Criminology - Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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Pulpit for sale: minorities and the privatization of prison chaplaincy in Canada

Author: 
Date created: 
2018-05-09
Abstract: 

Federal prison chaplaincy experienced a major shift in 2013 when the provision of these services was outsourced to a single for-profit company. The present study examines how privatization has impacted minority faith chaplains serving in federal institutions in Canada. The study also explores the theoretical concept of performativity and its impact on prison chaplaincy as a caring profession. Based on 10 in-depth semi-structured interviews with minority chaplains the results show that privatization led to: 1) increased levels of bureaucratization that have compromised the quality of spiritual care available to prisoners, 2) reduced resources for chaplains and 3) increased emotional exhaustion and frustration among chaplains.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Nicole Myers
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: School of Criminology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Help! I need somebody. Help! Not just anybody: An event perspective of the community safety partnership making process in Canada

Author: 
Date created: 
2018-08-20
Abstract: 

Community safety partnerships are becoming an important part of policing and crime prevention in Canada. These types of partnerships have long existed. However, with recent pressures on police services to respond to more complex social issues, alongside scrutiny of policing budgets, increasing attention is being paid to partnership creation. Much has been written about community safety partnerships. This literature, however, largely ignores the transactional phase of partnership-making. This phase is important for understanding how community safety partnerships emerge, develop and sustain themselves. Furthermore, little is written on the Canadian context, despite significant differences in Canadian police organizations and communities compared to the United Kingdom and the United States. The current study seeks to examine the community safety partnership making process through an event perspective. Findings from this study have implications for theories of partnerships, as well as practical implications for partnership making and the organizational structure of policing in Canada.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Eric Beauregard
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: School of Criminology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

A comparison of serial and non-serial sex offenders

Author: 
Date created: 
2018-08-21
Abstract: 

Research on serial sex offending has predominantly focused on the modus operandi, victim selection and criminal career of offenders. Studies on psychosocial characteristics of SSOs remains limited and research assessing comparative differences between serial sex offenders (SSOs) and non-serial sex offenders (NSSOs) is nearly non-existent. Using a sample of 553 male sex offenders, the current study investigates differences in characteristics between SSOs and NSSOs. Results from a series of logistic regression analyses indicate significant distinctions between SSOs and NSSOs. Specifically, their sexual development, adult sexual lifestyle, and psychopathologies. A profile of SSOs is proposed and implications for investigative purposes and future research are discussed.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Eric Beauregard
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: School of Criminology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

“The sufferings and persecution of my people back home is the one that really burns and boils in me every single day”: Exploring expressions of well-being in the Oromo diaspora

Author: 
Date created: 
2018-06-27
Abstract: 

Oromos are an Indigenous people living in the horn of Africa and in diaspora. Their long history of struggle against (internal) colonization creates a challenging context in which to strive for well-being. For the last 30-40 years, Canada has been a common destination and safe haven for many persecuted Oromos. The current project sought to explore Oromo conceptions of well-being through a qualitative study involving participant-observations and 14 interviews in three Canadian cities. The findings reveal that Oromo people’s origins in Oromia remain an important and continuing determinant of their health and well-being, despite migration to Canada. The findings suggest that our current understandings of determinants of immigrant health in Canada are too narrowly focused on post-migration conditions. These findings contribute to a growing body of literature that prioritize understandings of collective over individual well-being, as well as the important exploration of social determinants of immigrant health.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Ted Palys
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: School of Criminology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

“An Awkward Couple”: Examining the relationship between vulnerable witnesses and the Canadian criminal justice system

Author: 
Date created: 
2018-08-10
Abstract: 

This thesis explored strengths and weaknesses surrounding the Canadian criminal justice system (CJS) and vulnerable witnesses. Literature and case studies typically focus on the negative relationship between the courts and witnesses. Though special measures have been introduced and utilized within the adversarial system, the results indicate a gap in efficacy, specifically with vulnerable witnesses’. Interviews were conducted with vulnerable witness and stakeholders in the CJS and students were surveyed. Professionals who worked with vulnerable witnesses emphasized their dissatisfaction with the justice process. Fifteen interviews with criminal justice personnel who worked with vulnerable witnesses, and a vulnerable witness, together with a survey of nineteen undergraduate students were conducted. Consistent with previous research, the current study found that more assistance throughout the process is needed. Findings suggest that a better understanding of ‘vulnerability’ may lead to better treatment of vulnerable witnesses and enhance their ability to provide their “best evidence” in court.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Gail Anderson
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: School of Criminology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Patterns of female offending: Childhood and adolescent risk factors

Author: 
Date created: 
2018-08-08
Abstract: 

