene Cowichan Fold and Thrust System and the Neogene Gulf Island Thrust System is preserved within the study area.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Department: 
Department of Earth Sciences - Simon Fraser University
Thesis type: 
Thesis (M.Sc.)