Differences in offending patterns between male and female youth are well established in the literature. In comparison to female youth, males are more involved in serious and violent offending and are also more likely to engage in offending that persists across the life course. Offending trajectory comparisons between males and females suggest that the trajectories of the highest rate female offenders are different from the highest rate trajectories of male offenders and that comparing trajectory association across gender can mask important within-group differences among female offenders. Indeed, little research has moved past analyzing female juvenile offenders as a homogenous group (Odgers et al., 2007). Consequently, there is limited understanding of the impact that risk and protective factors have on offending persistence or desistance specifically for female offenders. Using data from the Incarcerated Serious and Violent Young Offender Study, the current study examined the impact of key theoretical constructs on the offending trajectories of female adolescent offenders during emerging adulthood. Analyses using Traj for STATA revealed more heterogeneity in female offending trajectories than earlier indications in the literature. The results are discussed with reference to how childhood and adolescent risk factors help inform female offenders’ continued offending into adulthood.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Jennifer Wong
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: School of Criminology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

A qualitative study comparing Canadian and international legislation governing administrative segregation in correctional facilities

Date created: 
2018-08-10
Abstract: 

Administrative segregation, also known as solitary confinement, is a procedure used in correctional facilities to remove certain inmates from the general prison population. This is a controversial method since it can lead to mental and physical harm and sometimes even resulting in suicide. Canadian cases, such as the death of Ashley Smith, have shown the several issues involving the use of administrative segregation. Further, the UN Nelson Mandela Rules define separate confinement lasting longer than 15 days as torture. This qualitative study examined the federal and provincial legislation of Canada governing administrative segregation. Additionally, a review of the legislation involving administrative segregation from six European countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, England, and Ireland) as well as Australia and New Zealand was conducted. The findings in the international statutes helped to establish recommendations for the Canadian legal system regarding the procedure of administrative segregation in correctional facilities.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Simon Verdun-Jones
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: School of Criminology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

Appealing to the masses: The allure of social media

Date created: 
2018-01-26
Abstract: 

Social Media is one of the most prevalent forms of communication in today’s society. However, research has consistently noted that there are risks associated with the use of social media. The current study looks to understand what makes social media appealing to users that they forego or limit their privacy and security online. Consistent with previous research, the current study found that users considered both self-disclosure and self-exhibition as appealing characteristics of social media. Users want to both look at other users and expose themselves to other users. However, the findings indicated that the way users treat social media depends on their awareness and cognition of the risks of social media use. Users utilized the platforms to limit the information dispersed about them, but were not as limiting with service providers. The findings also indicated that users lacked knowledge or understanding of what "personal identifiable data" entails, to the detriment of their online privacy.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Richard Frank
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: School of Criminology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

The isolated post: A qualitative analysis of the challenges of Northern policing

Date created: 
2018-04-20
Abstract: 

This study provides an understanding of the opinions and experiences of officers who are posted in Northern and remote rural communities across Canada. This area has often been neglected by research. Key findings include a discussion of challenges associated to living in remote areas, the duration of postings, the relationship with the community, the relocation of family, the multifaceted role, crime and social disorder, the lack of anonymity, and detachment sizes. This study provides strong support that remote postings present many unique challenges unknown to their urban counterparts.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Bryan Kinney
Martin Andresen
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: School of Criminology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.A.

A profile of medical cannabis users residing in Canada and the United Kingdom: Accounting for policy and experience

Date created: 
2018-03-21
Abstract: 

Cannabis remains among the most widely used, researched, and discussed drugs in the world. The science buttressing its use as a treatment for a variety of symptoms and medical conditions has evolved considerably since the 1960s; yet, the most common uses reported by patients are not recognized by the medical community. Despite this lack of accord, several countries have liberalized domestic policy in recent years to give eligible patients access to regulated suppliers and protection from legal repercussion. Alternatively, patients residing in countries without a medical exception continue to risk facing social stigmatization and other legal barriers created by prohibition. This study considers whether the profile of self-described medical users from two countries with very different policies is shaped by external forces, such as domestic policy, or unique features of the “cannabis career.” Data obtained from an online survey of self-described medical users residing primarily in Canada and the United Kingdom (n = 359) is used to better understand this drug-using population. The study describes the sample “profile” using information about respondents’ demographics, patterns of use, medical conditions and symptoms, healthcare involvement, reasons for use, and experience using cannabis. Cannabis career typologies are constructed with k-means cluster analysis and distinctions are drawn between Canadian and British respondents using descriptive and comparative statistical analyses. Respondents’ sociability and resourcefulness are investigated with a “sociability scale” and a descriptive account of their “cannabis network.” Finally, logistic regression is used to identify which factors are associated with elevated odds of encountering social, legal and supply-side barriers. Four models (“cannabis career,” “needs-based,” “resource-based,” and “risk-based”) are used to determine whether unique features of the user-profile can explain who encounters barriers beyond nationality/residency alone. Additionally, the study considers separately the subpopulation of users that grow their own as a means of overcoming the access barrier. With few exceptions, the profile of users is the same for Canadians and Britons; however, when it comes to the barriers, the notable distinctions are country-specific and largely stem from policy. The study describes the major similarities and differences between the two populations and considers their policy and research implications.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Neil Boyd
Department: 
Arts & Social Sciences: School of Criminology
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.